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Renin–angiotensin system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923443/preliminary-study-about-the-relationship-between-estimated-training-status-and-ras-polymorphisms-on-blood-pressure-and-ace-activity-in-the-elderly
#1
Roberta Fernanda da Silva, Riccardo Lacchini, Lucas Cezar Pinheiro, Thiago José Dionísio, AndréMourão Jacomini, José Eduardo Tanus-Santos, Sandra Lia Amaral, Carlos Ferreira Santos, Anderson Saranz Zago
OBJECTIVE: Polymorphisms of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) are associated with increases in blood pressure (BP). Physical exercise has been considered the main strategy to prevent this increase. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between estimated training status (TS), BP and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in elderly people classified as low or high risk to develop hypertension according to genetic profile. METHODS: A total of 155 elderly participants performed the following assessments: general functional fitness index (GFFI), systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), blood collection for ACE activity and analyses of the RAS polymorphisms...
April 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922559/the-role-of-stem-cells-in-dupuytren-s-disease-a-review
#2
Kirin Tan, Aaron H J Withers, Swee T Tan, Tinte Itinteang
The pathogenesis of Dupuytren's disease (DD) remains unclear although there is increasing evidence supporting the role of stem cells in this and other fibrotic conditions. This review examines the role of DD tissue-associated embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and circulating fibrocytes and circulating MSCs, in the biology of DD. It is exciting to infer that dysfunction of an upstream ESC-like population within the affected tissue leads to the downstream development and proliferation of aberrant myofibroblasts through a putative MSC intermediate...
May 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922182/brain-natriuretic-peptide-and-its-biochemical-analytical-and-clinical-issues-in-heart-failure-a-narrative-review
#3
REVIEW
Shihui Fu, Ping Ping, Qiwei Zhu, Ping Ye, Leiming Luo
Heart failure (HF) is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As the most widely studied and commonly applied natriuretic peptide (NP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has the effects of diuresis, natriuresis, vasodilation, anti-hypertrophy, and anti-fibrosis and it inhibits the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems to maintain cardiorenal homeostasis and counteract the effects of HF. Both BNP and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are applied as diagnostic, managing, and prognostic tools for HF...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921713/%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1-is-essential-for-sympathetic-output-and-nmda-receptor-activity-potentiated-by-angiotensin-ii-in-the-hypothalamus
#4
Huijie Ma 马会杰, Shao-Rui Chen 陈少瑞, Hong Chen 陈红, Lingyong Li 李令勇, De-Pei Li 李德培李德培, Jing-Jing Zhou 周京京, Hui-Lin Pan 潘惠麟
Both the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system are critically involved in hypertension development. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons to increase sympathetic vasomotor tone, the molecular mechanism mediating this action remains unclear. The glutamate N -methyl- D -aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in the PVN controls sympathetic outflow in hypertension. In this study, we determined the interaction between α2δ-1 (encoded by Cacna2d1 ), commonly known as a Ca2+ channel subunit, and NMDARs in the hypothalamus and its role in Ang II-induced synaptic NMDAR activity in PVN presympathetic neurons...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916858/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-hypertension-coprevalent-or-corelated
#5
Dimitrios Oikonomou, Georgios Georgiopoulos, Vassiliki Katsi, Chris Kourek, Constantinos Tsioufis, Alexendra Alexopoulou, Evaggelia Koutli, Dimitrios Tousoulis
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive review summarizing the existing evidence on the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hypertension (HT) independent of other components of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We searched the literature through Medline and the Cochrane Library for studies evaluating the relationship between hypertension and fatty liver disease. RESULTS: Studies testing this association are limited, but agree that HT and fatty liver disease are inter-related independent of other components of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity and diabetes mellitus...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916026/acute-kidney-injury-due-to-diarrheal-illness-requiring-hospitalization-data-from-the-national-inpatient-sample
#6
Christina Bradshaw, Yuanchao Zheng, Samuel A Silver, Glenn M Chertow, Jin Long, Shuchi Anand
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal illness is a major reason for hospitalization, but data on consequent acute kidney injury (AKI) are sparse. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of AKI in infectious and non-infectious diarrheal illness requiring hospitalization and to identify correlates and outcomes of diarrhea-associated AKI. DESIGN: Using data from the 2012 National Inpatient Sample (NIS), we created a cohort of patients with a primary diagnosis of diarrheal illness...
June 18, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909779/associations-of-trauma-exposure-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-with-the-activity-of-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-in-the-general-population
#7
Jan Terock, Anke Hannemann, Deborah Janowitz, Harald J Freyberger, Stephan B Felix, Marcus Dörr, Matthias Nauck, Henry Völzke, Hans J Grabe
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that exposure to traumatic events during childhood and adulthood and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with a dysregulation of different neuroendocrine systems. However, the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) in relation to trauma/PTSD has been largely neglected. METHODS: Traumatization, PTSD, and plasma concentrations of renin and aldosterone were measured in 3092 individuals from the general population...
June 18, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909753/alteration-at-transcriptional-level-of-cardiac-renin-angiotensin-system-by-letrozole-treatment
#8
Shahnaz Shekarforoush, Farhad Koohpeyma, Fatemeh Safari
INTRODUCTION: The use of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for breast cancer led to a marked change in ventricular function. Since accumulating evidence indicates that overactivation of the cardiac renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertrophy and remodelling, we aimed to investigate whether letrozole alters the transcription level of RAS related genes in the cardiac tissue. METHODS: Twenty four rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6 per group): two groups were letrozole treated (1 and 2 mg/kg/day orally), one group was vehicle treated (DMSO) and one group was the control group without any treatment...
June 17, 2018: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909460/modulation-of-brain-ace-and-ace2-may-be-a-promising-protective-strategy-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-an-experimental-trial-in-rats
#9
Maha Mohammed Abdel-Fattah, Basim Anwar Shehata Messiha, Ahmed Mohamed Mansour
The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is considered a crucial regulator for physiological homeostasis and disease progression. We evaluated the protective effects of the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) telmisartan and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activator xanthenone on experimental cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Rats were divided into a sham control, a cerebral I/R control, a standard treatment (nimodipine, 10 mg/kg/day, 15 days, p.o.), three telmisartan treatments (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg/day, 15 days, p...
June 17, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908836/dopps-data-suggest-a-possible-survival-benefit-of-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-inhibitors-and-other-antihypertensive-medications-for-hemodialysis-patients
#10
Angelo Karaboyas, Hairong Xu, Hal Morgenstern, Francesco Locatelli, Michel Jadoul, Kosaku Nitta, Indranil Dasgupta, Francesca Tentori, Friedrich K Port, Bruce M Robinson
The benefits of renin angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) are well-established in the general population, particularly among those with diabetes, congestive heart failure (CHF), or coronary artery disease (CAD). However, conflicting evidence from trials and concerns about hyperkalemia limit RAASi use in hemodialysis patients, relative to other antihypertensive agents, including beta blockers and calcium channel blockers. Therefore, we investigated prescription patterns and associations with mortality for RAASi and other antihypertensive agents using data from the international Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS)...
June 13, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907698/selective-activation-of-retinoic-acid-%C3%AE-2-receptors-exerts-cardioprotective-effects
#11
Alice Marino, Takuya Sakamoto, Xiao-Han Tang, Lorraine J Gudas, Roberto Levi
We previously discovered that oral treatment with AC261066, a synthetic selective agonist for the retinoic acid β2-receptor (RARβ2), decreases oxidative stress in the liver, pancreas, and kidney of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Since hyperlipidemic states are causally associated with myocardial ischemia and oxidative stress, we have now investigated the effects of AC261066 in an ex-vivo ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury model in hearts of two prototypic dysmetabolic mice. We found that a 6-week oral treatment with AC261066 in both genetically hypercholesterolemic (ApoE-/-) and obese (HFD-fed) wild-type mice exerts protective effects when their hearts are subsequently subjected to I/R ex vivo in the absence of added drug...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899670/-perspective-review-type-2-diabetes-and-readmission-for-heart-failure
#12
Merlin C Thomas
Heart failure is a leading cause for hospitalisation and for readmission, especially in patients over the age of 65. Diabetes is an increasingly common companion to heart failure. The presence of diabetes and its associated comorbidity increases the risk of adverse outcomes and premature mortality in patients with heart failure. In particular, patients with diabetes are more likely to be readmitted to hospital soon after discharge. This may partly reflect the greater severity of heart disease in these patients...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897923/elevated-plasma-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-activity-is-an-independent-predictor-of-major-adverse-cardiac-events-in-patients-with-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease
#13
Jay Ramchand, Sheila K Patel, Piyush M Srivastava, Omar Farouque, Louise M Burrell
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an endogenous regulator of the renin angiotensin system. Increased circulating ACE2 predicts adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF), but it is unknown if elevated plasma ACE2 activity predicts major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We prospectively recruited patients with obstructive CAD (defined as ≥50% stenosis of the left main coronary artery and/or ≥70% stenosis in ≥ 1 other major epicardial vessel on invasive coronary angiography) and measured plasma ACE2 activity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897266/vascular-type-1-angiotensin-receptors-control-blood-pressure-by-augmenting-peripheral-vascular-resistance-in-female-mice
#14
Erin Wolf, Edward J Diaz, Alison Hollis, Thien A Hoang, Hooman A Azad, Katharine M Bendt, Robert C Griffiths, Matthew A Sparks
Angiotensin (Ang) II is a major mediator of hypertension pathogenesis. In addition, there are well-documented differences in expression of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) components and Ang II responses between males and females, which may explain sex differences in blood pressure (BP) and hypertension epidemiology. We have previously shown that type 1A Angiotensin (AT1A) receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a critical role in BP regulation and hypertension pathogenesis, but these studies were carried out in male mice...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896315/novel-concept-to-guide-systolic-heart-failure-medication-by-repeated-biomarker-testing-results-from-time-chf-in-context-of-predictive-preventive-and-personalized-medicine
#15
Nasser Davarzani, Sandra Sanders-van Wijk, Micha T Maeder, Peter Rickenbacher, Evgueni Smirnov, Joël Karel, Thomas Suter, Rudolf A de Boer, Dirk Block, Vinzent Rolny, Christian Zaugg, Matthias E Pfisterer, Ralf Peeters, Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca
Background: It is uncertain whether repeated measurements of a multi-target biomarker panel may help to personalize medical heart failure (HF) therapy to improve outcome in chronic HF. Methods: This analysis included 499 patients from the Trial of Intensified versus standard Medical therapy in Elderly patients with Congestive Heart Failure (TIME-CHF), aged ≥ 60 years, LVEF ≤ 45%, and NYHA ≥ II, who had repeated clinical visits within 19 months follow-up...
June 2018: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895976/an-essential-role-for-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-mediating-hypertensive-heart-disease
#16
Yue Zhao, Chunhong Wang, Cong Wang, Xue Hong, Jinhua Miao, Yulin Liao, Lili Zhou, Youhua Liu
Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with hypertension and heart disease. However, how RAS activation causes cardiac lesions remains elusive. Here we report the involvement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in this process. In rats with chronic infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II), eight Wnt ligands were induced and β-catenin activated in both cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. Blockade of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by small molecule inhibitor ICG-001 restrained Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy by normalizing heart size and inhibiting hypertrophic marker genes...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891744/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-gene-insertion-deletion-variant-and-familial-mediterranean-fever-related-amyloidosis
#17
Ayse Feyda Nursal, Ercan Turkmen, Suheyla Uzun Kaya, Akin Tekcan, Ozlem Sezer, Sumeyya Deniz Celik, Serbulent Yigit
INTRODUCTION: The most important complication of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is secondary amyloidosis, which can lead to kidney failure. Genetic variability in the genes of various components of the renin-angiotensin system may play a role in the pathogenesis of the kidney disorders.  The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D variant and risk of developing FMF-related amyloidosis in Turkish patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 240 individuals consisting of 40 patients with FMF-related amyloidosis, 100 FMF patients without amyloidosis, and 100 healthy controls were recruited...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891025/clinical-outcomes-of-aspirin-interaction-with-other-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-a-systematic-review
#18
Zuhair Alqahtani, Fakhreddin Jamali
PURPOSE: Concomitant use of some non-Aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NANSAIDs) reduces the extent of platelet aggregation of Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). This is while many observational studies and clinical trials suggest that Aspirin reduces cardiovascular (CV) risk attributed to the use of NANSAIDs. Thus, the therapeutic outcome of the interaction needs to be assessed. METHODS: We searched various databases up to October 2017 for molecular interaction studies between the drugs and long-term clinical outcomes based on randomized clinical trials and epidemiological observations that reported the effect estimates of CV risks (OR, RR or HR; 95% CI) of the interacting drugs alone or in combinations...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890165/the-comparative-efficacy-of-renin-angiotensin-system-blockers-in-schistosomal-hepatic-fibrosis
#19
Natállia Alle Parreira, Fernando Silva Ramalho, Marlei Josiele Augusto, Deisy Mara Silva, Cibele Maria Prado, Jorge Elias Júnior, Vanderlei Rodrigues, Leandra Náira Zambelli Ramalho
Schistosomiasis mansoni is involved in hepatic fibrogenesis and portal hypertension. Previous studies proved that blockade of some components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) reduce liver fibrogenesis. However, the effects of inhibition of early stages of RAS pathway in schistosomal fibrosis have not been studied yet. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the role of different antihypertensive drugs on hepatic fibrosis in murine schistosomiasis. BALB/c mice (n = 50) weighing 20g were subjected to inoculation of 50 cercariae and submitted to different treatments: aliskiren, 50 mg/kg (n = 10); bradykinin, 2 μg/kg (n = 5); losartan, 10 mg/kg (n = 10); lisinopril 10 mg/kg (n = 5) and control, proportional volume vehicle (n = 5); daily for 14 weeks...
June 8, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887446/heart-kidney-failure-who-s-afraid-of-renin-angiotensin-system-blockade
#20
EDITORIAL
Michele Emdin, Giuseppe Vergaro, Andrea Barison, Alberto Giannoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
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