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triathlon, performance, athlete

Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
BACKGROUND: To date, little is known for pacing in ultra-endurance athletes competing in a non-stop event and in a multi-stage event, and especially, about pacing in a multi-stage event with different disciplines during the stages. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of age, sex and calendar year on triathlon performance and variation of performance by events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running) in 'Ultraman Hawaii' held between 1983 and 2015...
2016: PeerJ
Kazuaki Mineta, Naoto Suzue, Tetsuya Matsuura, Koichi Sairyo
Here, we report the efficacy of the suture bridge technique for treating insertional Achilles tendinosis in an obese and athletic patient. A 48-year-old man presented to our department with a 6-month history of left posterior heel pain. The patient was an athlete (triathlon) and appeared obese (height: 197 cm, body weight: 120 kg, body mass index: 30.9). A diagnosis of insertional Achilles tendinosis was made. Because 6 months of conservative treatments had failed, we performed open resection of the calcaneal exostosis and Haglund's deformity along with debridement of the degenerative tissue of the tendon...
2016: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Michael Stiefel, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst
The performance and sex differences of long-distance triathletes competing in 'Ironman Hawaii' are well investigated. However, less information is available with regards to triathlon races of the Ironman distance held under extreme environmental conditions (e.g. extreme cold) such as the 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' which started in 2003. In 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon', athletes swim at a water temperature of ~13-15°C, cycle at temperatures of ~5-20°C and run at temperatures of ~12-28°C in the valley and of ~2-12°C at Mt...
October 31, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Bhargav Dave, Asmi Dave, Nilesh Kotecha, Myrtle Oates
INTRODUCTION: The triathlon involves a combination of three separate disciplines-swimming, cycling and running. To date, very few studies have been conducted on the anthropometric characteristics of the New Zealand junior elite triathletes. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between physical traits of calf girth or sum of eight skinfolds (anthropometry) and running or cycling performances in the triathlon event. METHODS: Eleven junior elite triathletes (6 females, 5 males; (Av...
June 2016: Electronic Physician
Nathaniel T Berry, Laurie Wideman, Edgar W Shields, Claudio L Battaglini
Multisport events continue to grow in popularity among recreational, amateur, and professional athletes around the world. This study aimed to determine the compounding effects of the initial run and cycling legs of an International Triathlon Union (ITU) Duathlon simulation on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), ventilatory threshold (VT) and running economy (RE) within a thermoneutral, laboratory controlled setting. Seven highly trained multisport athletes completed three trials; Trial-1 consisted of a speed only VO2max treadmill protocol (SOVO2max) to determine VO2max, VT, and RE during a single-bout run; Trial-2 consisted of a 10 km run at 98% of VT followed by an incremental VO2max test on the cycle ergometer; Trial-3 consisted of a 10 km run and 30 km cycling bout at 98% of VT followed by a speed only treadmill test to determine the compounding effects of the initial legs of a duathlon on VO2max, VT, and RE...
June 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Roman Leischik, Peter Foshag, Markus Strauss, Norman Spelsberg
Data about physiological performance of female ironman triathletes are rare. However, some studies have reported this endurance sport may cause damage to the right or left ventricles, even in females. The goal of this study was to assess prospectively the right/left ventricular function and physiological performance in female athletes (middle- and long ironman distance) and to compare the findings to female federal police officers. A total of 33 female triathletes and 37 female police officers were examined using spiro-ergometry and echocardiography...
June 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Felipe García-Pinillos, Jose C Cámara-Pérez, Víctor M Soto-Hermoso, Pedro Á Latorre-Román
This study aimed to examine the effect of a five-week HIIT-based running plan on athletic performance, and to compare the physiological and neuromuscular responses during a sprint-distance triathlon before and after the HIIT period. Thirteen triathletes were matched into two groups: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). The CG was asked to maintain their normal training routines while the EG maintained only their swimming and cycling routines and modified their running routine. Participants completed a sprint-distance triathlon before (pre-test) and after (post-test) the intervention period...
May 9, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Sam S Wu, Jeremiah J Peiffer, Peter Peeling, Jeanick Brisswalter, Wing Y Lau, Kazunori Nosaka, Chris R Abbiss
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three swim pacing profiles on subsequent performance during a sprint distance triathlon (SDT). METHODS: Nine competitive/trained male triathletes completed five experimental sessions, including a graded running exhaustion test, a 750 m swim time-trial (STT), and three SDTs. The swim time of the three SDTs were matched, but pacing was manipulated to induce positive (i.e. speed gradually decreasing from 92 to 73% STT), negative (i...
February 26, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
M G Vinciguerra, G Belcaro, M Cacchio
AIM: The aim of this registry study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with Robuvit® (Quercus robur wood extract, or "QR") on performance and endurance in triathlon by evaluating amateur athletes in a period of 2 weeks of training. Supplementation with QR may improve training efficiency (by decreasing post-triathlon, muscular pain, cramps and by improving recovery time). Robuvit® should decrease post-training plasma free radicals (PFR). METHODS: Sixty-one subjects (age range 30-40) were included in the study...
October 2015: Minerva Cardioangiologica
Christoph A Rüst, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Alessio Signori, Michael Stiefel, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
We investigated the nation related participation and performance trends in triathletes competing in 'Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' between 2006 and 2014 using mixed models, one-way analysis of variance and multi-variate regression analyses. A total of 1594 athletes (139 women and 1455 men) originating from 34 different countries finished the race. Most of the athletes originated from Norway, Germany, Great Britain, Sweden, USA and France. In the mixed model analysis considering all finishers (n = 1594), with calendar year, sex and country as independent and overall race time as dependent variable, calendar year (p < 0...
2015: SpringerPlus
Beat Knechtle, Raphael Knechtle, Michael Stiefel, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst
OBJECTIVE: This narrative review summarizes findings for Ironman triathlon performance and intends to determine potential predictor variables for Ironman race performance in female and male triathletes. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed using the terms "Ironman", "triathlon", and "performance". All resulting articles were searched for related citations. RESULTS: Age, previous experience, sex, training, origin, anthropometric and physiological characteristics, pacing, and performance in split disciplines were predictive...
2015: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Felipe García-Pinillos, José C Cámara-Pérez, Francisco T González-Fernández, Juan A Párraga-Montilla, Marcos Muñoz-Jiménez, Pedro Á Latorre-Román
This study aimed to describe the acute impact of a simulated sprint-distance triathlon at physiological and neuromuscular levels and to determine whether age and athletic performance influenced the response in triathletes. Nineteen triathletes performed a sprint-distance triathlon under simulated conditions. Cardiovascular response was monitored during the race. Rate of perceived exertion along with muscular performance parameters (countermovement jump [CMJ], squat jump [SJ], and handgrip strength test [HS]) were tested at pre- and posttest and during every transition, while a 20-m sprint test (S20m) was performed before and after the race...
April 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Mahdi Sareban, David Zügel, Karsten Koehler, Paul Hartveg, Martina Zügel, Uwe Schumann, Jürgen Michael Steinacker, Gunnar Treff
The ingestion of exogenous carbohydrates (CHO) during prolonged endurance exercise, such as long-distance triathlon, is considered beneficial with regard to performance. However, little is known about whether this performance benefit differs among different forms of CHO administration. To this end, the purpose of our study was to determine the impact of CHO ingestion from a semisolid source (GEL) on measures of performance and gastrointestinal (GI) comfort compared with CHO ingestion from a liquid source (LIQ)...
April 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Ruth Boat, Ian M Taylor
The study explored patterns of change in a number of potentially performance-related variables (i.e., fatigue, social support, self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, mental skills) during the lead-up to a competitive triathlon, and whether these patterns of change differed for relatively superior versus inferior performers. Forty-two triathletes completed an inventory measuring the study variables every other day during a 2-week period leading up to competition. Performance was assessed using participants' race time, and using a self-referenced relative score compared with personal best times...
June 2015: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Hirotomo Yamanashi, Jun Koyamatsu, Masaharu Nobuyoshi, Kunihiko Murase, Takahiro Maeda
Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE) or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE)...
2015: Case Reports in Medicine
Beat Knechtle, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst
Previous experience seems to be an important predictor for endurance and ultra-endurance performance. The present study investigated whether the number of previously completed races and/or the personal best times in shorter races is more predictive for performance in longer non-stop ultra-triathlons such as a Deca Iron ultra-triathlon. All female and male ultra-triathletes who had finished between 1985 and 2014 at least one Double Iron ultra-triathlon (i.e. 7.6 km swimming, 360 km cycling and 84.4 km running), one Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (i...
2015: SpringerPlus
Justin M Stanek
: The popularity of using compression socks has increased substantially among athletes, particularly those participating in endurance events such as running and triathlon. Companies are increasingly marketing compression stockings towards runners, triathletes, and other endurance athletes for the benefits of improved performance and/or decreased recovery time. Originally developed for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), compression socks are now marketed as a tool to improve venous return, thus believed to improve both performance and recovery in athletes...
June 10, 2015: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Beat Knechtle, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Michael Stiefel, Christoph Alexander Rüst
OBJECTIVE: This narrative review summarizes recent intentions to find potential predictor variables for ultra-triathlon race performance (ie, triathlon races longer than the Ironman distance covering 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling, and 42.195 km running). Results from studies on ultra-triathletes were compared to results on studies on Ironman triathletes. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed using the terms "ultra", "triathlon", and "performance" for the aspects of "ultra-triathlon", and "Ironman", "triathlon", and "performance" for the aspects of "Ironman triathlon"...
2015: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Michelle Baillot, Olivier Hue
The aim of this study was to compare the core temperature (TC) and markers of hydration status in athletes performing a half Ironman triathlon race in hot and humid conditions (27.2 ± 0.5°C, relative humidity was 80 ± 2%). Before and immediately after the 2012 Guadeloupe half Ironman triathlon, body mass and urine osmolarity (mean ± SD) were measured in 19 well-trained male triathletes. TC was measured before and after the race, and at each transition during the event, using an ingestible pill telemetry system...
June 2015: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Patrick B Wilson, Gregory S Rhodes, Stacy J Ingraham
OBJECTIVE: Ingesting a mix of glucose and fructose during exercise increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation while minimizing gastrointestinal (GI) distress. Several studies have suggested that a glucose-to-fructose ratio of 1.2:1 to 1:1 is optimal. No studies have quantified saccharides consumed during a nonsimulated endurance event. The aim of this investigation was to quantify saccharide sources used during an ultra-endurance triathlon and provide a resource for athletes desiring to manipulate the saccharide content of carbohydrate consumed during training and competition...
2015: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
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