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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868648/a-new-framework-of-design-and-continuous-evaluation-to-improve-brain-training
#1
Aaron R Seitz
Effective teaching critically relies upon effective evaluation because evaluation is required to gain understanding of existing abilities and, in turn, determine learning outcomes. Methods of effective evaluation are surprisingly elusive in many fields and this limits our understanding of which training methods are truly effective. In the present article, issues of effective evaluation are discussed in the context of "brain training," an exciting but much criticized field. Problems in test validity in the field of brain training, parallel those in many other fields; such as deficiencies in test reliability, teaching to the test, expectation effects, as well as statistical rigor...
March 2018: Journal of Cognitive Enhancement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802657/using-generalized-estimating-equations-and-extensions-in-randomized-trials-with-missing-longitudinal-patient-reported-outcome-data
#2
Melanie L Bell, Nicholas J Horton, Haryana M Dhillon, Victoria J Bray, Janette Vardy
OBJECTIVE: Patient reported outcomes (PROs) are important in oncology research, however, missing data can pose a threat to the validity of results. Psycho-oncology researchers should be aware of the statistical options for handling missing data robustly. One rarely used set of methods, which includes extensions for handling missing data, is generalized estimating equations (GEEs). Our objective was to demonstrate use of generalized estimating equations to analyze PROs with missing data in randomized trials with assessments at fixed time points...
May 26, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780336/brain-training-in-children-and-adolescents-is-it-scientifically-valid
#3
REVIEW
Teresa Rossignoli-Palomeque, Elena Perez-Hernandez, Javier González-Marqués
Background: Brain training products are becoming increasingly popular for children and adolescents. Despite the marketing aimed at their use in the general population, these products may provide more benefits for specific neurologically impaired populations. A review of Brain Training (BT) products analyzing their efficacy while considering the methodological limitations of supporting research is required for practical applications. Method: searches were made of the PubMed database (until March 2017) for studies including: (1) empirical data on the use of brain training for children or adolescents and any effects on near transfer (NT) and/or far transfer (FT) and/or neuroplasticity, (2) use of brain training for cognitive training purposes, (3) commercially available training applications, (4) computer-based programs for children developed since the 1990s, and (5) relevant printed and peer-reviewed material...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741205/protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-piano-training-on-cognitive-and-psychosocial-outcomes
#4
Jennifer Bugos
Age-related cognitive decline and cognitive impairment represent the fastest growing health epidemic worldwide among those over 60. There is a critical need to identify effective and novel complex cognitive interventions to promote successful aging. Since piano training engages cognitive and bimanual sensorimotor processing, we hypothesize that piano training may serve as an effective cognitive intervention, as it requires sustained attention and engages an executive network that supports generalized cognition and emotional control...
May 9, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678606/ketogenic-diet-high-intensity-interval-training-hiit-and-memory-training-in-the-treatment-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-case-study
#5
Kaitlyn Dahlgren, Kelly J Gibas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) deaths have increased by 89% since 2000. This alarming trajectory of neurological disease highlights the failure of current best practice. Deteriorating brain fuel supply is the nemesis of intact neurological health. Cerebral hypo-metabolism associated with AD occurs years before onset. Both the ketogenic diet and calorie restriction (fasting) lead to a compensatory rise in ketones to improve energy deficits in the brain derived from cerebral insulin resistance. Two forms of ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, fuel the brain during starvation, fasting and strenuous exercise...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674605/brain-training-games-enhance-cognitive-function-in-healthy-subjects
#6
Abdulrahman Al-Thaqib, Fahad Al-Sultan, Abdullah Al-Zahrani, Fahad Al-Kahtani, Khalid Al-Regaiey, Muhammad Iqbal, Shahid Bashir
BACKGROUND Brain training games (BTG) are believed to play a major role in improving cognitive functions. The current study evaluated if BTG showed positive impact on attention and memory functions compared with baseline visit in healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was carried out from October 2015 until April 2016 in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University and in King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We enrolled 51 normal healthy subjects to use a computerized cognitive training game (Lumosity) for exercises that target a range of cognitive functions, including attention, processing speed, visual memory, and executive functions for about 15 min per day, at least 7 days per week, for 3 weeks...
April 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663857/adherence-of-stroke-patients-with-an-online-brain-training-program-the-role-of-health-professionals-support
#7
M M Wentink, J Meesters, M A M Berger, A J de Kloet, E Stevens, G P H Band, C H Kromme, R Wolterbeek, P H Goossens, T P M Vliet Vlieland
Background Computer-based cognitive rehabilitation is used to improve cognitive functioning after stroke. However, knowledge on adherence rates of stroke patients is limited. Objective To describe stroke patients' adherence with a brain training program using two frequencies of health professionals' supervision. Methods This study is part of a randomized controlled trial comparing the effect of the brain training program (600 min playtime with weekly supervision) with a passive intervention in patients with self-perceived cognitive impairments after stroke...
April 17, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455384/novel-interventions-to-reduce-stress-and-overeating-in-overweight-pregnant-women-a-feasibility-study
#8
B A Laraia, N E Adler, K Coleman-Phox, C Vieten, L Mellin, J L Kristeller, M Thomas, N E Stotland, R H Lustig, M F Dallman, F M Hecht, N R Bush, C L de Groat, E Epel
Background High stress and depression during pregnancy are risk factors for worsened health trajectories for both mother and offspring. This is also true for pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain. Reducing stress and depression may be one path to prevent excessive caloric intake and gestational weight gain. Study Purpose We tested the feasibility of two novel interventions aimed at reducing stress and overeating during pregnancy. Reflecting different theoretical underpinnings, the interventions target different mechanisms...
May 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276344/does-far-transfer-exist-negative-evidence-from-chess-music-and-working-memory-training
#9
Giovanni Sala, Fernand Gobet
Chess masters and expert musicians appear to be, on average, more intelligent than the general population. Some researchers have thus claimed that playing chess or learning music enhances children's cognitive abilities and academic attainment. We here present two meta-analyses assessing the effect of chess and music instruction on children's cognitive and academic skills. A third meta-analysis evaluated the effects of working memory training-a cognitive skill correlated with music and chess expertise-on the same variables...
December 2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239631/video-game-training-does-not-enhance-cognitive-ability-a-comprehensive-meta-analytic-investigation
#10
Giovanni Sala, K Semir Tatlidil, Fernand Gobet
As a result of considerable potential scientific and societal implications, the possibility of enhancing cognitive ability by training has been one of the most influential topics of cognitive psychology in the last two decades. However, substantial research into the psychology of expertise and a recent series of meta-analytic reviews have suggested that various types of cognitive training (e.g., working memory training) benefit performance only in the trained tasks. The lack of skill generalization from one domain to different ones-that is, far transfer-has been documented in various fields of research such as working memory training, music, brain training, and chess...
February 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226355/changes-in-verbal-and-visuospatial-working-memory-from-grade-1-to-grade-3-of-primary-school-population-longitudinal-study
#11
E Nicolaou, J Quach, J Lum, G Roberts, M Spencer-Smith, S Gathercole, P J Anderson, F K Mensah, M Wake
BACKGROUND: Adaptive working memory training is being implemented without an adequate understanding of developmental trajectories of working memory. We aimed to quantify from Grade 1 to Grade 3 of primary school (1) changes in verbal and visuospatial working memory and (2) whether low verbal and visuospatial working memory in Grade 1 predicts low working memory in Grade 3. METHOD: The study design includes a population-based longitudinal study of 1,802 children (66% uptake from all 2,747 Grade 1 students) at 44 randomly selected primary schools in Melbourne, Australia...
May 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189046/the-feasibility-and-potential-impact-of-brain-training-games-on-cognitive-and-emotional-functioning-in-middle-aged-adults
#12
Paula M McLaughlin, Ashley F Curtis, Laura M Branscombe-Caird, Janna K Comrie, Susan J E Murtha
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a commercially available brain training program is feasible to use with a middle-aged population and has a potential impact on cognition and emotional well-being (proof of concept). METHOD: Fourteen participants (ages 46-55) completed two 6-week training conditions using a crossover (counterbalanced) design: (1) experimental brain training condition and (2) active control "find answers to trivia questions online" condition...
February 2018: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953781/is-there-an-optimal-cognitive-application-to-be-used-for-cognitive-remediation-in-clinical-psychiatric-practice
#13
Avriel McDonnell, Mark Agius, Yuliya Zaytseva
Cognitive dysfunction is a common characteristic across a number of psychiatric conditions. With growing technological advances, application based cognitive remediation (cognitive apps) is becoming steadily popular due to its accessibility, ease of use and minimal interference with the activities of daily life. However, despite a number of benefits that application based cognitive training possesses, it is not clear, whether the utilisation of these apps is a reliable approach that can be recommended in clinical psychiatric practice in order to restore cognition...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822228/computerized-neurocognitive-interventions-in-the-context-of-the-brain-training-controversy
#14
Rebeca Isabel García-Betances, María Fernanda Cabrera-Umpiérrez, María T Arredondo
This article presents, in the form of an analytic narrative review, a complete picture of the state-of-the-art, challenges, and perspectives in the field of information and communication technology (ICT)-based neurocognitive interventions for older adults. The narrative particularly focuses on applications aimed at mild cognitive impairment and similar age-related cognitive deficits, which are analyzed in the context of the brain training controversy. Clarifying considerations are provided about the nature and present extent of the brain training debate, regarding the possible influence it has on the support received by research and development initiatives dealing with innovative computerized neurocognitive interventions...
January 26, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724914/enhanced-learning-through-multimodal-training-evidence-from-a-comprehensive-cognitive-physical-fitness-and-neuroscience-intervention
#15
N Ward, E Paul, P Watson, G E Cooke, C H Hillman, N J Cohen, A F Kramer, A K Barbey
The potential impact of brain training methods for enhancing human cognition in healthy and clinical populations has motivated increasing public interest and scientific scrutiny. At issue is the merits of intervention modalities, such as computer-based cognitive training, physical exercise training, and non-invasive brain stimulation, and whether such interventions synergistically enhance cognition. To investigate this issue, we conducted a comprehensive 4-month randomized controlled trial in which 318 healthy, young adults were enrolled in one of five interventions: (1) Computer-based cognitive training on six adaptive tests of executive function; (2) Cognitive and physical exercise training; (3) Cognitive training combined with non-invasive brain stimulation and physical exercise training; (4) Active control training in adaptive visual search and change detection tasks; and (5) Passive control...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694338/no-effect-of-commercial-cognitive-training-on-brain-activity-choice-behavior-or-cognitive-performance
#16
Joseph W Kable, M Kathleen Caulfield, Mary Falcone, Mairead McConnell, Leah Bernardo, Trishala Parthasarathi, Nicole Cooper, Rebecca Ashare, Janet Audrain-McGovern, Robert Hornik, Paul Diefenbach, Frank J Lee, Caryn Lerman
Increased preference for immediate over delayed rewards and for risky over certain rewards has been associated with unhealthy behavioral choices. Motivated by evidence that enhanced cognitive control can shift choice behavior away from immediate and risky rewards, we tested whether training executive cognitive function could influence choice behavior and brain responses. In this randomized controlled trial, 128 young adults (71 male, 57 female) participated in 10 weeks of training with either a commercial web-based cognitive training program or web-based video games that do not specifically target executive function or adapt the level of difficulty throughout training...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668726/prudence-pleasure-and-cognitive-ageing-configurations-of-the-uses-and-users-of-brain-training-games-within-uk-media-2005-2015
#17
Martyn Pickersgill, Tineke Broer, Sarah Cunningham-Burley, Ian Deary
The use of 'brain training' games is often regarded as relating to wider ideals of self-improvement and youthfulness. Hence, use is intertwined with discourses of 'active' ageing. This paper analyzes how the use and users of brain training games were configured in the UK media, from 2005 to 2015, and examines how notions of active ageing relate to these representations. Game users were rarely constructed solely as gamers, and were more often presented as prudent individuals focused on a serious goal. This configuration related to assumed and enjoined motivations for brain training; specifically, users were commonly framed as seeking to enhance cognition and limit/delay cognitive decline...
August 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628538/memory-rehabilitation-strategies-in-nonsurgical-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Alessandra Del Felice, Marzia Alderighi, Matteo Martinato, Davide Grisafi, Anna Bosco, Pamela J Thompson, Josemir W Sander, Stefano Masiero
People with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who have not undergone epilepsy surgery often complain of memory deficits. Cognitive rehabilitation is employed as a remedial intervention in clinical settings, but research is limited and findings concerning efficacy and the criteria for choosing different approaches have been inconsistent. We aimed to appraise existing evidence on memory rehabilitation in nonsurgical individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy and to ascertain the effectiveness of specific strategies. A scoping review was preferred given the heterogeneous nature of the interventions...
July 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598701/a-double-blind-randomized-pilot-trial-comparing-computerized-cognitive-exercises-to-tetris-in-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Aida Bikic, Torben Østergaard Christensen, James F Leckman, Niels Bilenberg, Søren Dalsgaard
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this trial was to examine the feasibility and efficacy of computerized cognitive exercises from Scientific Brain Training (SBT), compared to the computer game Tetris as an active placebo, in a pilot study of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Eighteen adolescents with ADHD were randomized to treatment or control intervention for 7 weeks. Outcome measures were cognitive test, symptom, and motivation questionnaires...
August 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596116/mechanisms-of-neurofeedback-a-computation-theoretic-approach
#20
Eddy J Davelaar
Neurofeedback training is a form of brain training in which information about a neural measure is fed back to the trainee who is instructed to increase or decrease the value of that particular measure. This paper focuses on electroencephalography (EEG) neurofeedback in which the neural measures of interest are the brain oscillations. To date, the neural mechanisms that underlie successful neurofeedback training are still unexplained. Such an understanding would benefit researchers, funding agencies, clinicians, regulatory bodies, and insurance firms...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
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