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Renin–angiotensin system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232407/temporal-changes-in-cardiac-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-remodeling-induced-by-exercise-in-hypertension-role-for-local-angiotensin-ii-reduction
#1
Sebastião D Silva, Zaira P Jara, Roseli Peres, Larissa S Lima, Cristóforo Scavone, Augusto C Montezano, Rhian M Touyz, Dulce E Casarini, Lisete C Michelini
Exercise training reduces renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation, decreases plasma and tissue oxidative stress and inflammation in hypertension. However, the temporal nature of these phenomena in response to exercise is unknown. We sought to determine in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched WKY controls the weekly effects of training on blood pressure (BP), plasma and left ventricle (LV) Ang II and Ang-(1-7) content (HPLC), LV oxidative stress (DHE staining), gene and protein expression (qPCR and WB) of pro-inflammatory cytokines, antioxidant enzymes and their consequence on hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232287/the-effects-of-known-cardioprotective-drugs-on-proinflammatory-cytokine-secretion-from-human-coronary-artery-endothelial-cells
#2
Michael J Haas, Marilu Jurado-Flores, Ramadan Hammoud, Victoria Feng, Krista Gonzales, Luisa Onstead-Haas, Arshag D Mooradian
BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell dysfunction in diabetes is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of premature atherosclerosis. High-dextrose has been shown to induce both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). STUDY QUESTION: To determine whether or not several classes of cardioprotective drugs inhibit proinflammatory cytokine expression by HCAEC. MEASURES AND OUTCOMES: To determine the effects of high dextrose on expression of proinflammatory cytokines by HCAEC, cells were treated with either 5...
November 27, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230003/pulse-pressure-arterial-stiffening-and-the-efficacy-of-renin-angiotensin-system-inhibitor-combinations
#3
Kalyani B Sonawane, Ashish A Deshmukh, Mark S Segal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229547/role-of-angiotensin-system-modulation-on-progression-of-cognitive-impairment-and-brain-mri-changes-in-aged-hypertensive-animals-a-randomized-double-blind-pre-clinical-study
#4
Heba A Ahmed, Tauheed Ishrat, Bindu Pillai, Kristopher M Bunting, Ashni Patel, Almira Vazdarjanova, Jennifer L Waller, Ali S Arbab, Adviye Ergul, Susan C Fagan
Growing evidence suggests that renin angiotensin system (RAS) modulators support cognitive function in various animal models. However, little is known about their long-term effects on the brain structure in aged hypertensive animals with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion as well as which specific domains of cognition are most affected. Therefore, in the current study we examined the effects of Candesartan and Compound 21 (C21) (RAS modulators) on aspects of cognition known to diminish with advanced age and accelerate with hypertension and vascular disease...
December 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227582/role-of-the-sodium-hydrogen-exchanger-in-mediating-the-renal-effects-of-drugs-commonly-used-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Milton Packer
Diabetes is characterized by an increased activity of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in the glomerulus and renal tubules, which contributes importantly to the development of nephropathy. Despite the established role played by the exchanger in experimental studies, it has not been specifically targeted by those seeking to develop novel pharmacological treatments for diabetes. This review demonstrates that many existing drugs that are commonly prescribed to patients with diabetes act on the NHE1 and NHE3 isoforms in the kidney...
December 11, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226862/the-rationale-and-design-of-the-reducing-pathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease-through-angiotensin-targeting-radar-trial
#6
Patrick G Kehoe, Peter S Blair, Beth Howden, David L Thomas, Ian B Malone, Jeremy Horwood, Clare Clement, Lucy Selman, Hannah Baber, Athene Lane, Elizabeth Coulthard, Anthony Peter Passmore, Nick C Fox, Ian B Wilkinson, Yoav Ben-Shlomo
BACKGROUND: Anti-hypertensives that modify the renin angiotensin system may reduce Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and reduce the rate of disease progression. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a phase II, two arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial (ISRCTN: 93682878; EudraCT: 2012-003641-15) of losartan to test the efficacy of Reducing pathology in Alzheimer's Disease through Angiotensin TaRgeting (RADAR). METHODS: Men and women aged at least 55 years with mild-to-moderate AD will be randomly allocated 100 mg encapsulated generic losartan or placebo once daily for 12 months after successful completion of a 2-week open-label phase and 2-week placebo washout to establish drug tolerability...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226811/evidence-based-therapy-and-its-association-with-workforce-detachment-after-first-hospitalization-for-heart-failure
#7
Rasmus Rørth, Emil L Fosbøl, Ulrik M Mogensen, Kristian Kragholm, Pardeep S Jhund, Mark C Petrie, Morten Schou, Gunnar H Gislason, John J V McMurray, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Lars Køber, Søren L Kristensen
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association between the use of evidence-based medicine (EBM) for heart failure (HF) and risk of workforce detachment. BACKGROUND: The ability to work can be a marker of functional capacity and quality of life. METHODS: We examined a nationwide cohort of patients in the workforce 1 year after first hospitalization for HF. EBM was defined as treatment with β-blockers and renin angiotensin system inhibitors...
November 27, 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226693/higher-pulse-pressure-and-risk-for-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-with-essential-hypertension-the-campania-salute-network
#8
Costantino Mancusi, Maria A Losi, Raffaele Izzo, Grazia Canciello, Maria V Carlino, Giovanni Albano, Nicola De Luca, Bruno Trimarco, Giovanni de Simone
Background Increased pulse pressure is associated with structural target organ damage, especially in elderly patients, increasing cardiovascular risk. Design In this analysis, we investigated whether high pulse pressure retains a prognostic effect also when common markers of target organ damage are taken into account. Methods We analysed an unselected cohort of treated hypertensive patients from the Campania Salute Network registry ( n = 7336). Participants with available cardiac and carotid ultrasound were required to be free of prevalent cardiovascular disease, with ejection fraction ≥50%, and no more than stage III Chronic Kidney Disease...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225804/angiotensinogen-as-a-biomarker-of-acute-kidney-injury
#9
REVIEW
Sheeba Habeeb Ba Aqeel, Alejandro Sanchez, Daniel Batlle
Early recognition of acute kidney injury (AKI) is critical to prevent its associated complications as well as its progression to long term adverse outcomes like chronic kidney disease. A growing body of evidence from both laboratory and clinical studies suggests that inflammation is a key factor contributing to the progression of AKI regardless of the initiating event. Biomarkers of inflammation are therefore of interest in the evaluation of AKI pathogenesis and prognosis. There is evidence that the renin angiotensin aldosterone system is activated in AKI, which leads to an increase in angiotensin II (Ang II) formation within the kidney...
December 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223539/losartan-suppresses-the-kainate-induced-changes-of-angiotensin-at1-receptor-expression-in-a-model-of-comorbid-hypertension-and-epilepsy
#10
Dimitrinka Atanasova, Jana Tchekalarova, Natasha Ivanova, Zlatina Nenchovska, Ekaterina Pavlova, Nina Atanassova, Nikolai Lazarov
AIMS: Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that components of renin-angiotensin system are elevated in the hippocampus in epileptogenic conditions. In the present work, we explored the changes in the expression of angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AT1 receptor) in limbic structures, as well as the effect of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan in a model of comorbid hypertension and epilepsy. MAIN METHODS: The expression of AT1 receptors was compared between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar rats by using immunohistochemistry in the kainate (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
December 6, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222290/chronic-organ-failure-in-adult-sickle-cell-disease
#11
REVIEW
Elliott Vichinsky
Sickle cell disease is now a chronic adult illness characterized by progressive multiorgan failure, particularly involving the brain and kidney. The etiology is multifactorial; it includes hemolysis and nitric oxide deficiency. As patients age, most experience neurologic insult. Twenty-five percent of older adults have had a clinical stroke and at least half of the population have had a silent infarct, cortical atrophy, and neurocognitive impairment. Periodic screening with neuroimaging and neurocognitive testing is recommended...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220406/excessively-low-salt-diet-damages-the-heart-through-activation-of-cardiac-pro-renin-receptor-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-and-sympatho-adrenal-systems-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#12
Chihiro Okamoto, Yuka Hayakawa, Takuma Aoyama, Hisaaki Komaki, Shingo Minatoguchi, Masamitsu Iwasa, Yoshihisa Yamada, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Masanori Kawasaki, Kazuhiko Nishigaki, Atsushi Mikami, Shinya Minatoguchi
OBJECTIVE: A high salt intake causes hypertension and leads to cardiovascular disease. Therefore, a low salt diet is now recommended to prevent hypertension and cardiovascular disease. However, it is still unknown whether an excessively low salt diet is beneficial or harmful for the heart. METHODS: Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) received normal salt chow (0.9% salt diet) and excessively low salt chow (0.01% salt diet referred to as saltless diet) for 8 weeks from 8 to 16 weeks of age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216260/angiotensin-receptor-blockers-are-associated-with-lower-mortality-than-ace-inhibitors-in-predialytic-stage-5-chronic-kidney-disease-a-nationwide-study-of-therapy-with-renin-angiotensin-system-blockade
#13
Chih-Ching Lin, Yu-Te Wu, Wu-Chang Yang, Min-Juei Tsai, Jia-Sin Liu, Chi-Yu Yang, Szu-Yuan Li, Shuo-Ming Ou, Der-Cherng Tarng, Chih-Cheng Hsu
Dual renin angiotensin system (RAS) blockade using angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) in combination with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) is reported to improve proteinuria in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. However, its renoprotective effect and safety remain uncertain in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). From January 1, 2000 through June 30, 2009, we enrolled 14,117 pre-dialytic stage 5 CKD patients with serum creatinine >6mg/dL and hematocrit <28% under the treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents and RAS blockade...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216228/primary-prevention-of-myocardial-infarction-with-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-and-angiotensin-receptor-blockers-in-hypertensive-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#14
Ting-Tse Lin, Cho-Kai Wu, Min-Tsun Liao, Yao-Hsu Yang, Pau-Chung Chen, Dong-Feng Yeih, Lian-Yu Lin
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is regarded as a high risk factor for myocardial infarction. Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor contributing to increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Dual blood pressure (BP)-lowering and anti-inflammatory effect of renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) inhibitors may possess protective effect from MI in RA population. However, treatment of hypertension with RAS inhibitors and MI in RA population remains unclear. METHODS: We investigated whether RAS blockade could decrease risk of incident MI in hypertensive patients with RA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212812/pharmacologic-prevention-of-incident-atrial-fibrillation-long-term-results-from-the-allhat-antihypertensive-and-lipid-lowering-treatment-to-prevent-heart-attack-trial
#15
Thomas A Dewland, Elsayed Z Soliman, Jose-Miguel Yamal, Barry R Davis, Alvaro Alonso, Christine M Albert, Lara M Simpson, L Julian Haywood, Gregory M Marcus
BACKGROUND: Although atrial fibrillation (AF) guidelines indicate that pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin system may be considered for primary AF prevention in hypertensive patients, previous studies have yielded conflicting results. We sought to determine whether randomization to lisinopril reduces incident AF or atrial flutter (AFL) compared with chlorthalidone in a large clinical trial cohort with extended post-trial surveillance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a secondary analysis of the ALLHAT (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial), a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial that enrolled hypertensive individuals ≥55 years of age with at least one other cardiovascular risk factor...
December 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211853/nrf2-deficiency-upregulates-intrarenal-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-and-angiotensin-1-7-receptor-expression-and-attenuates-hypertension-and-nephropathy-in-diabetic-mice
#16
Shuiling Zhao, Anindya Ghosh, Chao-Sheng Lo, Isabelle Chenier, James W Scholey, Janos G Filep, Julie R Ingelfinger, Shao-Ling Zhang, John S D Chan
We investigated the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) gene expression in renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) and in the development of systemic hypertension and kidney injury in diabetic Akita mice. We used adult male Akita Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice and Akita mice treated with trigonelline (an Nrf2 inhibitor) or oltipraz (an Nrf2 activator). We also examined immortalized rat RPTCs (IRPTCs) stably transfected with control plasmids or plasmids containing rat angiotensinogen (Agt), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (Ace2) or angiotensin 1-7 receptor (MasR) gene promoters...
December 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210628/editorial-renin-angiotensin-system-role-in-chronic-diseases
#17
EDITORIAL
Sergio H S Santos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207547/predicted-release-and-analysis-of-novel-ace-i-renin-and-dpp-iv-inhibitory-peptides-from-common-oat-avena-sativa-protein-hydrolysates-using-in-silico-analysis
#18
Stephen Bleakley, Maria Hayes, Nora O' Shea, Eimear Gallagher, Tomas Lafarga
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in regulating hypertension by controlling vasoconstriction and intravascular fluid volume. RAAS itself is largely regulated by the actions of renin (EC 3.4.23.15) and the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I; EC 3.4.15.1). The enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV; EC 3.4.14.5) also plays a role in the development of type-2 diabetes. The inhibition of the renin, ACE-I, and DPP-IV enzymes has therefore become a key therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension and diabetes...
December 4, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207385/real-or-perceived-hyperkalemia-is-a-major-deterrent-for-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-inhibition-in-heart-failure
#19
Peter A McCullough, Janani Rangaswami
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207220/-long-term-outcome-of-renal-function-in-women-with-preeclampia-and-pregestational-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Carmela Vadalà, Valeria Cernaro, Rossella Siligato, Roberta Granese, Antonio Simone Laganà, Michele Buemi, Domenico Santoro
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is an important cause of acute renal failure and an important risk marker for subsequent chronic kidney disease. In normal pregnancy, there are marked changes in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) including considerably elevated angiotensin II (ang II) levels. However, vascular resistance decreases markedly during normal pregnancy, suggesting that pregnant individuals are less sensitive to ang II than non-pregnant individuals. In contrast, during PE decreased circulating components of the RAS with enhanced sensitivity of ang II infusion have been reported...
December 5, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
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