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mx protein

Christopher C Overend, Junru Cui, Marvin J Grubman, Antonio E Garmendia
BACKGROUND: It has been recognized that the expression of type I interferon (IFNα/β) may be suppressed during infection with porcine reproductive, respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). This causes profound negative effects on both the innate and adaptive immunity of the host resulting in persistence of infection. OBJECTIVE: Test the effects of PRRSV infection of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), the main target cell, on the expression of interferon beta (IFNβ) and downstream signaling events...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Research Communications
He Huang, Cong Feng, Zhaotao Tian, Yongming Yao, Tanshi Li
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the effect of tumor necrosis factor-α induced protein 8 like-2 (TIPE2) expression in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its mechanism. METHODS: A prospective observation was conducted. Thirty-nine patients with ARDS admitted to department of emergency of PLA General Hospital from July 2013 to July 2015 were enrolled, and 35 healthy persons served as control group. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score within 24 hours after admission, blood gas analysis, procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were recorded...
June 2016: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
H Jodaa Holm, S Skugor, A K Bjelland, S Radunovic, S Wadsworth, E O Koppang, Ø Evensen
Atlantic salmon skin tissues with and without scales were taken from two preferred sites of salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) attachment, behind the dorsal fin (scaled) and from the top of the head (scaleless), respectively. Tissues were profiled by qPCR of 32 genes to study responses to copepodids, 4 days post infection (dpi), and during the moult of copepodids to the chalimus stage, at 8 dpi. Basal/constitutive differences were found for many immune-related genes between the two skin sites; e.g., mannose binding protein C was over 100 fold higher expressed in the scaled skin from the back in comparison to the skin without scales from the head...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jun Xiao, Jun Yan, Hui Chen, Jun Li, Yu Tian, Luosheng Tang, Hao Feng
Mx (myxovirus resistance) is an important antiviral protein in the innate immune responses of vertebrates to microbial pathogens. In this study, we cloned and characterized Mx1 of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). The full-length cDNA of black carp Mx1 (bcMx1) consists of 2781 nucleotides and the predicted bcMx1 protein contains 631 amino acids. bcMx1 contains a GTPase domain at the N-terminnus, a "central interactive domain" in the middle and a GTPase effector domain at the C-terminus. bcMx1 mRNA was constitutively transcribed in all tissues tested, including the heart, liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, muscle, skin and gill; and bcMx1 mRNA levels increased in all but the gill after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) or viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) infection...
October 4, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ning Li, Tianqi Hong, Rong Li, Yao Wang, Mengjiao Guo, Zongxi Cao, Yumei Cai, Sidang Liu, Tongjie Chai, Liangmeng Wei
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Hong-Su Park, Il-Soo Lim, Sang-Kyu Kim, Toh-Kyung Kim, Choi-Kyu Park, Sang-Geon Yeo
Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) is the causative agent of hydropericardium syndrome (HPS), a highly pathogenic disease in poultry. In the present study, hexon, penton base, and fiber-2 genes encoding major capsid proteins were analyzed in four FAdV-4 isolates from HPS-affected chickens in Korea. Nucleotide sequences of the entire hexon (2811 bases), penton base (1578 bases), and fiber-2 (1425 bases) genes from the Korean isolates were 97.5-99.3, 99.1-99.7, and 95.5-99.0 % identical, respectively, to those of foreign FAdV-4 isolates...
September 28, 2016: Virus Genes
Leonardo Pereira Franch, Camila F Amantino, Maryanne T Melo, Ana Paula de Lima Montaldi, Fernando L Primo, Antonio Claudio Tedesco
BACKGROUND: The photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used to treat cancer mainly by inducing oxidative stress. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of PDT and its combination with methoxyamine (MX), a blocker of base excision repair (BER), in cells expressing high levels of the APE1 protein, which is involved in cell oxidative damage response. METHODS: The HeLa and A549 cells were treated for 3h with chloroaluminum phthalocyanine incorporated into a well-designed nanoemulsion (ClAlPc/NE); and then irradiated by visible light (@670nm) with doses of 0...
September 6, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Liang-Yuan Chen, Zhao-Lei Cui, Fan-Cui Hua, Weng-Jing Yang, Ye Bai, Feng-Hua Lan
Dermatomyositis (DM) is a type of autoimmune inflammatory myopathy, which primarily affects the skin and muscle. The underlying mechanisms of DM remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to explore gene expression profile alterations, investigate the underlying mechanisms, and identify novel targets for DM. The GSE48280 dataset, which includes data from five DM and five normal muscle tissue samples, was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Firstly, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by limma package in R...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Amalia Pérez-Jiménez, Emilia Abellán, Marta Arizcun, Gabriel Cardenete, Amalia E Morales, M Carmen Hidalgo
Common dentex (Dentex dentex) is an appreciated carnivorous fish with high growth rate and life cycle adaptable to existing farming techniques. Since the use of carbohydrates is an economic and sustainable alternative for a protein-sparing effect, the study of how this macronutrient affects the welfare of carnivorous species must be studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different types and levels of carbohydrates on common dentex oxidative status. Nine isonitrogenous (43%) and isoenergetic (22MJkg(-1)) diets were formulated combining three types (pregelatinized starch-PS, dextrin-Dx and maltodextrin-Mx) and three levels (12, 18 and 24%) of carbohydrates...
August 21, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Pierre Aller, Tian Geng, Gwyndaf Evans, James Foadi
X-ray diffraction from crystals of membrane proteins very often yields incomplete datasets due to, among other things, severe radiation damage. Multiple crystals are thus required to form complete datasets, provided the crystals themselves are isomorphous. Selection and combination of data from multiple crystals is a difficult and tedious task that can be facilitated by purpose-built software. BLEND, in the CCP4 suite of programs for macromolecular crystallography (MX), has been created exactly for this reason...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ivona Mladineo, Ivana Bušelić, Jerko Hrabar, Ivana Radonić, Anamarija Vrbatović, Slaven Jozić, Željka Trumbić
Commercially available probiotics are routinely administered as feed supplements in aquaculture important species. Among them, the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is the most widely reared fish in the Mediterranean, whose rearing systems are highly variable between countries, affecting at some level the sustainability of production. After random isolation of autochthonous gut bacteria of the sea bass, their identification and pathogenicity testing, we have selected three potentially probiotic isolates; Pseudoalteromonas sp...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chia-Jung Chang, Iris Jenssen, Børre Robertsen
Salmonid alphavirus 3 (SAV3) causes pancreas disease (PD), which is a major problem in Norwegian aquaculture of Atlantic salmon. In this work we studied antiviral activities of salmon type I interferons IFNa, IFNb and IFNc against SAV3 infection in cell culture and in live fish to increase the understanding of the innate immunity of salmon against this virus. Recombinant IFNa, IFNb and IFNc all induced antiviral activity against SAV3 in ASK cells. For in vivo studies, we injected salmon presmolts intramuscularly with plasmids encoding salmon IFNa, IFNb and IFNc or a control plasmid and measured expression of the antiviral protein Mx in pancreas after 2 and 10 weeks and protection against SAV3 infection after 10 weeks...
October 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
J W Jin, Y C Kim, S Hong, M S Kim, J B Jeong, H D Jeong
As suggested by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), fishes belonging to the genus Oplegnathus are more sensitive to megalocytivirus infection than other fish species including red sea bream (Pagrus major). To assess the roles of the innate immune response to these different susceptibilities, we cloned the genes encoding inflammatory factors including IL-8 and COX-2, and the antiviral factor like Mx from red sea bream for the first time and performed phylogenetic and structural analysis. Analysed expression levels of IL-1β, IL-8 and COX-2 and the antiviral factor like Mx genes performed with in vivo challenge experiment showed no difference in inflammatory gene expression or respiratory burst activity between red sea bream and rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus)...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Atsushi Hamana, Yuki Takahashi, Makiya Nishikawa, Yoshinobu Takakura
Gene therapy techniques aiming to induce the long-term interferon-β (IFN-β) expression are desirable for inhibiting cancer growth. However, there has been no success in this regard because IFN-β significantly inhibits transgene expression. This study used the IFN-inducible Mx promoter to promote IFN-β expression. The pMx-IFN-β plasmid was constructed to achieve long-term IFN-β expression. In cultured cells transfected with the Mx promoter-driven reporter protein plasmid, IFN-β induced concentration-dependent expression of the reporter protein...
November 2016: Human Gene Therapy
Li Sun, Xu Wang, Yu Zhou, Run-Hong Zhou, Wen-Zhe Ho, Jie-Liang Li
Human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), the major cell type in the blood-brain barrier (BBB), play a key role in maintaining brain homeostasis. However, their role in the BBB innate immunity against HIV invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) remains to be determined. Our early work showed that TLR3 signaling of HBMECs could produce the antiviral factors that inhibit HIV replication in macrophages. The present study examined whether exosomes from TLR3-activated HBMECs mediate the intercellular transfer of antiviral factors to macrophages...
October 2016: Antiviral Research
Kirsty E McAleese, Lauren Walker, Daniel Erskine, Alan J Thomas, Ian G McKeith, Johannes Attems
Intracellular inclusions consisting of TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43 pathology) are present in up to 57% of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases and follow a distinct topographical pattern of progression described in the TDP-43 in AD staging scheme. This scheme has not been applied to the assessment of TDP-43 pathology in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and aged controls. We investigated TDP-43 pathology prevalence and severity in AD, DLB, mixed AD/DLB (Mx AD/DLB) and aged controls. One hundred and nineteen human post-mortem brains were included, neuropathologically diagnosed as AD: 46, DLB: 15, Mx AD/DLB: 19 and aged controls: 39...
August 6, 2016: Brain Pathology
Jia Kong, Min Ma, Shuangyi He, Xiaohong Qin
Myxovirus resistance proteins represent a family of interferon-induced restriction factors of the innate and adaptive immune system. Human MxB acts as a novel restriction factor with antiviral activity against a range of HIV-1 and other retroviruses mainly by inhibiting the uncoating process after reverse transcription but prior to integration. Based on published data and conservation analysis, we propose a novel hypothesis, in which MxB dimers form higher order oligomers that restrict retroviral replication by binding to the viral capsid...
August 2016: Future Microbiology
Min Feng, Manman Dai, Weisheng Cao, Yan Tan, Zhenhui Li, Meiqing Shi, Xiquan Zhang
Avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) can cause lifelong infection and can escape from the host immune defenses in chickens. Since macrophages act as the important defense line against invading pathogens in host innate immunity, we investigated the function and innate immune responses of chicken primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) after ALV-J infection in this study. Our results indicated that ALV-J was stably maintained in MDM cells but that the viral growth rate was significantly lower than that in DF-1 cells...
August 2, 2016: Poultry Science
Miao Zeng, Shun Chen, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xiaoyue Chen, Anchun Cheng
Interferon (IFN)-induced myxovirus resistance (Mx) GTPases belong to the family of dynamin-like GTPases and control a diverse range of viruses. In this study, the identified goose Mx (goMx) mRNA is 2009bp long, shares partially conserved exons with other homologues, and shares highly conserved domains in its primary structure. The amino acid position 629 (629aa) of the goMx protein was identified as serine (Ser), in contrast to the Ser located at 631aa in chicken Mx, which is considered to be responsible for the lack of chicken Mx antiviral activity...
August 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Fangfang Lai, Qian Liu, Xiaoyu Liu, Ming Ji, Ping Xie, Xiaoguang Chen
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) represents a novel antitumor target owing to its involvement in vital processes considered hallmarks of cancer phenotypes. Manassantin A (MA) derived from Saururus cernuus has been reported as a selective HIF-1 inhibitor. Herein, the structure of MA was optimized to achieve new derivatives with simple chemical properties while retaining its activity. LXY6090 was designed to replace the central tetrahydrofuran moiety of MA with a cyclopentane ring and was identified as a potent HIF-1 inhibitor with an IC50 value of 4...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
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