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congenital cardiac diseases and brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214967/increased-atrial-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-and-grk-2-gene-expression-can-play-a-fundamental-role-in-heart-failure-after-repair-of-congenital-heart-disease-with-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#1
Marcela Silva Oliveira, Fabio Carmona, Walter V A Vicente, Paulo H Manso, Karina M Mata, Mara Rúbia Celes, Erica C Campos, Simone G Ramos
Surgeries to correct congenital heart diseases are increasing in Brazil and worldwide. However, even with the advances in surgical techniques and perfusion, some cases, especially the more complex ones, can develop heart failure and death. A retrospective study of patients who underwent surgery for correction of congenital heart diseases with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in a university tertiary-care hospital that died, showed infarction in different stages of evolution and scattered microcalcifications in the myocardium, even without coronary obstruction...
February 18, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208971/a-rare-association-of-pentalogy-of-fallot-with-situs-inversus-totalis-complicated-by-brain-abscess-in-an-adolescent-case-report
#2
Muhammed Basheer, Sunil Kumar Agarwalla
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most frequently diagnosed congenital cyanotic heart disease. It is often associated with additional findings, such as atrial septal defect (i.e., pentalogy of Fallot) or right sided aortic arch. Association of this pentalogy of Fallot with situs inversus totalis is rarely reported in paediatric literature and it can cause technical challenges to intracardiac repair. We report the case of pentalogy of Fallot with dextrocardia and situs inversus presenting as parieto-occipital abscess in a 12-year-old child...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140493/cerebral-high-intensity-transient-signals-during-pediatric-cardiac-catheterization-a-pilot-study-using-transcranial-doppler-ultrasonography
#3
Kerri L LaRovere, Kush Kapur, Doff B McElhinney, Alexander Razumovsky, Barry D Kussman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral emboli are one potential cause of acute brain injury in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) undergoing cardiac catheterization. In this pilot study using transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography, we sought to evaluate the incidence, burden, and circumstances of cerebral high-intensity transient signals (HITS), presumably representing emboli, during pediatric cardiac catheterization. METHODS: Emboli monitoring of the right middle cerebral artery was performed in five children...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118147/evaluation-of-nt-probnp-in-children-with-heart-failure-younger-than-3-years-old
#4
Daniela Iacob, Angela Butnariu, Daniel-Corneliu Leucuţa, Gabriel Samaşca, Diana Deleanu, Iulia Lupan
INTRODUCTION: Heart failure (HF) is characterized by neuroendocrine activation. The cardiac natriuretic hormones, including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), together with their related pro-peptides (proANP and proBNP) represent a group of peptide hormones produced by the heart. A normal NT-proBNP level has a high negative predictive value for heart failure. The use of NT-proBNP testing is helpful in diagnosing acute HF in the emergency care setting, allowing an early and optimal treatment...
January 23, 2017: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040762/glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-plasma-levels-are-correlated-with-degree-of-hypothermia-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass-in-congenital-heart-disease-surgery
#5
Luca Vedovelli, Massimo Padalino, Sara D'Aronco, Giovanni Stellin, Carlo Ori, Virgilio P Carnielli, Manuela Simonato, Paola Cogo
OBJECTIVES: Improved congenital heart defect (CHD) operations have reduced operative mortality to 3%. The major concern is now long-term neurological outcomes. We measured plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an early marker of brain injury, during different phases of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), to correlate the increase of GFAP to clinical parameters or specific operative phases. METHODS: We performed a prospective, single-centre, observational study in children undergoing cardiac operations...
December 31, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018896/factors-influencing-neurodevelopment-after-cardiac-surgery-during-infancy
#6
REVIEW
Hedwig Hubertine Hövels-Gürich
Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND) disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life, and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009949/a-patient-with-quadricuspid-aortic-valve-and-ischemic-stroke
#7
Maximillian Krisper, Clemens Köhncke, Felicitas Escher, Daniel A Morris, Carsten Tschöpe, Burkert Pieske
Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare congenital cardiac defect. Aortic regurgitation is the predominant hemodynamically relevant abnormality in patients with QAV, and the main reason for patients requiring valve surgery. Calcific valve disease of the left heart valves is classified as 'low embolic risk' according to current guidelines. However, it remains an important risk factor of cardiovascular events, including ischemic stroke. A 71-year-old woman presented with new-onset aphasia and hemiparesis of the right side of her body...
July 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879647/neuroprotective-strategies-during-cardiac-surgery-with-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#8
REVIEW
Aida Salameh, Stefan Dhein, Ingo Dähnert, Norbert Klein
Aortocoronary bypass or valve surgery usually require cardiac arrest using cardioplegic solutions. Although, in principle, in a number of cases beating heart surgery (so-called off-pump technique) is possible, aortic or valve surgery or correction of congenital heart diseases mostly require cardiopulmonary arrest. During this condition, the heart-lung machine also named cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has to take over the circulation. It is noteworthy that the invention of a machine bypassing the heart and lungs enabled complex cardiac operations, but possible negative effects of the CPB on other organs, especially the brain, cannot be neglected...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876398/dropped-head-congenital-muscular-dystrophy-caused-by-de-novo-mutations-in-lmna
#9
Pakize Karaoglu, Nicolas Quizon, Matthias Pergande, Haicui Wang, Ayşe Ipek Polat, Ayca Ersen, Erdener Özer, Lena Willkomm, Semra Hiz Kurul, Raúl Heredia, Uluç Yis, Duygu Selcen, Sebahattin Çirak
BACKGROUND: Dropped head syndrome is an easily recognizable clinical presentation of Lamin A/C-related congenital muscular dystrophy. Patients usually present in the first year of life with profound neck muscle weakness, dropped head, and elevated serum creatine kinase. CASE DESCRIPTION: Two patients exhibited head drop during infancy although they were able to sit independently. Later they developed progressive axial and limb-girdle weakness. Creatine kinase levels were elevated and muscle biopsies of both patients showed severe dystrophic changes...
November 19, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828868/prenatal-diagnosis-and-genetic-discoveries-of-an-intracranial-mixed-neuronal-glial-tumor-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Lijuan Sun, Qingqing Wu, Yan Pei, Jinghua Li, Jintang Ye, Wenxue Zhi, Yan Liu, Puqing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Congenital intracranial tumors as a group are quite rare, representing only 0.5% to 1.5% of all pediatric brain neoplasms. CASE REPORT: We reported a case of congenital mixed neuronal-glial tumor detected by ultrasound at 30 weeks of gestation. It showed that the tumor was 2.5 × 2.3 × 2.1 cm in size, located in the sellar region, regular shape, and slightly heterogeneous solid mass with a little cystic component. No color flow was present inside the tumor, but the peripheral encirclement by arterial circle of Willis...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749513/the-utility-of-brain-natriuretic-peptide-in-pediatric-cardiology-a-review
#11
Ana L Neves, Tiago Henriques-Coelho, Adelino Leite-Moreira, José C Areias
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to evaluate the clinical utility of brain natriuretic peptide in pediatric patients, examining the diagnostic value, management, and prognostic relevance, by critical assessment of the literature. DATA SOURCES: In December 2015, a literature search was performed (PubMed access to MEDLINE citations; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/) and included these Medical Subject Headings and text terms for the key words: "brain natriuretic peptide," "amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide," "children," "neonate/s," "newborn/s," "infant/s," and "echocardiography...
November 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681656/reduced-fetal-brain-fissures-depth-in-fetuses-with-congenital-heart-diseases
#12
Qinghai Peng, Qichang Zhou, Ming Zang, Jiawei Zhou, Ran Xu, Tao Wang, Shi Zeng
OBJECTIVE: To screen and detect cortex gyration in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) using Ultrasonography (US) during routine obstetric scans. METHODS: The depth of the Sylvian fissure (SF), parieto-occipital fissure (POF), and calcarine (CF) fissure were prospectively serially measured and compared in 45 fetuses with CHD and 45 normal fetuses. Cardiac hemodynamic parameters, including aortic valve diameter (AV), pulmonary valve diameter (PV), velocity time integral of the aortic valve (VTIav), and velocity time integral of the pulmonary valve (VTIpv), were recorded...
November 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629698/studying-the-pathophysiologic-connection-between-cardiovascular-and-nervous-systems-using-stem-cells
#13
Volkan Coskun, Dawn M Lombardo
The cardiovascular and nervous systems are deeply connected during development, health, and disease. Both systems affect and regulate the development of each other during embryogenesis and the early postnatal period. Specialized neural crest cells contribute to cardiac structures, and a number of growth factors released from the cardiac tissue (e.g., glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurturin, nerve growth factor, Neurotrophin-3) ensure proper maturation of the incoming parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357468/circulating-histones-for-predicting-prognosis-after-cardiac-surgery-a-prospective-study
#14
Hongxiang Gao, Naipu Zhang, Fangfang Lu, Xindi Yu, Limin Zhu, Xi Mo, Wei Wang
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the perioperative changes in circulating histones and their relationships with other biomarkers and clinical outcomes after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in patients. METHODS: Forty-eight patients with congenital cardiac diseases undergoing corrective procedure with CPB were prospectively enrolled in this study. Circulating histones, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured preoperatively (T0) and at 0 (T1), 24 (T2), 48 (T3) and 72 (T4) h postoperatively...
November 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329096/goldenhar-syndrome-a-rare-diagnosis-with-possible-prenatal-findings
#15
Bárbara Ribeiro, Joana Igreja, Miguel Gonçalves-Rocha, Alexandra Cadilhe
Goldenhar syndrome is a rare congenital disease associated with hemifacial hypoplasia as well as ear and ocular defects. Sometimes it is also associated with vertebral and other bone defects, cardiac malformations and central nervous system anomalies. Its aetiology is not yet clarified in the literature. We present a case of multiple malformations detected in the morphology ultrasound (at 22 weeks of gestation), namely absent nasal bones, micrognathia and absent left radius, among other defects. Genetic counselling, fetal brain MRI and cardiac sonography, which showed ventricular septal defect, were performed...
June 21, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298791/results-of-extracorporeal-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-children
#16
Hong Ju Shin, Seunghwan Song, Han Ki Park, Young Hwan Park
BACKGROUND: Survival of children experiencing cardiac arrest refractory to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is very poor. We sought to examine current era outcomes of extracorporeal CPR (ECPR) support for refractory arrest. METHODS: Patients who were <18 years and underwent ECPR between November 2013 and January 2016 were including in this study. We retrospectively investigated patient medical records. RESULTS: Twelve children, median age 6...
June 2016: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27228360/cognitive-dysfunction-in-children-with-heart-disease-the-role-of-anesthesia-and-sedation
#17
REVIEW
Danton Char, Chandra Ramamoorthy, Lisa Wise-Faberowski
As physicians and caregivers of children with congenital heart disease, we are aware of the increasing need for procedures requiring anesthesia. While these procedures may be ideal for medical and cardiac surgical management, the risks and benefits must be assessed carefully. There are well known risks of cardiovascular and respiratory complications from anesthesia and sedation and a potentially under-appreciated risk of neurocognitive dysfunction. Both animal and human studies support the detrimental effects of repeated anesthetic exposure on the developing brain...
May 2016: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185022/brain-in-congenital-heart-disease-across-the-lifespan-the-cumulative-burden-of-injury
#18
REVIEW
Ariane Marelli, Steven P Miller, Bradley Scott Marino, Angela L Jefferson, Jane W Newburger
The number of patients surviving with congenital heart disease (CHD) has soared over the last 3 decades. Adults constitute the fastest-growing segment of the CHD population, now outnumbering children. Research to date on the heart-brain intersection in this population has been focused largely on neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. Mutations in genes that are highly expressed in heart and brain may cause cerebral dysgenesis. Together with altered cerebral perfusion in utero, these factors are associated with abnormalities of brain structure and brain immaturity in a significant portion of neonates with critical CHD even before they undergo cardiac surgery...
May 17, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147626/donors-with-a-prior-history-of-cardiac-surgery-are-a-viable-source-of-lung-allografts
#19
Joseph Costa, Sowmyashree Sreekanth, Alex Kossar, Kashif Raza, Hilary Robbins, Lori Shah, Joshua R Sonett, Selim Arcasoy, Frank D'Ovidio
OBJECTIVES: End-stage lung disease continues to rise despite the lack of suitable lung donors, limiting the numbers of lung transplants performed each year. Expanded donor criteria, use of donation after cardiac death donors and the advent of ex vivo lung perfusion have resulted only in a slight increase in donor lung utilization. Organ donors with prior cardiac surgery (DPCS) present risks and technical challenges; however, they may be a potential source of suitable lung allografts with an experienced procurement surgeon...
November 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134302/arterial-limb-microemboli-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass-observations-from-a-congenital-cardiac-surgery-practice
#20
Gregory S Matte, Kevin R Connor, Hua Liu, James A DiNardo, David Faraoni, Frank Pigula
Gaseous microemboli (GME) are known to be delivered to the arterial circulation of patients during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). An increased number of GME delivered during adult CPB has been associated with brain injury and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The GME load in children exposed to CPB and its consequences are not well characterized. We sought to establish a baseline of arterial limb emboli counts during the conduct of CPB for our population of patients requiring surgery for congenital heart disease...
March 2016: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
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