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Water and electrolytes balance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134279/dietary-k-and-cl-independently-regulate-basolateral-conductance-in-principal-and-intercalated-cells-of-the-collecting-duct
#1
Viktor N Tomilin, Oleg Zaika, Arohan R Subramanya, Oleh Pochynyuk
The renal collecting duct contains two distinct cell types, principal and intercalated cells, expressing potassium Kir4.1/5.1 (KCNJ10/16) and chloride ClC-K2 (ClC-Kb in humans) channels on their basolateral membrane, respectively. Both channels are thought to play important roles in controlling systemic water-electrolyte balance and blood pressure. However, little is known about mechanisms regulating activity of Kir4.1/5.1 and ClC-K2/b. Here, we employed patch clamp analysis at the single channel and whole cell levels in freshly isolated mouse collecting ducts to investigate regulation of Kir4...
November 13, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079406/aldosterone-induced-protein-kinase-signalling-and-the-control-of-electrolyte-balance
#2
REVIEW
Brian J Harvey, Warren Thomas
Aldosterone acts through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to modulate gene expression in target tissues. In the kidney, the principal action of aldosterone is to promote sodium conservation in the distal nephron and so indirectly enhance water conservation under conditions of hypotension. Over the last twenty years the rapid activation of protein kinase signalling cascades by aldosterone has been described in various tissues. This review describes the integration of rapid protein kinase D signalling responses with the non-genomic actions of aldosterone and transcriptional effects of MR activation...
October 24, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076349/the-therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-the-kir1-1-renal-outer-medullary-k-channel
#3
Birgit T Priest, Alexander Pasternak
Kir1.1 (renal outer medullary K(+)) channels are potassium channels expressed almost exclusively in the kidney and play a role in the body's electrolyte and water balance. Potassium efflux through Kir1.1 compliments the role of transporters and sodium channels that are the targets of known diuretics. Consequently, loss-of-function mutations in men and rodents are associated with salt wasting and low blood pressure. On this basis, Kir1.1 inhibitors may have value in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure...
October 27, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059520/thermodynamic-description-of-synergy-in-solvent-extraction-ii-thermodynamic-balance-of-driving-forces-implied-in-synergistic-extraction
#4
J Rey, M Bley, J-F Dufrêche, S Gourdin, S Pellet-Rostaing, T Zemb, S Dourdain
In the second part of this study, we analyze the free energy of transfer in the case of synergistic solvent extraction. This free energy of the transfer of an ion in dynamic equilibrium between two coexisting phases is decomposed into four driving forces combining long-range interactions with the classical complexation free energy associated with the nearest neighbors. We demonstrate how the organometallic complexation is counterbalanced by the cost in free energy related to structural change on the colloidal scale in the solvent phase...
November 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041883/-molecular-aspects-of-translational-cardiology-in-vascular-wall-research
#5
V A Maksimenko
Clinical-biochemical research of vascular wall hydrated state, water-electrolyte balance has broadened substantially our notions concerning initiation mechanism of vessel damages, methods of their prevention and treatment. Consecutive study of endothelial glycocalyx functioning, computational research of its interaction with oxidative stress, regulation of its state has been aimed at development of novel means of the vascular system protection. Mutual efforts of clinicians and scientists should contribute to the productivity of results of translational cardiology...
July 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974026/joint-toxicity-of-different-heavy-metal-mixtures-after-a-short-term-oral-repeated-administration-in-rats
#6
Hong Su, Zhou Li, Samuel Selorm Fiati Kenston, Hongbo Shi, Yafei Wang, Xin Song, Yuanliang Gu, Tabatha Barber, Joni Aldinger, Baobo Zou, Min Ding, Jinshun Zhao, Xialu Lin
The systemic toxicity of different combinations of heavy metal mixtures (HMMs) was studied according to equivalent proportions of the eight most common detectable heavy metals found in fish consumption in the Ningbo area of China. The ion mass proportions of Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb, and Hg were 1070.0, 312.6, 173.1, 82.6, 30.0, 13.3, 6.6, and 1.0, respectively. In this study, 10 experimental groups were set as follows: M8 (Pb + Cd + Hg + Ni + Cu + Zn + Mn + Cr); M5 (Pb + Cd + Hg + Ni + Cr); M4A (Pb + Cd + Hg + Ni); M4B (Cu + Zn + Mn + Cr); M3 (Cu + Zn + Mn); Cr; Cu; Zn; Mn; and control...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955251/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-mediated-regulation-of-bk-channels
#7
REVIEW
Zhen-Ye Zhang, Ling-Ling Qian, Ru-Xing Wang
Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels) belong to a family of Ca(2+)-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium channels and play a vital role in various physiological activities in the human body. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is acknowledged as being vital in the body's hormone system and plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. There is growing evidence that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has profound influences on the expression and bioactivity of BK channels...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913500/neuroendocrine-stress-response-implications-for-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#8
REVIEW
J Mauricio Del Rio, Alina Nicoara, Madhav Swaminathan
Surgical stress causes biochemical and physiologic perturbations of every homeostatic axis. These alterations include volume/baroreceptor regulation, sympathetic activation, parasympathetic suppression, neuroendocrine activation, acute phase response protein synthesis and secretion, immune response modulation and long-term behavioral adaptation. The kidney is central to the stress response because of its main role in the maintenance of water, electrolyte balance and hence, intracellular and extracellular compartments, including the intravascular volume...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890961/two-dimensional-pattern-formation-in-ionic-liquids-confined-between-graphene-walls
#9
Hadrián Montes-Campos, José Manuel Otero-Mato, Trinidad Méndez-Morales, Oscar Cabeza, Luis J Gallego, Alina Ciach, Luis M Varela
We perform molecular dynamics simulations of ionic liquids confined between graphene walls under a large variety of conditions (pure ionic liquids, mixtures with water and alcohols, mixtures with lithium salts and defective graphene walls). Our results show that the formation of striped and hexagonal patterns in the Stern layer can be considered as a general feature of ionic liquids at electrochemical interfaces, the transition between patterns being controlled by the net balance of charge in the innermost layer of adsorbed molecules...
September 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868290/coffee-with-high-but-not-low-caffeine-content-augments-fluid-and-electrolyte-excretion-at-rest
#10
Adam D Seal, Costas N Bardis, Anna Gavrieli, Petros Grigorakis, J D Adams, Giannis Arnaoutis, Mary Yannakoulia, Stavros A Kavouras
BACKGROUND: Low levels of caffeine ingestion do not induce dehydration at rest, while it is not clear if larger doses do have an acute diuretic effect. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the acute effect of low and high levels of caffeine, via coffee, on fluid balance in habitual coffee drinkers (at least one per day) at rest. METHODS: Ten healthy adults (eight males and two females; age: 27 ± 5 years, weight: 89.5 ± 14.8 kg, height: 1...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862988/feto-maternal-osmotic-balance-at-term-a-prospective-observational-study
#11
Vibeke Moen, Lars Brudin, Ivar Tjernberg, Mats Rundgren, Lars Irestedt
OBJECTIVE: We performed the present study to investigate the feto-maternal osmotic relationship at term with the hypothesis that, in contrast to the literature, maternal plasma osmolality is lower than fetal levels. In a previous study, we found that maternal plasma sodium at delivery was consistently lower than the sodium in the umbilical artery. Our aim was to corroborate these results with analysis of osmolality. METHODS: Blood was sampled from 30 women immediately before cesarean section and from the umbilical artery and vein before cord clamping and osmolality, sodium and albumin were analyzed...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861607/glomerular-and-tubular-effects-of-nitric-oxide-no-are-regulated-by-angiotensin-ii-ang-ii-in-an-age-dependent-manner-through-activation-of-both-angiotensin-receptors-at1rs-and-at2rs-in-conscious-lambs
#12
Angela E Vinturache, Francine G Smith
Renin-angiotensin (RAS) and nitric oxide (NO) systems and the balance and interaction between them are considered of primary importance in maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. It has been suggested that the effects of NO may be modulated at least in part by the angiotensin (Ang) II, yet the roles of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) are not well understood. Even though both Ang II and NO are elevated at birth and during the newborn period, their contribution to the adaptation of the newborn to life after birth as well as their physiological roles during development are poorly understood...
August 31, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854743/examining-the-effect-of-dietary-electrolyte-balance-energy-source-and-length-of-feeding-of-nitrogen-free-diets-on-ileal-endogenous-amino-acid-losses-in-broilers
#13
S A Adedokun, A J Pescatore, M J Ford, J P Jacob, A Helmbrecht
The effect of dietary electrolyte balance (DEB), energy source (ES), and length of feeding of nitrogen-free diet (NFD) on ileal endogenous amino acid (EAA) loss in mg/kg dry matter intake (DMI) was evaluated in broiler chickens. In Experiment 1, 720 chickens consisting of 15 replicate cages with 6 chickens/replicate were used. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial and consisted of 4 NFD with 2 levels (low or high) of DEB and 2 ES [corn starch (CS) or dextrose (DX)], and 2 sampling time-points (diets were fed for either 72 h (d 16 to 19) or 120 h (d 16 to 21)...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835067/-brief-disserting-on-the-balance-of-internal-environment-in-burn-disease
#14
C M Han, X G Wang
The essential internal environment in human being involves water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, which is the basis of balance and stability of internal environment in other systems. For burn patients, the balance of internal environment, referring to metabolism, nutrition, inflammatory response, and immunoreaction, is one of the most important aspects in burn disease. This paper aims to briefly elaborate the balance of internal environment after burn, with the purpose to promote the basic and clinical research in this field...
August 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771454/%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-drives-electroneutral-nacl-reabsorption-in-intercalated-cells-by-activating-a-g-protein-coupled-receptor-oxgr1
#15
Paul R Grimm, Paul A Welling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the recent discoveries about a powerful electroneutral NaCl reabsorption mechanism in intercalated cells, and its regulation by an intrarenal metabolite paracrine, α-ketoglutartate, and the G-protein coupled receptor, Oxgr1. RECENT FINDINGS: The distal nephron fine-tunes sodium, chloride, potassium, hydrogen, bicarbonate and water transport to maintain electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. Intercalated cells have been traditionally viewed as the professional regulators of acid-base balance, but recent studies reveal that a specific population of intercalated cells, identified by the pendrin-transporter, have a surprising role in the regulation of salt balance...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759793/modelling-recovery-of-ammonium-from-urine-by-electro-concentration-in-a-3-chamber-cell
#16
Emma Thompson Brewster, Johannes Jermakka, Stefano Freguia, Damien J Batstone
Electro-concentration enables treatment and nutrient recovery from source-separated urine, and is a potential technology for on-site treatment using a 3 compartment configuration that has anode, cathode and middle concentrate compartments. There is a particular focus on driving concentration towards the precipitation threshold in the concentrate compartment to generate solid ammonium salts, including ammonium bicarbonate. To evaluate controlling mechanisms and the feasibility of achieving high concentrations, a dynamic mechanistic model was developed and validated using experiments with synthetic urine...
November 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748185/novel-actions-of-growth-hormone-in-podocytes-implications-for-diabetic-nephropathy
#17
REVIEW
Dhanunjay Mukhi, Rajkishor Nishad, Ram K Menon, Anil Kumar Pasupulati
The kidney regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and thus maintains body homeostasis. The kidney's potential to ensure ultrafiltered and almost protein-free urine is compromised in various metabolic and hormonal disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetic nephropathy (DN) accounts for ~20-40% of mortality in DM. Proteinuria, a hallmark of renal glomerular diseases, indicates injury to the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). The GFB is composed of glomerular endothelium, basement membrane, and podocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722461/-disorders-of-water-and-electrolyte-metabolism-and-changes-in-acid-base-balance-in-patients-with-ascitic-liver-cirrhosis
#18
Halima Gottfriedová, Miroslava Horáčková, Milena Čáslavská, Julius Špičák, Otto Schück
In patients with advanced cirrhosis with ascites disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism are often present and they are associated with changes in acid-base balance. These changes can be very complicated, their diagnosis and treatment difficult. Dilutional hyponatremia is the most common disorder. Hyponatremia in these patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality before and after liver transplantation. Other common disorders include hyperchloremic acidosis, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, lactic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684591/corp-improving-the-status-quo-for-measuring-whole-body-sweat-losses-wbsl
#19
Samuel N Cheuvront, Robert W Kenefick
The measurement of whole body sweat losses (WBSL) is important to the study of body heat balance, body water balance, establishing guidelines for water and electrolyte consumption, and the study of metabolism and health. In principal, WBSL is measured by an acute change in body mass (ΔBM) in response to a thermoregulatory sweating stimulus. In this CORP review, we re-visit several basic, but rarely discussed assumptions important to WBSL research, including the common equivalences: mass = weight = water = sweat...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675827/hyperglycemia-induced-hyponatremia-reevaluation-of-the-na-correction-factor
#20
Matthew B Wolf
This study addresses the clinically important relationship between the decreases in plasma Na(+) and the increases in plasma glucose concentrations seen in diabetes and other hyperglycemic syndromes. This plasma 'Na(+) correction factor', is generally accepted as 1.6mM Na(+) per 100mg% glucose (0.29mM/mM in SI units) assuming osmotic equilibrium, although much larger numbers have been measured in experiments on normal humans. To resolve this controversy, a mathematical model of whole-body fluid-electrolyte balance was used to perform the experiment wherein plasma glucose concentration was increased to diabetic levels and the plasma Na(+) concentration changes assessed, without the complications seen in human experiments...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
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