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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119145/sexual-maturation-in-atlantic-salmon-induces-a-constitutive-mx-protein-production-and-influences-the-infectious-pancreatic-necrosis-virus-carrier-status
#1
M C S Fourrier, M M Monte, E S Munro
The aim of this study was to demonstrate for the first time that sexual maturation induces a constitutive increase in Mx gene expression and protein production in Atlantic salmon. This could explain the reduction in IPNV prevalence previously observed in broodfish at the time of ova/milt stripping. For this purpose, Mx transcript and protein levels were analysed in different tissues/samples and compared between mature broodfish (female and male) and immature parr.
January 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075421/mx-is-not-responsible-for-the-antiviral-activity-of-interferon-%C3%AE-against-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#2
Jing Zhou, Shi-Qi Wang, Jian-Chao Wei, Xiao-Min Zhang, Zhi-Can Gao, Ke Liu, Zhi-Yong Ma, Pu-Yan Chen, Bin Zhou
Mx proteins are interferon (IFN)-induced dynamin-like GTPases that are present in all vertebrates and inhibit the replication of myriad viruses. However, the role Mx proteins play in IFN-mediated suppression of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection is unknown. In this study, we set out to investigate the effects of Mx1 and Mx2 expression on the interferon-α (IFNα) restriction of JEV replication. To evaluate whether the inhibitory activity of IFNα on JEV is dependent on Mx1 or Mx2, we knocked down Mx1 or Mx2 with siRNA in IFNα-treated PK-15 cells and BHK-21 cells, then challenged them with JEV; the production of progeny virus was assessed by plaque assay, RT-qPCR, and Western blotting...
January 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062005/gga-mir-2127-downregulates-the-translation-of-chicken-p53-and-attenuates-chp53-mediated-innate-immune-response-against-ibdv-infection
#3
Wei Ouyang, Yong-Shan Wang, Kai Meng, Qun-Xing Pan, Xiao-Li Wang, Xing-Xia Xia, Yu-Mei Zhu, Zhen-Wei Bi, Hai-Bin Zhang, Kai Luo
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is characterized by the immune suppression of infected birds. The molecular mechanism by which IBD virus (IBDV) suppresses the host immune system remains to be elucidated. The tumor suppressor protein p53 can inhibit the replication of various viruses, but its effect on IBDV remains unknown. This study established an in vitro infection model based on DF-1 cells (chicken embryo fibroblast cell line) to investigate the antiviral effects of chicken p53 (chp53) on IBDV infection...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027847/improvement-influenza-ha2-dna-vaccine-cellular-and-humoral-immune-responses-with-mx-bio-adjuvant
#4
Sina Soleimani, Shahla Shahsavandi, Omid Maddadgar
Immunization with DNA vaccines as a novel alternative to conventional vaccination strategy requires adjuvant for improving vaccine efficacy. The conserved immunogenic HA2 subunit, which harbors neutralizing epitopes is a promising vaccine candidate against influenza viruses. In this study, for the first time we explore the idea of using host interferon inducible Mx protein to increase the immunogenicity of HA2 H9N2 influenza DNA vaccine. The potency and safety of the Mx adjuvanted-HA2 vaccine was evaluated in BALB/c mice by different prime-boost strategies...
December 24, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009546/uridine-as-a-new-scavenger-for-synchrotron-based-structural-biology-techniques
#5
Eva Crosas, Albert Castellvi, Isidro Crespo, Daniel Fulla, Fernando Gil-Ortiz, Gustavo Fuertes, Christina S Kamma-Lorger, Marc Malfois, Miguel A G Aranda, Jordi Juanhuix
Macromolecular crystallography (MX) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies on proteins at synchrotron light sources are commonly limited by the structural damage produced by the intense X-ray beam. Several effects, such as aggregation in protein solutions and global and site-specific damage in crystals, reduce the data quality or even introduce artefacts that can result in a biologically misguiding structure. One strategy to reduce these negative effects is the inclusion of an additive in the buffer solution to act as a free radical scavenger...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980518/synchrotron-based-macromolecular-crystallography-module-for-an-undergraduate-biochemistry-laboratory-course
#6
Kyle M Stiers, Christopher B Lee, Jay C Nix, John J Tanner, Lesa J Beamer
This paper describes the introduction of synchrotron-based macromolecular crystallography (MX) into an undergraduate laboratory class. An introductory 2 week experimental module on MX, consisting of four laboratory sessions and two classroom lectures, was incorporated into a senior-level biochemistry class focused on a survey of biochemical techniques, including the experimental characterization of proteins. Students purified recombinant protein samples, set up crystallization plates and flash-cooled crystals for shipping to a synchrotron...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Crystallography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965447/the-antiviral-mechanism-of-an-influenza-a-virus-nucleoprotein-specific-single-domain-antibody-fragment
#7
Leo Hanke, Kevin E Knockenhauer, R Camille Brewer, Eline van Diest, Florian I Schmidt, Thomas U Schwartz, Hidde L Ploegh
: Alpaca-derived single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that target the influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) can protect cells from infection when expressed in the cytosol. We found that one such VHH, αNP-VHH1, exhibits antiviral activity similar to that of Mx proteins by blocking nuclear import of incoming viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) and viral transcription and replication in the nucleus. We determined a 3.2-Å crystal structure of αNP-VHH1 in complex with influenza A virus NP...
December 13, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965164/glucose-enhances-tilapia-against-edwardsiella-tarda-infection-through-metabolome-reprogramming
#8
Zhao-Hai Zeng, Chao-Chao Du, Shi-Rao Liu, Hui Li, Xuan-Xian Peng, Bo Peng
We have recently reported that the survival of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, during Edwardsiella tarda infection is tightly associated with their metabolome, where the survived O. niloticus has distinct metabolomic profile to dying O. niloticus. Glucose is the key metabolite to distinguish the survival- and dying-metabolome. More importantly, exogenous administration of glucose to the fish greatly enhances their survival for the infection, indicating the functional roles of glucose in metabolome repurposing, known as reprogramming metabolomics...
February 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940366/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-dual-specificity-map-kinase-phosphatase-6-gene-dusp6-in-response-to-immune-challenges-in-japanese-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#9
Shuo Li, Weijiao Peng, Gaixiang Hao, Jiafang Li, Xuyun Geng, Jinsheng Sun
Dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (Dusp6) is a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatases that play crucial roles in regulating MAPK signaling and immune response. The immunological relevance of Dusp6 in fish, however, remains largely uncharacterized. In the present study, a full-length Japanese flounder dusp6 cDNA ortholog, termed PoDusp6, was identified and characterized from Paralichthys olivaceus. The deduced PoDusp6 protein is comprised of 383 amino acids with a conserved N-terminal regulatory rhodanese homology domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain...
December 8, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939665/musk-xylene-induces-malignant-transformation-of-human-liver-cell-line-l02-via-repressing-the-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#10
Youyu Zhang, Lixing Huang, Yujie Zhao, Tianhui Hu
Musk xylene (MX) is a widely used synthetic nitro musk. Although the persistence and bioaccumulation of the synthetic musks are of concern since the nineteenth century, knowledge concerning the toxicity and environmental risks, especially the carcinogenicity is still limited. In the present study, the normal human hepatic cell line L02 was used to investigate the long-term carcinogenicity of MX. L02 cells were exposed to MX with different concentrations (10, 100, and 1000 μg/L) for 24 h, then with conventional culture...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896670/the-activation-of-the-ifn%C3%AE-induction-signaling-pathway-in-porcine-alveolar-macrophages-by-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-is-variable
#11
Christopher C Overend, Junru Cui, Marvin J Grubman, Antonio E Garmendia
BACKGROUND: It has been recognized that the expression of type I interferon (IFNα/β) may be suppressed during infection with porcine reproductive, respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). This causes profound negative effects on both the innate and adaptive immunity of the host resulting in persistence of infection. OBJECTIVE: Test the effects of PRRSV infection of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), the main target cell, on the expression of interferon beta (IFNβ) and downstream signaling events...
March 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894382/-study-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-protein-8-like-2-expression-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-correlate-with-disease-severity
#12
He Huang, Cong Feng, Zhaotao Tian, Yongming Yao, Tanshi Li
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the effect of tumor necrosis factor-α induced protein 8 like-2 (TIPE2) expression in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its mechanism. METHODS: A prospective observation was conducted. Thirty-nine patients with ARDS admitted to department of emergency of PLA General Hospital from July 2013 to July 2015 were enrolled, and 35 healthy persons served as control group. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score within 24 hours after admission, blood gas analysis, procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were recorded...
June 2016: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776996/contrasting-expression-of-immune-genes-in-scaled-and-scaleless-skin-of-atlantic-salmon-infected-with-young-stages-of-lepeophtheirus-salmonis
#13
H Jodaa Holm, S Skugor, A K Bjelland, S Radunovic, S Wadsworth, E O Koppang, Ø Evensen
Atlantic salmon skin tissues with and without scales were taken from two preferred sites of salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) attachment, behind the dorsal fin (scaled) and from the top of the head (scaleless), respectively. Tissues were profiled by qPCR of 32 genes to study responses to copepodids, 4 days post infection (dpi), and during the moult of copepodids to the chalimus stage, at 8 dpi. Basal/constitutive differences were found for many immune-related genes between the two skin sites; e.g., mannose binding protein C was over 100 fold higher expressed in the scaled skin from the back in comparison to the skin without scales from the head...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717902/mx1-of-black-carp-functions-importantly-in-the-antiviral-innate-immune-response
#14
Jun Xiao, Jun Yan, Hui Chen, Jun Li, Yu Tian, Luosheng Tang, Hao Feng
Mx (myxovirus resistance) is an important antiviral protein in the innate immune responses of vertebrates to microbial pathogens. In this study, we cloned and characterized Mx1 of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). The full-length cDNA of black carp Mx1 (bcMx1) consists of 2781 nucleotides and the predicted bcMx1 protein contains 631 amino acids. bcMx1 contains a GTPase domain at the N-terminnus, a "central interactive domain" in the middle and a GTPase effector domain at the C-terminus. bcMx1 mRNA was constitutively transcribed in all tissues tested, including the heart, liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, muscle, skin and gill; and bcMx1 mRNA levels increased in all but the gill after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) or viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) infection...
November 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708647/cherry-valley-ducks-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-protein-mediated-signaling-pathway-and-antiviral-activity-research
#15
Ning Li, Tianqi Hong, Rong Li, Yao Wang, Mengjiao Guo, Zongxi Cao, Yumei Cai, Sidang Liu, Tongjie Chai, Liangmeng Wei
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683170/molecular-analysis-of-the-hexon-penton-base-and-fiber-2-genes-of-korean-fowl-adenovirus-serotype-4-isolates-from-hydropericardium-syndrome-affected-chickens
#16
Hong-Su Park, Il-Soo Lim, Sang-Kyu Kim, Toh-Kyung Kim, Choi-Kyu Park, Sang-Geon Yeo
Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) is the causative agent of hydropericardium syndrome (HPS), a highly pathogenic disease in poultry. In the present study, hexon, penton base, and fiber-2 genes encoding major capsid proteins were analyzed in four FAdV-4 isolates from HPS-affected chickens in Korea. Nucleotide sequences of the entire hexon (2811 bases), penton base (1578 bases), and fiber-2 (1425 bases) genes from the Korean isolates were 97.5-99.3, 99.1-99.7, and 95.5-99.0 % identical, respectively, to those of foreign FAdV-4 isolates...
February 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612654/in-vitro-effects-of-photodynamic-therapy-induced-by-chloroaluminum-phthalocyanine-nanoemulsion
#17
Leonardo Pereira Franchi, Camila F Amantino, Maryanne T Melo, Ana Paula de Lima Montaldi, Fernando L Primo, Antonio Claudio Tedesco
BACKGROUND: The photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used to treat cancer mainly by inducing oxidative stress. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of PDT and its combination with methoxyamine (MX), a blocker of base excision repair (BER), in cells expressing high levels of the APE1 protein, which is involved in cell oxidative damage response. METHODS: The HeLa and A549 cells were treated for 3h with chloroaluminum phthalocyanine incorporated into a well-designed nanoemulsion (ClAlPc/NE); and then irradiated by visible light (@670nm) with doses of 0...
December 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599581/bioinformatics-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles-of-dermatomyositis
#18
Liang-Yuan Chen, Zhao-Lei Cui, Fan-Cui Hua, Weng-Jing Yang, Ye Bai, Feng-Hua Lan
Dermatomyositis (DM) is a type of autoimmune inflammatory myopathy, which primarily affects the skin and muscle. The underlying mechanisms of DM remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to explore gene expression profile alterations, investigate the underlying mechanisms, and identify novel targets for DM. The GSE48280 dataset, which includes data from five DM and five normal muscle tissue samples, was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Firstly, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by limma package in R...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553761/dietary-carbohydrates-improve-oxidative-status-of-common-dentex-dentex-dentex-juveniles-a-carnivorous-fish-species
#19
Amalia Pérez-Jiménez, Emilia Abellán, Marta Arizcun, Gabriel Cardenete, Amalia E Morales, M Carmen Hidalgo
Common dentex (Dentex dentex) is an appreciated carnivorous fish with high growth rate and life cycle adaptable to existing farming techniques. Since the use of carbohydrates is an economic and sustainable alternative for a protein-sparing effect, the study of how this macronutrient affects the welfare of carnivorous species must be studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different types and levels of carbohydrates on common dentex oxidative status. Nine isonitrogenous (43%) and isoenergetic (22MJkg(-1)) diets were formulated combining three types (pregelatinized starch-PS, dextrin-Dx and maltodextrin-Mx) and three levels (12, 18 and 24%) of carbohydrates...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553239/applications-of-the-blend-software-to-crystallographic-data-from-membrane-proteins
#20
Pierre Aller, Tian Geng, Gwyndaf Evans, James Foadi
X-ray diffraction from crystals of membrane proteins very often yields incomplete datasets due to, among other things, severe radiation damage. Multiple crystals are thus required to form complete datasets, provided the crystals themselves are isomorphous. Selection and combination of data from multiple crystals is a difficult and tedious task that can be facilitated by purpose-built software. BLEND, in the CCP4 suite of programs for macromolecular crystallography (MX), has been created exactly for this reason...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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