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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895900/nutritional-implications-for-ultra-endurance-walking-and-running-events
#1
REVIEW
Eric Williamson
This paper examines the various nutritional challenges which athletes encounter in preparing for and participating in ultra-endurance walking and running events. Special attention is paid to energy level, performance, and recovery within the context of athletes' intake of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and various vitamins and minerals. It outlines, by way of a review of literature, those factors which promote optimal performance for the ultra-endurance athlete and provides recommendations from multiple researchers concerned with the nutrition and performance of ultra-endurance athletes...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770784/effects-of-two-neuromuscular-training-programs-on-running-biomechanics-with-load-carriage-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Bernard X W Liew, Susan Morris, Justin W L Keogh, Brendyn Appleby, Kevin Netto
BACKGROUND: In recent years, athletes have ventured into ultra-endurance and adventure racing events, which tests their ability to race, navigate, and survive. These events often require race participants to carry some form of load, to bear equipment for navigation and survival purposes. Previous studies have reported specific alterations in biomechanics when running with load which potentially influence running performance and injury risk. We hypothesize that a biomechanically informed neuromuscular training program would optimize running mechanics during load carriage to a greater extent than a generic strength training program...
October 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703854/sex-differences-in-pacing-during-ultraman-hawaii
#3
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
BACKGROUND: To date, little is known for pacing in ultra-endurance athletes competing in a non-stop event and in a multi-stage event, and especially, about pacing in a multi-stage event with different disciplines during the stages. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of age, sex and calendar year on triathlon performance and variation of performance by events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running) in 'Ultraman Hawaii' held between 1983 and 2015...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447685/muscle-damage-physiological-changes-and-energy-balance-in-ultra-endurance-mountain-event-athletes
#4
Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo, Vicente Ávila-Gandía, Fernando Alacid, Fulgencio Soto-Méndez, Pedro E Alcaraz, Francisco Javier López-Román, Jacobo Ángel Rubio-Arias
The biological response to ultra-endurance mountain race events is not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical and physiological changes after performing an ultra-endurance mountain race in runners. We recruited 11 amateur runners (age: 29.7 ± 10.2 years; height: 179.7 ± 5.4 cm; body mass: 76.7 ± 10.3 kg). Muscle damage, lactate concentration, energy balance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), body composition changes, and jump performance were analyzed before, during (only lactate, HR, and HRV), and after the race...
August 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27080464/sex-difference-in-draft-legal-ultra-distance-events-a-comparison-between-ultra-swimming-and-ultra-cycling
#5
Lejla Salihu, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
Recent studies reported that the sex difference in performance in ultra-endurance sports such as swimming and cycling changed over the years. However, the aspect of drafting in draft-legal ultra-endurance races has not yet been investigated. This study investigates the sex difference in ultra-swimming and ultra-cycling draft-legal races where drafting - swimming or cycling behind other participants to save energy and have more power at the end of the race to overtake them, is allowed. The change in performance of the annual best and the annual three best in an ultra-endurance swimming race (16-km 'Faros Swim Marathon') over 38 years and in a 24-h ultra-cycling race ('World Cycling Race') over 13 years were compared and analysed with respect to sex difference...
April 30, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26892521/metabolic-characteristics-of-keto-adapted-ultra-endurance-runners
#6
Jeff S Volek, Daniel J Freidenreich, Catherine Saenz, Laura J Kunces, Brent C Creighton, Jenna M Bartley, Patrick M Davitt, Colleen X Munoz, Jeffrey M Anderson, Carl M Maresh, Elaine C Lee, Mark D Schuenke, Giselle Aerni, William J Kraemer, Stephen D Phinney
BACKGROUND: Many successful ultra-endurance athletes have switched from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate diet, but they have not previously been studied to determine the extent of metabolic adaptations. METHODS: Twenty elite ultra-marathoners and ironman distance triathletes performed a maximal graded exercise test and a 180 min submaximal run at 64% VO2max on a treadmill to determine metabolic responses. One group habitually consumed a traditional high-carbohydrate (HC: n=10, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=59:14:25) diet, and the other a low-carbohydrate (LC; n=10, 10:19:70) diet for an average of 20 months (range 9 to 36 months)...
March 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26553491/innovative-operations-measures-and-nutritional-support-for-mass-endurance-events
#7
REVIEW
George T Chiampas, Anita V Goyal
Endurance and sporting events have increased in popularity and participation in recent years worldwide, and with this comes the need for medical directors to apply innovative operational strategies and nutritional support to meet such demands. Mass endurance events include sports such as cycling and running half, full and ultra-marathons with over 1000 participants. Athletes, trainers and health care providers can all agree that both participant outcomes and safety are of the utmost importance for any race or sporting event...
November 2015: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26553488/re-examining-high-fat-diets-for-sports-performance-did-we-call-the-nail-in-the-coffin-too-soon
#8
REVIEW
Louise M Burke
During the period 1985-2005, studies examined the proposal that adaptation to a low-carbohydrate (<25 % energy), high-fat (>60 % energy) diet (LCHF) to increase muscle fat utilization during exercise could enhance performance in trained individuals by reducing reliance on muscle glycogen. As little as 5 days of training with LCHF retools the muscle to enhance fat-burning capacity with robust changes that persist despite acute strategies to restore carbohydrate availability (e.g., glycogen supercompensation, carbohydrate intake during exercise)...
November 2015: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26543784/pacing-in-a-self-paced-world-record-attempt-in-24-h-road-cycling
#9
Beat Knechtle, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph A Rüst
BACKGROUND: Pacing strategy plays a major role in sport performance. However, there is a dearth of knowledge concerning pacing during ultra-endurance sport events. The present case study investigated the pacing of an ultra-cyclist in a self-paced attempt to break the world record in 24-h road cycling and, with all the caveats and the limitations affecting a case report, could be useful in generating hypotheses and further studies about pacing dynamics during prolonged sport performances...
2015: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26509375/changes-of-hematological-markers-during-a-multi-stage-ultra-marathon-competition-in-the-heat
#10
L M Rama, L G Minuzzi, H M Carvalho, R J S Costa, A M Teixeira
This study examined the changes in resting hematological variables in ultra-endurance runners throughout a multi-stage ultra-marathon competition, and compared athletes that completed all stages with those that failed to complete at least one stage within the cut-off time of competition. 19 ultra-endurance runners competing in a 230 km multi-stage ultra-marathon, conducted over 5 consecutive days in hot ambient conditions (32-40°C T(max)), volunteered to participate in the study. Each day, whole blood samples were collected prior to stage commencement and analyzed for full cell counts by Coulter counter...
February 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26492102/observed-dietary-practices-of-recreational-ultraendurance-cyclists-in-the-heat
#11
Laura J Kunces, Evan C Johnson, Colleen X Munoz, Jay R Hydren, Robert A Huggins, Daniel A Judelson, Mathew S Ganio, Jakob L Vingren, Jeff S Volek, Lawrence E Armstrong
Kunces, LJ, Johnson, EC, Munoz, CX, Hydren, JR, Huggins, RA, Judelson, DA, Ganio, MS, Vingren, JL, Volek, JS, and Armstrong, LE. Observed dietary practices of recreational ultraendurance cyclists in the heat. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1607-1612, 2016-Dietary approaches for optimizing exercise performance have been debated in the literature for years. For endurance athletes, various position stands focus on recommendations for high-carbohydrate diets to maximize performance in events. However, theories of low-carbohydrate diets and their ability to provide more fuel may prove beneficial to ultraendurance athletes...
June 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26376193/energy-expenditure-and-metabolic-changes-of-free-flying-migrating-northern-bald-ibis
#12
Franz Bairlein, Johannes Fritz, Alexandra Scope, Ilse Schwendenwein, Gabriela Stanclova, Gertjan van Dijk, Harro A J Meijer, Simon Verhulst, John Dittami
Many migrating birds undertake extraordinary long flights. How birds are able to perform such endurance flights of over 100-hour durations is still poorly understood. We examined energy expenditure and physiological changes in Northern Bald Ibis Geronticus eremite during natural flights using birds trained to follow an ultra-light aircraft. Because these birds were tame, with foster parents, we were able to bleed them immediately prior to and after each flight. Flight duration was experimentally designed ranging between one and almost four hours continuous flights...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26101730/the-aspect-of-experience-in-ultra-triathlon-races
#13
Beat Knechtle, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst
Previous experience seems to be an important predictor for endurance and ultra-endurance performance. The present study investigated whether the number of previously completed races and/or the personal best times in shorter races is more predictive for performance in longer non-stop ultra-triathlons such as a Deca Iron ultra-triathlon. All female and male ultra-triathletes who had finished between 1985 and 2014 at least one Double Iron ultra-triathlon (i.e. 7.6 km swimming, 360 km cycling and 84.4 km running), one Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (i...
2015: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26088954/age-of-peak-competitive-performance-of-elite-athletes-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Sian V Allen, Will G Hopkins
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the age at which elite athletes achieve peak performance could provide important information for long-term athlete development programmes, event selection and strategic decisions regarding resource allocation. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to systematically review published estimates of age of peak performance of elite athletes in the twenty-first century. METHODS: We searched SPORTDiscus, PubMed and Google Scholar for studies providing estimates of age of peak performance...
October 2015: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26061831/competition-nutrition-practices-of-elite-ultramarathon-runners
#15
Trent Stellingwerff
Anecdotal claims have suggested that an increasing number of ultramarathoners purposely undertake chronic low-carbohydrate (CHO) ketogenic diets while training, and race with very low CHO intakes, as a way to maximize fat oxidation and improve performance. However, very little empirical evidence exists on specific fueling strategies that elite ultramarathoners undertake to maximize race performance. The study's purpose was to characterize race nutrition habits of elite ultramarathon runners. Three veteran male ultrarunners (M ± SD; age 35 ± 2 years; mass 59...
February 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25941980/saccharide-composition-of-carbohydrates-consumed-during-an-ultra-endurance-triathlon
#16
Patrick B Wilson, Gregory S Rhodes, Stacy J Ingraham
OBJECTIVE: Ingesting a mix of glucose and fructose during exercise increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation while minimizing gastrointestinal (GI) distress. Several studies have suggested that a glucose-to-fructose ratio of 1.2:1 to 1:1 is optimal. No studies have quantified saccharides consumed during a nonsimulated endurance event. The aim of this investigation was to quantify saccharide sources used during an ultra-endurance triathlon and provide a resource for athletes desiring to manipulate the saccharide content of carbohydrate consumed during training and competition...
2015: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25834701/relationship-of-anthropometric-and-training-characteristics-with-race-performance-in-endurance-and-ultra-endurance-athletes
#17
Beat Knechtle
A variety of anthropometric and training characteristics have been identified as predictor variables for race performance in endurance and ultra-endurance athletes. Anthropometric characteristics such as skin-fold thicknesses, body fat, circumferences and length of limbs, body mass, body height, and body mass index were bi-variately related to race performance in endurance athletes such as swimmers in pools and in open water, in road and mountain bike cyclists, and in runners and triathletes over different distances...
June 2014: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25767697/a-case-study-evaluation-of-competitors-undertaking-an-antarctic-ultra-endurance-event-nutrition-hydration-and-body-composition-variables
#18
Scott Paulin, Justin Roberts, Michael Roberts, Ian Davis
BACKGROUND: The nutritional demands of ultra-endurance racing are well documented. However, the relationship between nutritional consumption and performance measures are less obvious for athletes competing in Polar conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate dietary intake, hydration status, body composition and performance times throughout an 800-km Antarctic race. METHODS: The event organisers declared that 17 competitors would participate in the South Pole race...
2015: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25558906/energy-balance-of-triathletes-during-an-ultra-endurance-event
#19
Anna Barrero, Pau Erola, Raúl Bescós
UNLABELLED: The nutritional strategy during an ultra-endurance triathlon (UET) is one of the main concerns of athletes competing in such events. The purpose of this study is to provide a proper characterization of the energy and fluid intake during real competition in male triathletes during a complete UET and to estimate the energy expenditure (EE) and the fluid balance through the race. METHODS: Eleven triathletes performed a UET. All food and drinks ingested during the race were weighed and recorded in order to assess the energy intake (EI) during the race...
January 2015: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25371101/acute-effects-of-different-degrees-of-ultra-endurance-exercise-on-systemic-inflammatory-responses
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
M Comassi, E Vitolo, L Pratali, S Del Turco, C Dellanoce, C Rossi, E Santini, A Solini
BACKGROUND: Intense physical stress might promote inflammatory responses, whereas a regular physical exercise has positive influence. Little is known on the acute metabolic and inflammatory responses to different levels of strenuous exercise in trained athletes. AIM: To compare the short-term effect of two different ultra-endurance competitions on the inflammatory profile in male triathletes. METHODS: We studied 14 Ironman (IR) and 13 Half Ironman (HIR) before and after their own specific race...
January 2015: Internal Medicine Journal
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