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Drug resistant epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721930/pharmacoresistant-epileptic-eyelid-twitching-in-a-child-with-a-mutation-in-syngap1
#1
Tetsuya Okazaki, Yoshiaki Saito, Rika Hiraiwa, Shinji Saitoh, Masachika Kai, Kaori Adachi, Yoko Nishimura, Eiji Nanba, Yoshihiro Maegaki
SYNGAP1 gene mutation has been associated with epilepsy which is often drug resistant, with seizure types including eyelid myoclonia. However, detailed descriptions, including ictal video-EEG, have not been reported. We report the case of a 4-year-old boy who developed recurrent epileptic eyelid twitching at 1 year and 5 months of age. Seizures gradually increased in frequency to more than 50 times per day and manifested with upward eye deviation, motion arrest, loss of consciousness, and eyelid twitching lasting for five seconds...
July 19, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718506/felbamate-as-an-add-on-therapy-for-refractory-partial-epilepsy
#2
REVIEW
Li Li Shi, JianCheng Dong, HengJian Ni, JinSong Geng, Taixiang Wu
BACKGROUND: This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Issue 7, 2014) on 'Felbamate as an add-on therapy for refractory epilepsy'. Epilepsy is a chronic and disabling neurologic disorder, affecting approximately 1% of the population. Up to 30% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are resistant to currently available drugs. Felbamate is one of the second-generation antiepileptic drugs and we have assessed its effects as an add-on therapy to standard drugs in this review...
July 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710408/non-ketogenic-combination-of-nutritional-strategies-provides-robust-protection-against-seizures
#3
Glenn Dallérac, Julien Moulard, Jean-François Benoist, Stefan Rouach, Stéphane Auvin, Angèle Guilbot, Loïc Lenoir, Nathalie Rouach
Epilepsy is a neurological condition that affects 1% of the world population. Conventional treatments of epilepsy use drugs targeting neuronal excitability, inhibitory or excitatory transmission. Yet, one third of patients presents an intractable form of epilepsy and fails to respond to pharmacological anti-epileptic strategies. The ketogenic diet is a well-established non-pharmacological treatment that has been proven to be effective in reducing seizure frequency in the pharmaco-resistant patients. This dietary solution is however extremely restrictive and can be associated with complications caused by the high [fat]:[carbohydrate + protein] ratio...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708399/development-and-validation-of-a-computational-model-ensemble-for-the-early-detection-of-bcrp-abcg2-substrates-during-the-drug-design-stage
#4
Melisa Edith Gantner, Roxana Noemí Peroni, Juan Francisco Morales, María Luisa Villalba, María Esperanza Ruiz, Alan Talevi
Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) is an ATP-dependent efflux transporter linked to the multidrug resistance phenomenon in many diseases such as epilepsy and cancer, and a potential source of drug interactions. For those reasons, the early identification of substrates and non-substrates of this transporter during the drug discovery stage is of great interest. We have developed a computational non-linear model ensemble based on conformational independent molecular descriptors using a combined strategy of genetic algorithms, J48 decision tree classifiers and data fusion...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705474/rf-ablation-in-periventricular-heterotopia-related-epilepsy
#5
Massimo Cossu, Laura Mirandola, Laura Tassi
Drug-resistant focal epilepsy is a common occurrence in patients with gray matter nodular heterotopia (NH), and surgical treatment is often considered in these cases. NH-related epileptogenicity is sustained by complex networks, which may involve the nodules and extralesional cortex in various combinations. Therefore, invasive EEG is usually required to identify the structures involved in seizure generation. It has been reported that surgery may be effective in cases with unilateral lesions, whereas bilateral cases are not optimal candidates for surgical success...
July 3, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703275/predictors-of-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-hypothalamic-hamartoma-following-stereotactic-radiofrequency-thermocoagulation-surgery
#6
Masaki Sonoda, Hiroshi Masuda, Hiroshi Shirozu, Yosuke Ito, Kohei Akazawa, Eishi Asano, Shigeki Kameyama
OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictors of cognitive function in patients with drug-resistant gelastic seizures (GS) related to hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) before and after stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation surgery (SRT). METHODS: We studied 88 patients with HH who underwent SRT between October 1997 and December 2014. Patients received neuropsychological tests preoperatively and postoperatively. Based on the preoperative measures, patients were categorized as "high-functioning" (full-scale intelligence quotient [FSIQ] ≥70; n = 48) and "low-functioning" group (FSIQ <70; n = 40)...
July 13, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698761/vagus-nerve-stimulation
#7
REVIEW
Hakan Ekmekçi, Hülagu Kaptan
BACKGROUND: The vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an approach mainly used in cases of intractable epilepsy despite all the efforts. Also, its benefits have been shown in severe cases of depression resistant to typical treatment. AIM: The aim of this study was to present current knowledge of vagus nerve stimulation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A new value has emerged just at this stage: VNS aiming the ideal treatment with new hopes. It is based on the placement of a programmable generator on the chest wall...
June 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690583/correlating-interictal-spikes-with-sigma-and-delta-dynamics-during-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#8
Frédéric Zubler, Annalisa Rubino, Giorgio Lo Russo, Kaspar Schindler, Lino Nobili
Interictal spikes (IS) are one of the major hallmarks of epilepsy. Understanding the factors promoting or suppressing IS would increase our comprehension of epilepsy and possibly open new avenues for therapy. Sleep strongly influences epileptic activity, and the modulatory effects of the different sleep stages on IS have been studied for decades. However, several aspects are still disputed, in particular the role of sleep spindles and slow waves in the activation of IS during Non-REM sleep. Here, we correlate the rate of IS with quantitative measures derived from stereo-EEG during one Non-REM cycle in 10 patients suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy due to type 2 focal cortical dysplasia...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689344/neurological-results-of-the-modified-treatment-of-epilepsy-by-stimulation-of-the-vagus-nerve
#9
Michael Vaiman, Eli Heyman, Gad Lotan
INTRODUCTION: The vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used for treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy but laryngeal side effects are common. We tried to improve VNS by modifying the implantation procedure. The aim was to reduce the rate of side effects that have prevented using VNS to its full capacity. METHODS: We operated on 74 pediatric patients for VNS device implantation using a modified surgical protocol incorporating lower neck incision for electrode placement and 36 patients who were operated by standard technique were used for control group...
July 8, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687722/a-meta-analysis-on-progressive-atrophy-in-intractable-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-time-is-brain
#10
REVIEW
Lorenzo Caciagli, Andrea Bernasconi, Samuel Wiebe, Matthias J Koepp, Neda Bernasconi, Boris C Bernhardt
OBJECTIVE: It remains unclear whether drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with cumulative brain damage, with no expert consensus and no quantitative syntheses of the available evidence. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of MRI studies on progressive atrophy, searching PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases for cross-sectional and longitudinal quantitative MRI studies on drug-resistant TLE. RESULTS: We screened 2,976 records and assessed eligibility of 248 full-text articles...
July 7, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677591/a-realistic-multimodal-modeling-approach-for-the-evaluation-of-distributed-source-analysis-application-to-sloreta
#11
Delphine Cosandier-Rimélé, Georgia Ramantani, Josef Zentner, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Matthias Duempelmann
OBJECTIVE: Electrical Source Localization (ESL) deriving from scalp EEG and, in recent years, from intracranial EEG (iEEG), is an established method in epilepsy surgery workup. We aimed to validate the distributed ESL derived from scalp EEG and iEEG, particularly regarding the spatial extent of the source, using a realistic epileptic spike activity simulator. APPROACH: ESL was applied to the averaged scalp EEG and iEEG spikes of two patients with drug-resistant structural epilepsy...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676892/methodology-outcome-safety-and-in-vivo-accuracy-in-traditional-frame-based-stereoelectroencephalography
#12
Lars E van der Loo, Olaf E M G Schijns, Govert Hoogland, Albert J Colon, G Louis Wagner, Jim T A Dings, Pieter L Kubben
BACKGROUND: Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is an established diagnostic technique for the localization of the epileptogenic zone in drug-resistant epilepsy. In vivo accuracy of SEEG electrode positioning is of paramount importance since higher accuracy may lead to more precise resective surgery, better seizure outcome and reduction of complications. OBJECTIVE: To describe experiences with the SEEG technique in our comprehensive epilepsy center, to illustrate surgical methodology, to evaluate in vivo application accuracy and to consider the diagnostic yield of SEEG implantations...
July 5, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675819/anti-neuronal-autoantibodies-in-both-drug-responsive-and-resistant-focal-seizures-with-unknown-cause
#13
Gokcen Gozubatik-Celik, Cigdem Ozkara, Canan Ulusoy, Aysegul Gunduz, Sakir Delil, Naz Yeni, Erdem Tuzun
BACKGROUND: and Objective Autoimmunity is an emerging field of research in the etiology of different neurological disorders including epilepsy. We aimed to investigate the presence of neuronal autoantibodies in focal epilepsy with unknown cause and their clinical correlates in both drug-responsive and resistant patients. METHOD: Between 2009 and 2010 94 patients were prospectively enrolled, had their antibodies tested and clinically followed." An additional 50 age- and gender-matched controls were also tested for antibodies...
June 17, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675563/neuroinflammatory-targets-and-treatments-for-epilepsy-validated-in-experimental-models
#14
Eleonora Aronica, Sebastian Bauer, Yuri Bozzi, Matteo Caleo, Raymond Dingledine, Jan A Gorter, David C Henshall, Daniela Kaufer, Sookyong Koh, Wolfgang Löscher, Jean-Pierre Louboutin, Michele Mishto, Braxton A Norwood, Eleonora Palma, Michael O Poulter, Gaetano Terrone, Annamaria Vezzani, Rafal M Kaminski
A large body of evidence that has accumulated over the past decade strongly supports the role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of human epilepsy. Specific inflammatory molecules and pathways have been identified that influence various pathologic outcomes in different experimental models of epilepsy. Most importantly, the same inflammatory pathways have also been found in surgically resected brain tissue from patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy. New antiseizure therapies may be derived from these novel potential targets...
July 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675562/innate-and-adaptive-immunity-in-human-epilepsies
#15
Jan Bauer, Albert J Becker, Wassim Elyaman, Jukka Peltola, Stephan Rüegg, Maarten J Titulaer, James A Varley, Ettore Beghi
Inflammatory mechanisms have been increasingly implicated in the origin of seizures and epilepsy. These mechanisms are involved in the genesis of encephalitides in which seizures are a common complaint. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests different inflammatory responses in the brains of patients with epilepsy depending on the etiology. In general, activation of both innate and adaptive immunity plays a role in refractory forms of epilepsy. Epilepsies in which seizures develop after infiltration of cells of the adaptive immune system in the central nervous system (CNS) include a broad range of epileptic disorders with different (known or unknown) etiologies...
July 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675559/neuroinflammation-in-epileptogenesis-insights-and-translational-perspectives-from-new-models-of-epilepsy
#16
Melissa L Barker-Haliski, Wolfgang Löscher, H Steve White, Aristea S Galanopoulou
Animal models have provided a wealth of information on mechanisms of epileptogenesis and comorbidogenesis, and have significantly advanced our ability to investigate the potential of new therapies. Processes implicating brain inflammation have been increasingly observed in epilepsy research. Herein we discuss the progress on animal models of epilepsy and comorbidities that inform us on the potential role of inflammation in epileptogenesis and comorbidity pathogenesis in rodent models of West syndrome and the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) mouse model of viral encephalitis-induced epilepsy...
July 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673029/predictive-factors-of-surgical-outcome-in-frontal-lobe-epilepsy-explored-with-stereoelectroencephalography
#17
Francesca Bonini, Aileen McGonigal, Didier Scavarda, Romain Carron, Jean Régis, Henry Dufour, Jean-Claude Péragut, Virginie Laguitton, Nathalie Villeneuve, Patrick Chauvel, Bernard Giusiano, Agnès Trébuchon, Fabrice Bartolomei
BACKGROUND: Resective surgery established treatment for pharmacoresistant frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), but seizure outcome and prognostic indicators are poorly characterized and vary between studies. OBJECTIVE: To study long-term seizure outcome and identify prognostic factors. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 42 FLE patients having undergone surgical resection, mostly preceded by invasive recordings with stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG)...
June 29, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664038/case-report-epilepsy-surgical-outcome-for-epileptic-and-non-epileptic-seizures-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-depression
#18
Mazen Basheikh
A 48-year-old male was diagnosed with both drug resistant epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Both diagnoses were confirmed by video-EEG monitoring. His epileptic seizures were a consequence of right mesial temporal sclerosis. He was diagnosed by a psychiatrist to have depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Following a right anterior temporal resection he became seizure free (both epileptic and nonepileptic) with a remarkable improvement in his psychiatric comorbidities leading to significant reduction in his psychotropic medications...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662463/meg-language-lateralization-in-partial-epilepsy-using-dspm-of-auditory-event-related-fields
#19
Manoj Raghavan, Zhimin Li, Chad Carlson, Christopher T Anderson, Jeffrey Stout, David S Sabsevitz, Sara J Swanson, Jeffrey R Binder
OBJECTIVE: Methods employed to determine hemispheric language dominance using magnetoencephalography (MEG) have differed significantly across studies in the choice of language-task, the nature of the physiological response studied, recording hardware, and source modeling methods. Our goal was to determine whether an analysis based on distributed source modeling can replicate the results of prior studies that have used dipole-modeling of event-related fields (ERFs) generated by an auditory word-recognition task to determine language dominance in patients with epilepsy...
June 26, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658141/pharmacogenetic-and-case-control-study-on-potassium-channel-related-gene-variants-and-genetic-generalized-epilepsy
#20
Jian Qu, Shao-Hua Lu, Zhi-Li Lu, Ping Xu, Da-Xiong Xiang, Qiang Qu
Potassium channels are the targets of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), which play important roles in the etiology of epilepsy. KCNA1 and KCNA2 encode mammalian Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 channels, which are essential roles in the initiation and shaping of action potentials. KCNV2 encodes Kv8.2, which is a regional overlap with Kv2 subunits as functional heterotetramers. In our study, we aim to investigate whether variants of KCNA1, KCNA2, and KCNV2 genes influence susceptibility to genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs) and the efficacy of AEDs...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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