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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334632/longitudinal-relationships-of-sleep-and-inhibitory-control-deficits-to-early-adolescent-cigarette-and-alcohol-use
#1
Christopher M Warren, Nathaniel R Riggs, Mary Ann Pentz
Research in older adolescents suggests insufficient sleep may increase substance use initiation risk. This study tested whether sleep duration and dysregulation of sleep-wake patterns in late-elementary school youth were prospectively associated with cigarette and alcohol use initiation and how sleep-related changes in inhibitory control mediate these relationships. Average sleep duration at 4th grade predicted 6th grade cigarette but not alcohol use, however indirect effects were identified through 5th grade inhibitory control to both cigarette and alcohol use...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333377/circadian-rhythms-in-adipose-tissue-physiology
#2
Jana-Thabea Kiehn, Anthony H Tsang, Isabel Heyde, Brinja Leinweber, Isa Kolbe, Alexei Leliavski, Anthony H Tsang
The different types of adipose tissues fulfill a wide range of biological functions-from energy storage to hormone secretion and thermogenesis-many of which show pronounced variations over the course of the day. Such 24-h rhythms in physiology and behavior are coordinated by endogenous circadian clocks found in all tissues and cells, including adipocytes. At the molecular level, these clocks are based on interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loops comprised of a set of clock genes/proteins. Tissue-specific clock-controlled transcriptional programs translate time-of-day information into physiologically relevant signals...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332561/inertial-bioluminescence-rhythms-at-the-capo-passero-km3net-italia-site-central-mediterranean-sea
#3
J Aguzzi, E Fanelli, T Ciuffardi, A Schirone, J Craig
In the deep sea, the sense of time is dependent on geophysical fluctuations, such as internal tides and atmospheric-related inertial currents, rather than day-night rhythms. Deep-sea neutrino telescopes instrumented with light detecting Photo-Multiplier Tubes (PMT) can be used to describe the synchronization of bioluminescent activity of abyssopelagic organisms with hydrodynamic cycles. PMT readings at 8 different depths (from 3069 to 3349 m) of the NEMO Phase 2 prototype, deployed offshore Capo Passero (Sicily) at the KM3NeT-Italia site, were used to characterize rhythmic bioluminescence patterns in June 2013, in response to water mass movements...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331534/ford-and-edison-in-a-modern-regulatory-environment-the-first-in-human-trial-of-night-work-and-artificial-light
#4
EDITORIAL
Thomas C Erren, David M Shaw, Ursula Wild, J Valérie Groß
A thought experiment places Henry Ford and Thomas Alva Edison in a modern regulatory environment. In a utopian occupational world devoid of night-shifts or artificial light, Ford wants to experiment with "working through the night". To support Ford's project, Edison offers his patented electric lamps to "turn nights into days". An ethics committee [EC] does not approve the night-work experiment and Utopia's Food and Drug Administration [FDA] does not approve the potential medical device as safe for use by humans...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329124/sleep-and-alertness-in-medical-interns-and-residents-an-observational-study-on-the-role-of-extended-shifts
#5
Mathias Basner, David F Dinges, Judy A Shea, Dylan S Small, Jingsan Zhu, Laurie Norton, Adrian J Ecker, Cristina Novak, Lisa M Bellini, Kevin G Volpp
Study Objectives: Fatigue from sleep loss is a risk to physician and patient safety, but objective data on physician sleep and alertness on different duty hour schedules is scarce. This study objectively quantified differences in sleep duration and alertness between medical interns working extended overnight shifts and residents not or rarely working extended overnight shifts. Methods: Sleep-wake activity of 137 interns and 87 PGY-2/3 residents on 2-week Internal Medicine and Oncology rotations was assessed with wrist-actigraphy...
February 24, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320839/sleep-deprivation-and-caffeine-treatment-potentiate-photic-resetting-of-the-master-circadian-clock-in-a-diurnal-rodent
#6
Pawan Kumar Jha, Hanan Bouâouda, Sylviane Gourmelen, Stephanie Dumont, Fanny Fuchs, Yannick Goumon, Patrice Bourgin, Andries Kalsbeek, Etienne Challet
Circadian rhythms in nocturnal and diurnal mammals are primarily synchronized to local time by the light-dark cycle. However, non-photic factors, such as behavioural arousal and metabolic cues, can also phase-shift the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and/or reduce the synchronizing effects of light in nocturnal rodents. In diurnal rodents, the role of arousal or insufficient sleep in these functions is still poorly understood. In the present study, diurnal Sudanian grass rats, Arvicanthis ansorgei, were aroused at night by sleep deprivation (gentle handling) or caffeine treatment that both prevented sleep...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315779/energy-and-macronutrient-intake-over-the-course-of-the-day-of-german-adults-a-dedipac-study
#7
Friederike Wittig, Eva Hummel, Germaine Wenzler, Thorsten Heuer
The aim of the study was to analyze the energy and macronutrient intake over the course of the day of selected population groups in Germany defined by sex, age, BMI, SES, and diet quality. The study was based on food consumption data from the German National Nutrition Survey II (2005-2007) assessed by two 4-day dietary weighing records of 662 women and men aged between 18 and 80 years. Energy and macronutrient intake were calculated using the German Nutrient Database 3.02 and summarized for the periods 'morning', 'midday', 'afternoon', 'evening', and 'night'...
March 15, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314544/comprehensive-assessments-of-long-term-sleep-habits-in-epidemiological-study-validity-and-reliability-of-sleep-factors-questionnaire-sfq-among-chinese-women
#8
Wan-Shui Yang, Wen-Xue Fu, Xin Wang, Qin Deng, Ling Wang, Lin-Yan Wang, Hao Zhao, Wen-Yan Fan, Shao-Xin Huang
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies suggested that poor sleep is a potentially novel risk factor for several health outcomes currently; however, there are no validated questionnaires that can systematically measure sleep parameters within these studies. We evaluated the reliability and validity of 17-item sleep factors questionnaire (SFQ), which was developed to comprehensively assess long-term sleep habits for the Jiujiang Breast Cancer Study (JBCS), Jiujiang, China. METHODS: The participants included 100 women aged 18-74years, who were randomly selected from the JBCS project, and completed a SFQ at baseline and again 1year later, and 4 quarterly 30 consecutive days (a total of 120days) sleep diaries over this same year...
April 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300964/effects-of-a-12-hour-shift-on-mood-states-and-sleepiness-of-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-nurses
#9
Tadeu Sartini Ferreira, Clarice Zinato Moreira, James Guo, Franco Noce
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a 12-hour shift on mood states and sleepiness at the beginning and end of the shift. METHOD: Quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study.It was conducted with 70 neonatal intensive care unit nurses. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS), Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and a socio-demographic profile questionnaire were administered. RESULTS: When the KSS and BRUMS scores were compared at the beginning of the shift associations were found with previous sleep quality (p ≤ 0...
March 9, 2017: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294013/coping-with-change-and-uncertain-times
#10
Mandy Day-Calder
When you start your shift you cannot know what the day, or night, will bring. Despite all the advances in medical science and evidence-based guidelines, human beings are unpredictable.
March 15, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294008/nurses-are-human-beings-too
#11
Jimmy Neeson
Your story 'Thousands of nurses leave NHS posts to maintain work-life balance' (online news, 3 March) made me think. Maybe it would be better if employers didn't break the Working Time Directive, making us swap from a 12-hour night shift to a 14-hour day with no day off in-between, or two long days in a row with not enough time to go home, shower, sleep and get ready for work between them.
March 15, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290556/porewater-methane-transport-within-the-gas-vesicles-of-diurnally-migrating-chaoborus-spp-an-energetic-advantage
#12
Daniel F McGinnis, Sabine Flury, Kam W Tang, Hans-Peter Grossart
Diurnally-migrating Chaoborus spp. reach populations of up to 130,000 individuals m(-2) in lakes up to 70 meters deep on all continents except Antarctica. Linked to eutrophication, migrating Chaoborus spp. dwell in the anoxic sediment during daytime and feed in the oxic surface layer at night. Our experiments show that by burrowing into the sediment, Chaoborus spp. utilize the high dissolved gas partial pressure of sediment methane to inflate their tracheal sacs. This mechanism provides a significant energetic advantage that allows the larvae to migrate via passive buoyancy rather than more energy-costly swimming...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287629/metabolic-disturbances-due-to-a-high-fat-diet-in-a-non-insulin-resistant-animal-model
#13
L Ramalho, M N da Jornada, L C Antunes, M P Hidalgo
OBJECTIVE: Shift workers have metabolic changes more often than day workers. It is also known that night workers prefer foods high in saturated fat. Such data suggest that shift workers are prone to cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the objective of this study was to propose an animal model to test the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) based on shift workers' diet. METHODS: This is an experimental study with 20 Wistar rats. Ten rats were allocated to the control group (CG) and were fed standard diet...
March 13, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287446/sitting-time-physical-activity-and-sleep-by-work-type-and-pattern-the-australian-longitudinal-study-on-women-s-health
#14
Bronwyn K Clark, Tracy L Kolbe-Alexander, Mitch J Duncan, Wendy Brown
Data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were used to examine how work was associated with time spent sleeping, sitting and in physical activity (PA), in working women. Young (31-36 years; 2009) and mid-aged (59-64 years; 2010) women reported sleep (categorised as shorter ≤6 h/day and longer ≥8 h/day) and sitting time (work, transport, television, non-work computer, and other; summed for total sitting time) on the most recent work and non-work day; and moderate and vigorous PA (categorised as meeting/not meeting guidelines) in the previous week...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278262/responses-of-the-picoprasinophyte-micromonas-commoda-to-light-and-ultraviolet-stress
#15
Marie L Cuvelier, Jian Guo, Alejandra C Ortiz, Marijke J van Baren, Muhammad Akram Tariq, Frédéric Partensky, Alexandra Z Worden
Micromonas is a unicellular marine green alga that thrives from tropical to polar ecosystems. We investigated the growth and cellular characteristics of acclimated mid-exponential phase Micromonas commoda RCC299 over multiple light levels and over the diel cycle (14:10 hour light:dark). We also exposed the light:dark acclimated M. commoda to experimental shifts from moderate to high light (HL), and to HL plus ultraviolet radiation (HL+UV), 4.5 hours into the light period. Cellular responses of this prasinophyte were quantified by flow cytometry and changes in gene expression by qPCR and RNA-seq...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276426/microrna-92a-is-a-circadian-modulator-of-neuronal-excitability-in-drosophila
#16
Xiao Chen, Michael Rosbash
Many biological and behavioural processes of animals are governed by an endogenous circadian clock, which is dependent on transcriptional regulation. Here we address post-transcriptional regulation and the role of miRNAs in Drosophila circadian rhythms. At least six miRNAs show cycling expression levels within the pigment dispersing factor (PDF) cell-pacemaker neurons; only mir-92a peaks during the night. In vivo calcium monitoring, dynamics of PDF projections, ArcLight, GCaMP6 imaging and sleep assays indicate that mir-92a suppresses neuronal excitability...
March 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272852/trauma-unit-attendance-is-there-a-relationship-with-weather-sporting-events-and-week-month-end-times-an-audit-at-an-urban-tertiary-trauma-unit-in-cape-town
#17
K L Milford, P H Navsaria, A J Nicol, S Edu
BACKGROUND: The Groote Schuur Hospital Trauma Unit is a high-volume referral center where patient volumes may be related to temporal and environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: This audit aimed to determine if numbers of patients presenting after motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) and interpersonal violence (IPV) were related to temporal factors, weather variables and important soccer matches. METHOD: Numbers of patients presenting to the unit per shift over 17 months were obtained from unit logs...
November 2016: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271382/maximal-tachycardia-and-high-cardiac-strain-during-night-shifts-of-emergency-physicians
#18
Frédéric Dutheil, Fouad Marhar, Gil Boudet, Christophe Perrier, Geraldine Naughton, Alain Chamoux, Pascal Huguet, Martial Mermillod, Foued Saâdaoui, Farès Moustafa, Jeannot Schmidt
PURPOSE: To compare tachycardia and cardiac strain between 24-hour shifts (24hS) and 14-hour night shifts (14hS) in emergency physicians (EPs), and to investigate key factors influencing tachycardia and cardiac strain. METHODS: We monitored heart rate (HR) with Holter-ECG in a shift-randomized trial comparing a 24hS, a 14hS, and a control day, within a potential for 19 EPs. We also measured 24-h HR the third day (D3) after both shifts. We measured perceived stress by visual analog scale and the number of life-and-death emergencies...
March 7, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270559/a-single-night-light-exposure-acutely-alters-hormonal-and-metabolic-responses-in-healthy-participants
#19
Mohammed S Albreiki, Benita Middleton, Shelagh M Hampton
Many animal studies have reported an association between melatonin suppression and the disturbance of metabolic responses; yet, few human studies have investigated bright light effects on metabolic and hormonal responses at night. This study investigated the impact of light on plasma hormones and metabolites prior to, and after, an evening meal in healthy participants. Seventeen healthy participants, 8 females (22.2 ± 2.59 years, mean ± s.d.) and 9 males (22.8 ± 3.5 years) were randomised to a two-way cross-over design protocol; dim light (DL) (<5 lux) and bright light (BL) (>500 lux) sessions, separated by at least seven days...
February 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264001/a-camera-phone-based-study-reveals-erratic-eating-pattern-and-disrupted-daily-eating-fasting-cycle-among-adults-in-india
#20
Neelu Jain Gupta, Vinod Kumar, Satchidananda Panda
The daily rhythm of feeding-fasting and meal-timing are emerging as important determinants of health. Circadian rhythm research in animal models and retrospective analyses of human nutrition data have shown that reduced length of overnight fasting or increased late night eating increases risk for metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes. However, the daily rhythm in eating pattern in humans is rarely measured. Traditional methods to collect nutrition information through food diary and food log pay little attention to the timing of eating which may also change from day to day...
2017: PloS One
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