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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526480/human-seasonal-and-circadian-studies-in-antarctica-halley-75-0-s
#1
Josephine Arendt, Benita Middleton
Living for extended periods in Antarctica exposes base personnel to extremes of daylength (photoperiod) and temperature. At the British Antarctic Survey base of Halley, 75(0)S, the sun does not rise for 110 d in the winter and does not set for 100 d in summer. Photoperiod is the major time cue governing the timing of seasonal events such as reproduction in many species. The neuroendocrine signal providing photoperiodic information to body physiology is the duration of melatonin secretion which reflects the length of the night: longer in the short days of winter and shorter in summer...
May 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523040/the-patient-safety-culture-perception-of-turkish-nurses-who-work-in-operating-room-and-intensive-care-unit
#2
Selda Rizalar, Sacide Yildizeli Topcu
OBJECTIVE: To determine the patient safety culture perception of operating room and intensive care nurses and the factors affecting this perception. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted on 232 nurses working in a Turkish city hospitals. The data obtained from the nurses were collected using personal information form and Patient Safety Culture Scale (PSCS) from June to July 2015. RESULTS: The total score average of the nurses on the PSCS was 2...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522096/sleep-and-circadian-variability-in-people-with-delayed-sleep-wake-phase-disorder-versus-healthy-controls
#3
Helen J Burgess, Margaret Park, James K Wyatt, Muneer Rizvydeen, Louis F Fogg
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To compare sleep and circadian variability in adults with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) to healthy controls. PATIENTS/METHODS: Forty participants (22 DSWPD, 18 healthy controls) completed a ten-day protocol, consisting of DLMO assessments on two consecutive nights, a five-day study break, followed by two more DLMO assessments. All participants were instructed to sleep within one hour of their self-reported average sleep schedule for the last four days of the study break...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522092/effects-of-acute-morning-and-evening-exercise-on-subjective-and%C3%A2-objective-sleep-quality-in-older-individuals-with-insomnia
#4
Yuko Morita, Taeko Sasai-Sakuma, Yuichi Inoue
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to compare the effects of acute morning or evening exercise on nocturnal sleep in individuals with two subjective insomnia symptoms: difficulty in initiating sleep (DIS), and early morning awakening (EMA), separately for the first vs the second halves of the night. METHODS: Older individuals (55-65 years old) with DIS (N = 15) or EMA (N = 15) and age- and sex-matched controls (N = 13) participated in this non-randomized crossover study...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514121/-shift-work-and-its-health-hazards
#5
David Rabinerson, Lizy Markovitch, Rinnat Gabbay-Ben-Ziv
Work in repeated changing shifts, in general, and night-shifts, in particular, is considered a necessity, encompassing many professions, among them physicians and nurses. This type of work has been shown to adversely affect the normal function of the human body circadian rhythm. This negative influence in turn, is considered to increase characteristic types of morbidity such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and increased rate of cardiovascular morbidity. Women working in night-shifts in particular, have been found to face increased rates of breast cancer, as well as menstrual disturbances and decreased fertility...
July 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511451/attitudes-of-mashhad-public-hospital-s-nurses-and-midwives-toward-the-causes-and-rates-of-medical-errors-reporting
#6
Sedigheh Sedigh Mobarakabadi, Hosein Ebrahimipour, Ali Vafaie Najar, Roksana Janghorban, Fatemeh Azarkish
INTRODUCTION: Patient's safety is one of the main objective in healthcare services; however medical errors are a prevalent potential occurrence for the patients in treatment systems. Medical errors lead to an increase in mortality rate of the patients and challenges such as prolonging of the inpatient period in the hospitals and increased cost. Controlling the medical errors is very important, because these errors besides being costly, threaten the patient's safety. AIM: To evaluate the attitudes of nurses and midwives toward the causes and rates of medical errors reporting...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506403/an-on-road-study-of-sleepiness-in-split-shifts-among-city-bus-drivers
#7
Anna Anund, Carina Fors, Jonas Ihlström, Göran Kecklund
Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers. The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation)...
May 12, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499591/chronic-exposure-to-dim-artificial-light-at-night-decreases-fecundity-and-adult-survival-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
L K McLay, M P Green, T M Jones
The presence of artificial light at night is expanding in geographical range and increasing in intensity to such an extent that species living in urban environments may never experience natural darkness. The negative ecological consequences of artificial night lighting have been identified in several key life history traits across multiple taxa (albeit with a strong vertebrate focus); comparable data for invertebrates is lacking. In this study, we explored the effect of chronic exposure to different night-time lighting intensities on growth, reproduction and survival in Drosophila melanogaster...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498976/low-back-pain-among-taxi-drivers-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
M Wang, J Yu, N Liu, Z Liu, X Wei, F Yan, S Yu
Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common occupational problem for drivers all over the world. However, few epidemiological studies have investigated LBP among taxi drivers. Aims: To investigate the prevalence of LBP and associated work-related factors among Chinese taxi drivers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered to all participants. Using cluster sampling, questionnaires were collected from taxi drivers of three major taxi companies in Jinan, China...
May 11, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498029/is-one-day-off-sufficient-for-re-adaptation-to-a-daytime-routine-after-two-consecutive-nights-of-work
#10
Yu-San Chang, Yu-Hsuan Wu, Hsiang-Lan Chen, Chung-Yao Hsu
Fast rotation three-shift working schedules are common in the medical field in Taiwan. This study investigated whether 24 hours off is sufficient for re-adaptation to a daytime routine after working two night shifts (NSs) by comparing changes in cognitive function, anxiety state, and objectively-measured sleep propensity between those working two NSs followed by 24 hours off (n=21, 2NS-off) and an off-duty group (n=21, OD). The results showed that nurses in the 2NS-off group were less alert and had decreased visual attention performance and executive function ability than the OD group during the daytime...
May 12, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495465/the-effect-of-blue-enriched-white-light-on-cognitive-performances-and-sleepiness-of-night-shift-workers-a-field-study
#11
Majid Motamedzadeh, Rostam Golmohammadi, Reza Kazemi, Rashid Heidarimoghadam
INTRODUCTION: Night-shift works are basically accompanied by reduced cognitive performance, sleepiness, and higher possibility for human error and related incidents. It is therefore crucial to improve individuals' performance and alertness in sensitive places like industries' control room with the ultimate goal of increasing efficiency and reducing the number of possible incidents. Previous research has indicated that blue light is a critical cue for entraining circadian rhythm. As a result, the present study was an attempt to investigate whether blue-enriched white light illumination was a practical strategy to decrease sleepiness and improve cognitive performance during night shifts...
May 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493894/multi-scale-temporal-patterns-in-fish-presence-in-a-high-velocity-tidal-channel
#12
Haley A Viehman, Gayle Barbin Zydlewski
The natural variation of fish presence in high-velocity tidal channels is not well understood. A better understanding of fish use of these areas would aid in predicting fish interactions with marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices, the effects of which are uncertain but of high concern. To characterize the patterns in fish presence at a tidal energy site in Cobscook Bay, Maine, we examined two years of hydroacoustic data continuously collected at the proposed depth of an MHK turbine with a bottom-mounted, side-looking echosounder...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488939/differences-in-morning-evening-type-and-sleep-duration-between-black-and-white-adults-results-from-a-propensity-matched-uk-biobank-sample
#13
Susan Kohl Malone, Freda Patterson, Alicia Lozano, Alexandra Hanlon
Biological evidence suggests that ethno-racial differences in morning-evening type are possible, whereby Blacks may be more likely to be morning type compared to Whites. However, population-level evidence of ethno-racial difference in morning-evening type is limited. In an earlier study, we reported that morning type was more prevalent in Blacks compared to Whites in the United Kingdom (UK) Biobank cohort (N = 439 933). This study aimed to determine if these ethno-racial differences persisted after accounting for an even broader range of social, environmental and individual characteristics and employing an analytic approach that simulates randomization in observational data, propensity score modeling...
May 10, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488901/association-of-shiftwork-and-immune-cells-among-police-officers-from-the-buffalo-cardio-metabolic-occupational-police-stress-study
#14
Michael D Wirth, Michael E Andrew, Cecil M Burchfiel, James B Burch, Desta Fekedulegn, Tara A Hartley, Luenda E Charles, John M Violanti
Shift workers suffer from a constellation of symptoms associated with disruption of circadian rhythms including sleep abnormalities, and abnormal hormone secretion (e.g. melatonin, cortisol). Recent, but limited, evidence suggests that shift workers have elevated levels of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) compared to their day working counterparts. Interestingly, recent reviews highlight the strong linkage between the immune system and circadian rhythms which includes, but is not limited to, circulating cell populations and functions...
May 10, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488510/keep-staff-safe-and-well
#15
Lynne Pearce
When Denise McLaughlin read about a nurse who crashed her car following a 12-hour night shift with no break, she was inspired to act.
May 10, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470123/carbachol-induces-phase-dependent-phase-shifts-of-per1-transcription-rhythms-in-cultured-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-slices
#16
Kumiko Dojo, Yoshiaki Yamaguchi, Jean-Michel Fustin, Masao Doi, Masaki Kobayashi, Hitoshi Okamura
Among nonphotic stimulants, a classic cholinergic agonist, carbachol, is known to have a strong and unique phase-resetting effect on the circadian clock: Intracerebroventricular carbachol treatment causes phase delays during the subjective early night and phase advances in the subjective late night, but the effects of this drug on the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in vivo and in vitro are still controversial. In the present study, we succeeded in reproducing the biphasic phase-shifting effect of carbachol on clock gene expression in organotypic SCN slices prepared from mice carrying a Per1-promoter fused luciferase gene ( Per1-luc)...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470121/shift-work-and-cognitive-flexibility-decomposing-task-performance
#17
Philip Cheng, Gabriel Tallent, Thomas John Bender, Kieulinh Michelle Tran, Christopher L Drake
Deficits in cognitive functioning associated with shift work are particularly relevant to occupational performance; however, few studies have examined how cognitive functioning is associated with specific components of shift work. This observational study examined how circadian phase, nocturnal sleepiness, and daytime insomnia in a sample of shift workers ( N = 30) were associated with cognitive flexibility during the night shift. Cognitive flexibility was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm, which produces 2 indexes of flexibility: switch cost and set inhibition...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466071/temporal-regulation-of-gabaa-receptor-subunit-expression-role-in-synaptic-and-extrasynaptic-communication-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#18
James C Walton, John K McNeill, Khallyl A Oliver, H Elliott Albers
Recent molecular studies suggest that the expression levels of δ and γ2 GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunits regulate the balance between synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA neurotransmission in multiple brain regions. We investigated the expression of GABAAδ and GABAAγ2 and the functional significance of a change in balance between these subunits in a robust local GABA network contained within the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCN). Muscimol, which can activate both synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAARs, injected into the SCN during the day phase advanced the circadian pacemaker, whereas injection of the extrasynaptic GABAA superagonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol (THIP) had no effect on circadian phase...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465810/quantitative-optimization-of-emergency-department-s-nurses-of-an-educational-hospital-a-case-study
#19
Mohammad Hosein Mehrolhasani, Ali Mouseli, Leila Vali, Zahra Mastaneh
INTRODUCTION: Nurses account for the majority of human resources in hospitals, as such that 62% of the workforce and 36% of hospital expenditures are related to nurses. Considering its vital role in offering round-the-clock emergency healthcare services, an Emergency Department (ED) requires adequate nurses. Therefore, this study was conducted to optimize the number of nurses in ED. METHODS: This was an applied study conducted using a Linear Programming (LP) model in 2015...
February 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461542/nurses-perceptions-of-in-hospital-versus-telephone-availability-of-an-intensivist-at-night-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#20
Emily S Stanton, Cary Hilbert, Stephanie Maillie, C Jessica Dine, Scott D Halpern, Meeta Prasad Kerlin
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that in-person management by nighttime intensivists does not change patients' mortality rates in high-intensity intensive care units. OBJECTIVE: To better understand domains affected by nighttime intensivist staffing not previously measured. METHODS: Semistructured interviews of 13 night-shift nurses in an academic medical intensive care unit to elicit perceptions of nighttime staffing with attending intensivists versus residents with attending intensivists on call remotely...
May 2017: American Journal of Critical Care: An Official Publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
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