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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930672/brain-connectivity-variation-topography-associated-with-working-memory
#1
Xiaofei Ma, Xiaolin Huang, Yun Ge, Yueming Hu, Wei Chen, Aili Liu, Hongxing Liu, Ying Chen, Bin Li, Xinbao Ning
Brain connectivity analysis plays an essential role in the research of working memory that involves complex coordination of various brain regions. In this research, we present a comprehensive view of trans-states brain connectivity variation based on continuous scalp EEG, extending beyond traditional stimuli-lock averaging or restriction to short time scales of hundreds of milliseconds after stimulus onset. The scalp EEG was collected under three conditions: quiet, memory, and control. The only difference between the memory and control conditions was that in the memory condition, subjects made an effort to retain information...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813685/physical-activity-and-intermittent-postconcussion-symptoms-after-a-period-of-symptom-limited-physical-and-cognitive-rest
#2
Quinton Sawyer, Brian Vesci, Tamara C Valovich McLeod
: Reference: Schneider KJ, Iverson GL, Emery CA, McCrory P, Herring SA, Meeuwisse WH. The effects of rest and treatment following sport-related concussion: a systematic review of the literature. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(5):304-307. CLINICAL QUESTION: After concussion and a period of symptom-limited physical and cognitive rest, do athletes who experience intermittent symptoms return to asymptomatic condition more quickly with physical activity than with prolonged physical rest? DATA SOURCES: One investigator performed an individual search for each research question using the following databases: CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registers, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, ProQuest, PsychInfo, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science...
September 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767989/intensive-brain-training-intervention-fails%C3%A2-to-reduce-amyloid-pathologies-or%C3%A2-cognitive-deficits-in-transgenic-mouse%C3%A2-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Maria Anderson, Feng Xu, Ming-Hsuan Ou-Yang, Judianne Davis, William E Van Nostrand, John K Robinson
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Amyloid-β protein (Aβ) depositions in both the brain parenchyma and the cerebral vasculature are recognized as important pathological components that contribute to the cognitive impairments found in individuals with AD. Because pharmacological options have been minimally effective in treating cognitive impairment to date, interest in the development of preventative lifestyle intervention strategies has increased in the field...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697852/brain-training-pessimism-but-applied-memory-optimism
#4
Jennifer A McCabe, Thomas S Redick, Randall W Engle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Psychological Science in the Public Interest: a Journal of the American Psychological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697851/do-brain-training-programs-work
#5
Daniel J Simons, Walter R Boot, Neil Charness, Susan E Gathercole, Christopher F Chabris, David Z Hambrick, Elizabeth A L Stine-Morrow
In 2014, two groups of scientists published open letters on the efficacy of brain-training interventions, or "brain games," for improving cognition. The first letter, a consensus statement from an international group of more than 70 scientists, claimed that brain games do not provide a scientifically grounded way to improve cognitive functioning or to stave off cognitive decline. Several months later, an international group of 133 scientists and practitioners countered that the literature is replete with demonstrations of the benefits of brain training for a wide variety of cognitive and everyday activities...
October 2016: Psychological Science in the Public Interest: a Journal of the American Psychological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620975/neurofeedback-tunes-scale-free-dynamics-in-spontaneous-brain-activity
#6
T Ros, P Frewen, J Théberge, A Michela, R Kluetsch, A Mueller, G Candrian, R Jetly, P Vuilleumier, R A Lanius
Brain oscillations exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs), which reflect the regularity of their fluctuations: low values representing more random (decorrelated) while high values more persistent (correlated) dynamics. LRTCs constitute supporting evidence that the brain operates near criticality, a state where neuronal activities are balanced between order and randomness. Here, healthy adults used closed-loop brain training (neurofeedback, NFB) to reduce the amplitude of alpha oscillations, producing a significant increase in spontaneous LRTCs post-training...
September 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615029/cognitive-priming-and-cognitive-training-immediate-and-far-transfer-to-academic-skills-in-children
#7
Bruce E Wexler, Markus Iseli, Seth Leon, William Zaggle, Cynthia Rush, Annette Goodman, A Esat Imal, Emily Bo
Cognitive operations are supported by dynamically reconfiguring neural systems that integrate processing components widely distributed throughout the brain. The inter-neuronal connections that constitute these systems are powerfully shaped by environmental input. We evaluated the ability of computer-presented brain training games done in school to harness this neuroplastic potential and improve learning in an overall study sample of 583 second-grade children. Doing a 5-minute brain-training game immediately before math or reading curricular content games increased performance on the curricular content games...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443587/brain-train-to-combat-brain-drain-focus-on-exercise-strategies-that-optimise-neuroprotection
#8
Claire V Burley, Damian M Bailey, Christopher J Marley, Samuel J E Lucas
The prevalence of cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. stroke and dementia) is increasing. Numerous studies show that regular exercise has beneficial effects on brain health in clinical and non-clinical populations, yet adherence to public health exercise guidelines is notoriously poor. Recently, novel exercise strategies have been investigated to allow for more individualised and prescriptive approaches that target the key mechanistic pathways that allow exercise to mediate adaptation. This work exploring alternative approaches to the traditional model of exercise training has demonstrated exciting potential for positive health-related adaptations (especially for metabolic, muscle and cardiovascular function)...
July 22, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436130/improvements-in-attention-and-decision-making-following-combined-behavioral-training-and-brain-stimulation
#9
Hannah L Filmer, Elizabeth Varghese, Guy E Hawkins, Jason B Mattingley, Paul E Dux
In recent years there has been a significant commercial interest in 'brain training' - massed or spaced practice on a small set of tasks to boost cognitive performance. Recently, researchers have combined cognitive training regimes with brain stimulation to try and maximize training benefits, leading to task-specific cognitive enhancement. It remains unclear, however, whether the performance gains afforded by such regimes can transfer to untrained tasks, or how training and stimulation affect the brain's latent information processing dynamics...
July 19, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390903/brain-training-hype-or-hope
#10
Caroline M van Heugten, Rudolf W H M Ponds, Roy P C Kessels
Brain training is topical yet controversial. Effects are often limited to trained tasks; and near and far effects to untrained tasks or everyday life measures are often small or lacking altogether. More recent approaches use evidence from cognitive neuroscience on neuroplasticity, resulting in novel cognitive interventions. This special issue encompasses the state of the art of these interventions. Two systematic reviews and nine experimental studies in a variety of patient groups or healthy participants are included, the results of which mostly confirm earlier findings: effects on trained tasks are consistently reported, but generalisation in terms of functional outcome is limited and little evidence is found of long-term effects...
October 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367764/brain-training-does-not-improve-academic-outcomes-in-kids
#11
Anita Slomski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325761/placebo-effects-in-cognitive-training
#12
Cyrus K Foroughi, Samuel S Monfort, Martin Paczynski, Patrick E McKnight, P M Greenwood
Although a large body of research shows that general cognitive ability is heritable and stable in young adults, there is recent evidence that fluid intelligence can be heightened with cognitive training. Many researchers, however, have questioned the methodology of the cognitive-training studies reporting improvements in fluid intelligence: specifically, the role of placebo effects. We designed a procedure to intentionally induce a placebo effect via overt recruitment in an effort to evaluate the role of placebo effects in fluid intelligence gains from cognitive training...
July 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313521/corrigendum-barriers-benefits-and-beliefs-of-brain-training-smartphone-apps-an-internet-survey-of-younger-us-consumers
#13
John Torous, Patrick Staples, Elizabeth Fenstermacher, Jason Dean, Matcheri Keshavan
[This corrects the article on p. 180 in vol. 10, PMID: 27148026.].
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27310479/older-adults-engagement-during-an-intervention-involving-off-the-shelf-videogame
#14
Patrícia Belchior, Michael Marsiske, Walter L Leite, Anna Yam, Kelsey Thomas, William Mann
OBJECTIVE: The overall goal of our current study was to examine older adults' experience of Flow (i.e., subjective engagement) during the course of a home-based cognitive training program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, participants took part in a home-based training program. They were randomized to one of the two training groups. One group played an off-the-shelf videogame (i.e., Crazy Taxi), and the other group played a brain training game (i.e., Insight)...
June 2016: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184585/the-effects-of-an-8-week-computer-based-brain-training-programme-on-cognitive-functioning-qol-and-self-efficacy-after-stroke
#15
M M Wentink, M A M Berger, A J de Kloet, J Meesters, G P H Band, R Wolterbeek, P H Goossens, T P M Vliet Vlieland
Cognitive impairment after stroke has a direct impact on daily functioning and quality of life (QoL) of patients and is associated with higher mortality and healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a computer-based brain training programme on cognitive functioning, QoL and self-efficacy compared to a control condition in stroke patients. Stroke patients with self-perceived cognitive impairment were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The intervention consisted of an 8-week brain training programme (Lumosity Inc...
October 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164312/optimizing-memory-function-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
P J Thompson, H Conn, S A Baxendale, E Donnachie, K McGrath, C Geraldi, J S Duncan
PURPOSE: The study aimed to assess whether engagement in a memory training programme and performing internet brain training exercises improve memory function in people with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: Seventy-seven people with TLE, complaining of memory difficulties, completed the study. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 67 years and 40 had left TLE. Participants were randomised to one of four conditions; Group 1: traditional memory training, Group 2: Lumosity, an on-line cognitive training programme, Group 3: traditional memory training and Lumosity, and Group 4: no training...
May 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148026/barriers-benefits-and-beliefs-of-brain-training-smartphone-apps-an-internet-survey-of-younger-us-consumers
#17
John Torous, Patrick Staples, Elizabeth Fenstermacher, Jason Dean, Matcheri Keshavan
BACKGROUND: While clinical evidence for the efficacy of brain training remains in question, numerous smartphone applications (apps) already offer brain training directly to consumers. Little is known about why consumers choose to download these apps, how they use them, and what benefits they perceive. Given the high rates of smartphone ownership in those with internet access and the younger demographics, we chose to approach this question first with a general population survey that would capture primarily this demographic...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27138110/a-comparison-of-a-behavioral-weight-loss-program-to-a-stress-management-program-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Kelly H Webber, Erin M Casey, Lindsey Mayes, Yuriko Katsumata, Laurel Mellin
OBJECTIVES: This study compared a behavioral weight loss program (BWL) with a stress management-based program, Emotional Brain Training (EBT), on weight loss, blood pressure, depression, perceived stress, diet, and physical activity. METHODS: Subjects with a body mass index (BMI) of >28 and <45 kg/m(2) were recruited in Lexington, Kentucky in January 2014 and randomized to BWL or EBT for a 20-week intervention. Of those recruited, 49 participants were randomized to EBT or BWL...
July 2016: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26967876/we-must-challenge-any-company-that-claims-to-tackle-dementia
#19
LETTER
June Andrews
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937005/prefrontal-cortex-structure-predicts-training-induced-improvements-in-multitasking-performance
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ashika Verghese, K G Garner, Jason B Mattingley, Paul E Dux
UNLABELLED: The ability to perform multiple, concurrent tasks efficiently is a much-desired cognitive skill, but one that remains elusive due to the brain's inherent information-processing limitations. Multitasking performance can, however, be greatly improved through cognitive training (Van Selst et al., 1999, Dux et al., 2009). Previous studies have examined how patterns of brain activity change following training (for review, see Kelly and Garavan, 2005). Here, in a large-scale human behavioral and imaging study of 100 healthy adults, we tested whether multitasking training benefits, assessed using a standard dual-task paradigm, are associated with variability in brain structure...
March 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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