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Drug resistant epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919768/ictal-heart-rate-changes-and-the-effects-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-for-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy
#1
Wei Chen, Fan-Gang Meng
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) shows long-term efficiency worldwide in most pharmacoresistant patients with epilepsy; however, there are still a small number of patients who are non-responders to VNS therapy. It has been shown that VNS treatment outcomes for drug-resistant epilepsy may be predicted by preoperative heart-rate variability measurements and that patients with epilepsy with ictal tachycardia (IT) during seizures have good responses to VNS. However, few studies have reported the efficacy of VNS in patients with epilepsy with ictal bradycardia (IB) or normal heart rate (HR), and none have explored the possible mechanisms of VNS efficacy based on different HR types...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914199/clinical-applications-of-intravenous-immunoglobulins-in-child-neurology
#2
Maria Gogou, Efimia Papadopoulou-Alataki, Martha Spilioti, Sofia Alataki, Athanasios Evangeliou
BACKGROUND: While there are guidelines for the use of intravenous immunoglobulins in children with Guillain-Barre syndrome and myasthenia gravis based on high-level evidence studies, data is fewer for the majority of neurologic disorders in this age group. Neuronal antibodies are detected in children with seizures of autoimmune etiology. Intravenous immunoglobulins with their broad immunomodulatory mechanism of action could be ideally effective in different forms of immune-dysregulated intractable epilepsies such as autoimmune epilepsy and autoimmune Rasmussen encephalitis...
September 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#3
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900141/dianxianning-improved-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-pathological-characteristics-partially-through-daf-2-daf-16-insulin-like-pathway-in-transgenic-c-elegans
#4
Dejuan Zhi, Dong Wang, Wenqi Yang, Ziyun Duan, Shuqian Zhu, Juan Dong, Na Wang, Ningbo Wang, Dongqing Fei, Zhanxin Zhang, Xin Wang, Meizhu Wang, Hongyu Li
Dianxianning (DXN) is a traditional Chinese formula, and has been approved in China for treating epilepsy since 1996. Here anti-Alzheimer's disease activity of DXN has been reported. DXN improved AD-like symptoms of paralysis and 5-HT sensitivity of transgenic Aβ1-42 C. elegans. In worms, DXN significantly increased Aβ monomers and decreased the toxic Aβ oligomers, thus reducing Aβ toxicity. DXN significantly suppressed the expression of hsp-16.2 induced by juglone, and up-regulated sod-3 expression. These results indicated that DXN increased stress resistance and protected C...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899459/-ring-14-chromosome-syndrome-in-a-boy-mainly-manifesting-as-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#5
Chen Chen, Li-Wen Wu, Fang He, Li-Fen Yang, Pu Miao, Yu-Ping Ma, Xiao-Le Wang, Jing Peng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898173/utility-of-stereoelectroencephalography-in-children-with-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumor-and-cortical-malformation
#6
Jun T Park, Guadalupe Fernandez Baca Vaca, Jennifer Avery, Jonathan P Miller
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled seizures in children can contribute to irreversible cognitive impairment and developmental delay, in addition to placing them at risk for sudden unexplained death in epileptic patients (SUDEP). Since its introduction at Saint Ann Hospital in Paris in the 1960s, stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is increasingly being utilized at epilepsy centers in the United States as an invasive tool to help localize the seizure focus in drug-resistant focal epilepsy. INDICATIONS: Children with symptomatic epilepsy, commonly due to cortical dysplasia and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET), may benefit from SEEG investigation...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28896001/-barriers-impeding-access-to-epilepsy-surgery-a-review-of-the-literature
#7
REVIEW
L D Ladino, V Benjumea-Cuartas, J Vargas-Osorio, L V Villamil-Osorio, L Hernandez-Vanegas, I E Martinez-Juarez, J F Tellez-Zenteno
Drug-resistant epilepsy, a chronic condition with long-term consequences can be treated with surgery. The efficacy and safety of surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy have been established through a large number of retrospective and prospective cohort studies and two randomized controlled clinical trials. Despite the excellent outcomes reported after surgery, the literature suggests that this procedure is an underutilized treatment. While evidence is lacking as to why epilepsy surgery is underused, cited reasons include: failure of primary care physicians and neurologists to provide information and identify patients who could be referred for surgery; different levels of technology at various centers, resulting in different candidate selection strategies; the belief that epilepsy surgery is a risky procedure and that it should be only viewed as the last option; patient preference to avoid surgery; parents wanting to wait until their child is old enough to participate in the decision-making process regarding surgery; unwillingness of insurers to cover the expenses associated with presurgical evaluations or lack of insurance; racial and social disparities, among others...
September 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895591/development-of-drug-loaded-polymer-microcapsules-for-treatment-of-epilepsy
#8
Yu Chen, Qi Gu, Zhilian Yue, Jeremy M Crook, Simon E Moulton, Mark J Cook, Gordon G Wallace
Despite significant progress in developing new drugs for seizure control, epilepsy still affects 1% of the global population and is drug-resistant in more than 30% of cases. To improve the therapeutic efficacy of epilepsy medication, a promising approach is to deliver anti-epilepsy drugs directly to affected brain areas using local drug delivery systems. The drug delivery systems must meet a number of criteria, including high drug loading efficiency, biodegradability, neuro-cytocompatibility and predictable drug release profiles...
September 12, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882721/clinical-presentation-of-neurocysticercosis-related-epilepsy
#9
REVIEW
Kevin R Duque, Jorge G Burneo
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system and a major risk factor for seizures and epilepsy. Seizure types in NCC vary largely across studies and seizure semiology is poorly understood. We discuss here the studies regarding seizure types and seizure semiology in NCC, and examine the clinical presentation in patients with NCC and drug-resistant epilepsy. We also provide evidence of the role of MRI and EEG in the diagnosis of NCC-related epilepsy. Focal seizures are reported in 60-90% of patients with NCC-related epilepsy, and around 90% of all seizures registered prospectively are focal not evolving to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures...
September 4, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882607/efficacy-and-safety-in-frameless-robot-assisted-stereo-electroencephalography-seeg-for-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#10
I Ollivier, C Behr, H Cebula, A Timofeev, M Benmekhbi, M P Valenti, A M Staack, J Scholly, P Kehrli, E Hirsch, F Proust
INTRODUCTION: Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) is an invasive procedure, used to identify the epileptogenic zone that can be surgically removed in order to treat drug-resistant epilepsy. Frameless robot-assisted positioning of depth electrodes permits a 3D approach with different obliquities and trajectories. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the morbidity and the accuracy related to this frameless procedure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-six patients were managed wherein 901 electrodes were implanted during a 6-year-period...
September 4, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880999/stereo-eeg-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-tool-for-periventricular-nodular-heterotopia-epilepsies
#11
Laura Mirandola, Roberto F Mai, Stefano Francione, Veronica Pelliccia, Francesca Gozzo, Ivana Sartori, Lino Nobili, Francesco Cardinale, Massimo Cossu, Stefano Meletti, Laura Tassi
OBJECTIVE: Periventricular nodular heterotopias (PNHs) are malformations of cortical development related to neuronal migration disorders, frequently associated with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) is considered a very effective step of the presurgical evaluation, providing the recognition of the epileptogenic zone (EZ). At the same time, via the intracerebral electrodes it is possible to perform radiofrequency thermocoagulation (SEEG-guided RF-TC) with the aim of ablating and/or disrupting the EZ...
September 7, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880996/dravet-syndrome-and-its-mimics-beyond-scn1a
#12
REVIEW
Dora Steel, Joseph D Symonds, Sameer M Zuberi, Andreas Brunklaus
OBJECTIVE: Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy characterized by the onset of prolonged febrile and afebrile seizures in infancy, and evolving to drug-resistant epilepsy with accompanying cognitive, behavioral, and motor impairment. Most cases are now known to be caused by pathogenic variants in the sodium channel gene SCN1A, but several other genes have also been implicated. This review examines current understanding of the role of non-SCN1A genes in DS, and what is known about phenotypic similarities and differences...
September 7, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879091/desensitization-of-stimulation-induced-weight-loss-a-secondary-finding-in-a-patient-with-vagal-nerve-stimulator-for-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#13
Fawad A Khan, Mugilan Poongkunran, Bonnie Buratto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874317/generalized-paroxysmal-fast-activity-in-eeg-an-unrecognized-finding-in-genetic-generalized-epilepsy
#14
Vishwanath Sagi, Inyup Kim, Amar B Bhatt, Hasan Sonmezturk, Bassel W Abou-Khalil, Amir M Arain
OBJECTIVE: To study generalized paroxysmal fast activity (GPFA) in patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). INTRODUCTION: GPFA is an electroencephalographic (EEG) finding in patients with symptomatic generalized epilepsy consisting of 15-25Hz bifrontally predominant generalized fast activity seen predominantly in sleep. Historically GPFA is linked to epileptic encephalopathy with drug resistant epilepsy and intellectual disability. However, GPFA has been rarely described as an atypical finding in patients with GGE without negative prognostic implication...
September 2, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867574/decline-in-word-finding-the-objective-cognitive-finding-most-relevant-to-patients-after-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery
#15
Carla Pauli, Maria Emilia Rodrigues de Oliveira Thais, Ricardo Guarnieri, Marcelo Liborio Schwarzbold, Alexandre Paim Diaz, Juliana Ben, Marcelo Neves Linhares, Hans Joachim Markowitsch, Peter Wolf, Samuel Wiebe, Katia Lin, Roger Walz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the following: i) the objective impairment in neuropsychological tests that were associated with the subjective perception of cognitive function decline in Brazilian patients who underwent mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) surgery and ii) the predictive variables for those impaired objective neuropsychological tests. METHODS: Forty-eight adults with MTLE (27 right HS and 23 male) were divided according to their perception of changes (Decline or No-decline) of cognitive function domain of the QOLIE-31 questionnaire applied before and 1year after the ATL...
August 31, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867568/psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-in-patients-with-surgically-treated-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-presurgical-and-de-novo-postsurgical-occurrence
#16
Karina A González Otárula, Yee-Leng Tan, François Dubeau, José A Correa, Edward Chang, Jeffery A Hall, Robert C Knowlton, Eliane Kobayashi
Whether occurring before or after an epilepsy surgery, psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) impact treatment options and quality of life of patients with epilepsy. We investigated the frequency of pre- and postsurgical PNES, and the postsurgical Engel and psychiatric outcomes in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We reviewed 278 patients with mean age at surgery of 37.1±12.4years. Postsurgical follow-up information was available in 220 patients, with average follow-up of 4years...
August 31, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867480/vagus-nerve-stimulation-produces-a-hippocampal-formation-theta-rhythm-in-anesthetized-rats
#17
Adam Broncel, Renata Bocian, Paulina Kłos-Wojtczak, Jan Konopacki
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been used for years to treat patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. In the present study, the effect of different stimulation protocols of VNS on the hippocampal formation (HPC) type II theta field potentials were evaluated in anesthetized rats. The following theta parameters were analysed: power, frequency and duration of theta epochs. We documented for the first time the presence of HPC type II theta in response to the application of VNS. A VNS-induced theta rhythm appeared in different experimental protocols and, depending on the current intensity, could occur directly during VNS (brief effect) or after vagal stimulation (delayed effect), using lower intensity stimuli...
August 31, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863398/anti-epileptic-drug-trials-for-patients-with-drug-resistant-idiopathic-generalised-epilepsy-a-meta-analysis
#18
Niamh Colleran, Tom O Connor, Julie Jordan O Brien
PURPOSE: Determine the impact of anti-epileptic drugs (AED) for drug resistant patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy. METHODS: A systematic search of Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing an Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Epilepsy Group Central Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Embase and Lenus was performed. Nine randomised controlled trials were included. All trials compared antiepileptic drugs to placebo...
August 20, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862106/efficacy-of-vagal-nerve-stimulation-for-drug-resistant-epilepsy-is-it-the-stimulation-or-medication
#19
Jaylynn Arcand, Karen Waterhouse, Lizbeth Hernandez-Ronquillo, Aleksander Vitali, Jose F Tellez-Zenteno
BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy has been widely recognized as an alternative for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy, although modification of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during VNS treatment could explain the improvement in patients. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed the efficacy of VNS in 30 adult patients with epilepsy treated with >6 months of follow-up. The criteria for implantation were the following: (1) not a candidate for resective epilepsy surgery, (2) drug-resistant epilepsy, (3) impairment of quality of life, (4) no other option of treatment, and (5) patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy who fail to be controlled with appropriate AEDs...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856943/probing-voltage-sensing-domain-of-kcnq2-channel-as-a-potential-target-to-combat-epilepsy-a-comparative-study
#20
Pakhuri Mehta, Shubham Srivastava, Bhanwar Singh Choudhary, Manish Sharma, Ruchi Malik
Multidrug resistance along with side-effects of available anti-epileptic drugs and unavailability of potent and effective agents in submicromolar quantities presents the biggest therapeutic challenges in anti-epileptic drug discovery. The molecular modeling techniques allow us to identify agents with novel structures to match the continuous urge for its discovery. KCNQ2 channel represents one of the validated targets for its therapy. The present study involves identification of newer anti-epileptic agents by means of a computer-aided drug design adaptive protocol involving both structure-based virtual screening of Asinex library using homology model of KCNQ2 and 3D-QSAR based virtual screening with docking analysis, followed by dG bind and ligand efficiency calculations with ADMET studies, of which 20 hits qualified all the criterions...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
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