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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141506/triathlon-transition-study-quantifying-differences-in-running-movement-pattern-and-precision-after-bike-run-transition
#1
Christian Weich, Randall L Jensen, Manfred Vieten
Various publications discuss the discrepancies of running in triathlons and stand-alone runs. However, those methods, such as analysing step-characteristics or ground-contact time, lack the ability to quantitatively discriminate between subtle running differences. The attractor method can be applied to overcome those shortcomings. The purpose was to detect differences in athletes' running patterns (δM) and movement precision (δD) by comparing a 5,000 m run after a prior cycling session (TRun) with an isolated run over the same distance (IRun)...
November 15, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071114/cracking-the-code-for-maintaining-quality-training-in-olympic-distance-triathlon-lessons-learnt-from-a-squad-of-elite-scandinavian-athletes
#2
Corrie Myburgh, Tobias Hansen, Anders Holm Beck, Eleanor Boyle
OBJECTIVE: High-quality training is a key determinant of performance in the Olympic distance triathlon and is potentially influenced by a unique array of context-specific biopsychosocial factors. Our objective was to explore and describe these factors among squad members of a university-based, elite Olympic distance triathlete developmental programme. METHOD: A qualitative investigation using a visual communication tool-assisted focus group and longitudinal semistructured individual interviews was conducted...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050040/maximal-fat-oxidation-is-related-to-performance-in-an-ironman-triathlon
#3
Jacob Frandsen, Stine Dahl Vest, Steen Larsen, Flemming Dela, Jørn W Helge
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between maximal fat oxidation rate (MFO) measured during a progressive exercise test on a cycle ergometer and ultra-endurance performance. 61 male ironman athletes (age: 35±1 yrs. [23-47 yrs.], with a BMI of 23.6±0.3 kg/m(2) [20.0-30.1 kg/m(2)], a body fat percentage of 16.7±0.7% [8.4-30.7%] and a VO2peak of 58.7±0.7 ml/min/kg [43.9-72.5 ml/min/kg] SEM [Range]) were tested in the laboratory between 25 and 4 days prior to the ultra-endurance event, 2016 Ironman Copenhagen...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904979/the-russians-are-the-fastest-in-marathon-cross-country-skiing-the-engadin-ski-marathon
#4
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Jan Heller, Beat Knechtle
It is well known that athletes from a specific region or country are dominating certain sports disciplines such as marathon running or Ironman triathlon; however, little relevant information exists on cross-country skiing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the aspect of region and nationality in one of the largest cross-country skiing marathons in Europe, the "Engadin Ski Marathon." All athletes (n = 197,125) who finished the "Engadin Ski Marathon" between 1998 and 2016 were considered...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900572/return-to-running-following-a-knee-disarticulation-amputation-a-case-report
#5
Angela R Diebal-Lee, Robert S Kuenzi, Christopher A Rábago
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The evolution of running-specific prostheses has empowered athletes with lower extremity amputations to run farther and faster than previously thought possible; but running with proper mechanics is still paramount to an injury-free, active lifestyle. The purpose of this case report was to describe the successful alteration of intact limb mechanics from a Rearfoot Striking (RFS) to a Non-Rearfoot Striking (NRFS) pattern in an individual with a knee disarticulation amputation, the associated reduction in Average Vertical Loading Rate (AVLR), and the improvement in functional performance following the intervention...
August 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895388/probiotic-strains-as-the-element-of-nutritional-profile-in-physical-activity-%C3%A2-new-trend-or-better-sports-results
#6
REVIEW
Joanna Smarkusz, Lucyna Ostrowska, Katarzyna Witczak-Sawczuk
A diet, individually customized to the needs of sportsmen and sportswomen prepares them better for competition and achievement of better sports results. However, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and frequently recurrent upper respiratory tract infections pose a common problem observed among athletes of disciplines such as triathlon, cycling and marathon. Diarrhea, splashing in the intestines or gastrointestinal bleeding make it difficult to start and win in the race. Recently researchers have paid special attention to the therapeutic effect of probiotic strains on the human body...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745470/effects-of-taurine-on-markers-of-muscle-damage-inflammatory-response-and-physical-performance-in-triathletes
#7
Bryan S Martinez Galan, Flavia Giolo de Carvalho, Priscila Carvalho Santos, Ronaldo Bucken Gobbi, Carlos Kalva-Filho, Marcelo Papoti, Adelino Sanchez Silva, Ellen C Freitas
BACKGROUND: The practice of prolonged exercise with high intensity, as seen in triathlon training, can cause physiological imbalances that might result in muscle fatigue, muscle damage and changes in systemic inflammatory response, thus reduce the athletes physical performance, therefore, both adequate total caloric and macronutrient intake also the use of a specific ergogenic aid, as taurine supplementation would be an alternative to prevent inflammation and muscle damage. In order to verify the effects of 8 weeks of taurine and chocolate milk supplementation, markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and aerobic capacity were quantified in triathletes...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628968/performance-trends-in-age-group-triathletes-in-the-olympic-distance-triathlon-at-the-world-championships-2009-2014
#8
Martin Wonerow, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
Performance trends in elite triathletes competing in age group classes have been investigated for Ironman triathlon in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ but not for short distance triathletes competing at international level in events such as the Olympic distance triathlon at the World Championships. The aim of the present study was to evaluate participation and performance trends of age group triathletes competing in the Olympic distance triathlon at the International Triathlon Union (ITU) World Championships 2009-2014...
June 30, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542004/do-dynamic-fat-and-fat-free-mass-changes-follow-theoretical-driven-rules-in-athletes
#9
Analiza M Silva, Catarina N Matias, Diana A Santos, Paulo M Rocha, Cláudia S Minderico, Diana Thomas, Steven B Heymsfield, Luís B Sardinha
INTRODUCTION: Maximizing fat mass (FM) loss while preserving or increasing fat-free mass (FFM) is a central goal for athletic performance but the composition of body weight (BW) changes over time with training are largely unknown. PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze FM and FFM contributions to BW changes and to test if these contributions follow established rules and predictions over one athletic season. METHODS: Seventy athletes (42 men; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlon, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning to the competitive stage of the season and were empirically divided into those who lost (n = 20) or gained >1...
October 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507970/a-new-technique-for-surgical-treatment-of-proximal-hamstring-tendinopathy-in-a-triathlon-athlete
#10
Lincoln Paiva Costa, Antônio Augusto Guimarães Barros, Carlos Cesar Vassalo, Bertrand Sonnery-Cottet, Victor Atsushi Kasuya Barbosa, Eduardo Frois Temponi
INTRODUCTION: Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) is the result of chronic overload caused by repetitive eccentric contraction. Surgical treatment becomes an option for patients with chronic symptoms that do not respond to conservative treatment. CASE REPORT: This report describes a case of a 48-year-old man, an amateur triathlete, with deep gluteal pain in the left hip for 12 months, leading to a decline in sports performance. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities that suggested a PHT...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350714/multiple-transportable-carbohydrate-effect-on-long-distance-triathlon-performance
#11
David S Rowlands, Stuart D Houltham
The ingestion of multiple (2:1 glucose-fructose) transportable carbohydrate in beverages at high rates (>78 g·h) during endurance exercise enhances exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, fluid absorption, gut comfort, and performance relative to glucose alone. However, during long-distance endurance competition, athletes prefer a solid-gel-drink format, and the effect size of multiple-transportable carbohydrate is unknown. PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effect of multiple-transportable carbohydrate on triathlon competition performance when ingested within bars, gels, and drinks...
August 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340944/snapping-knee-syndrome-caused-by-semitendinosus-and-semimembranosus-tendons-a-case-report
#12
Nikolaus von Dercks, Jan Dirk Theopold, Bastian Marquass, Christoph Josten, Pierre Hepp
We report the case of a 24-year-old female triathlon athlete with a snapping syndrome of both the distal semimembranosus and the semitendinosus tendon which has not been described so far. The semitendinosus tendon was harvested whereupon snapping has diminished. Tenoscopy and digital palpation showed the semimembranosus tendon to cause the snapping, as well. A careful step-by-step release of the anterior insertion of the tendon was performed with the result of a snapping-free range of motion of the patient's knee...
December 2016: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295487/sperm-dna-fragmentation-as-a-result-of-ultra-endurance-exercise-training-in-male-athletes
#13
D Vaamonde, C Algar-Santacruz, A Abbasi, J M García-Manso
Intensive sports practice seems to exert negative effects on semen parameters; in order to assess these effects, the objective of this study was to assess semen, including DNA fragmentation, and hormone parameters in elite triathletes. Twelve high-level triathletes preparing for a National Triathlon Championship participated in the study. The qualitative sperm parameters analysed were volume, sperm count, motility, morphology and DNA fragmentation; when needed, additional testing was performed. Assessed hormones were testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and testosterone-cortisol ratio (T/C)...
March 15, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240713/the-cycling-power-profile-characteristics-of-national-level-junior-triathletes
#14
Christopher J Stevens, Kyle J M Bennett, Andrew R Novak, Aden B Kittel, Ben J Dascombe
With the draft-legal rule recently introduced to junior triathlon competition, it has become difficult to assess cycling performance through race results. Therefore, this study assessed the cycling power profile characteristics of national level junior triathletes to assist with physical assessment and program design. Thirteen male (17.0 ± 1.0 yr) and eleven female (17.2 ± 1.3 yr) national level junior triathletes completed a cycling power profile that consisted of maximal intervals that lasted 6, 15, 30, 60, 240 and 600 seconds in duration...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225523/the-age-related-performance-decline-in-ironman-triathlon-starts-earlier-in-swimming-than-in-cycling-and-running
#15
Ilja Käch, Christoph A Rüst, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
In Ironman triathlon, the number of overall male and female finishers increased in the last 30 years, while an improvement in performance has been reported. Studies concluding these numbers only analysed the top ten athletes per age group instead of all finishers, therefore a selection bias might have occurred. The aim of the present study was to investigate participation, performance and the age-related performance decline of all pro and age group triathletes ranked in all Ironman triathlons held worldwide between 2002 and 2015...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174540/the-influence-of-mid-event-deception-on-psychophysiological-status-and-pacing-can-persist-across-consecutive-disciplines-and-enhance-self-paced-multi-modal-endurance-performance
#16
Daniel Taylor, Mark F Smith
Purpose: To examine the effects of deceptively aggressive bike pacing on performance, pacing, and associated physiological and perceptual responses during simulated sprint-distance triathlon. Methods: Ten non-elite, competitive male triathletes completed three simulated sprint-distance triathlons (0.75 km swim, 500 kJ bike, 5 km run), the first of which established personal best "baseline" performance (BL). During the remaining two trials athletes maintained a cycling power output 5% greater than BL, before completing the run as quickly as possible...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031757/leukocyte-populations-are-associated-with-heart-rate-variability-after-a-triathlon
#17
Germán Hernández Cruz, José Naranjo Orellana, Adrián Rosas Taraco, Blanca Rangel Colmenero
The purpose of this study was to analyze cellular immune components and their association with heart rate variability in triathlon athletes. Twelve athletes were included (age 36.41 ± 5.57 years, body mass 81.84 ± 10.97 kg) and blood samples were taken one week before, immediately, at 2 and 48 hours, and one week after competition. Total lymphocytes and their subpopulations, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes were analyzed. At the same time, heart rate variability was recorded for 30 minutes using Polar Team2®...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928199/association-of-anxiety-related-polymorphisms-with-sports-performance-in-chilean-long-distance-triathletes-a-pilot-study
#18
Jorge A Sanhueza, Tomás Zambrano, Carlos Bahamondes-Avila, Luis A Salazar
Different factors affecting athletic performance are well established: intensity and type of training, anthropometric characteristics as well as an important psychological component. However, the contribution of the genetic background has been less investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of polymorphisms within genes associated with stress and anxiety (5HTT, CRH2R, ACE, NK1R, 5HT1AR and CRF-BP) on the physical capability and sports performance in triathletes. One hundred and ninety two (192) unrelated Chilean triathletes who participated in the 2014 70...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918666/quantification-of-training-and-competition-loads-in-endurance-sports-methods-and-applications
#19
REVIEW
Iñigo Mujika
Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance, and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation, and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration...
April 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817192/positive-pacing-in-elite-ironman-triathletes
#20
Nicole Angehrn, Christoph A. Rüst, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
Pacing is known to influence athletic performance. For the Ironman triathlon program, a positive pacing strategy, i.e., the continuous decrease of speed over time was recommended. By analyzing split times, we assessed the pacing strategies of the top 100 finishers of the cycling part of 13 Ironman races and of the running part of 11 Ironman races taking place in 2014. Furthermore, sex-associated differences in performance and pacing strategies were calculated. We analyzed 7,687 cycling and 11,894 running split times of 1,392 triathletes (1,263 men, 129 women)...
December 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
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