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Water and electrolytes balance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#1
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865300/effect-of-dapagliflozin-treatment-on-fluid-and-electrolyte-balance-in-diabetic-rats
#2
Ling Chen, Lauren M LaRocque, Orhan Efe, Juan Wang, Jeff M Sands, Janet D Klein
AIM: This study evaluates the effect of dapagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, on fluid or electrolyte balance and its effect on urea transporter-A1 (UT-A1), aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) protein abundance in diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by injection of streptozotocin into the tail vein. Serum Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) concentration, urine Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) excretion, blood glucose, urine glucose excretion, urine volume, urine osmolality and urine urea excretion were analyzed after the administration of dapagliflozin...
November 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862139/differential-diagnosis-of-hyponatraemia-moving-forward
#3
Ewout J Hoorn
Hyponatraemia is a resident's nightmare. A water balance disorder disguised as decreased serum sodium concentration. A plethora of diagnostic algorithms that seem to have been developed with the sole purpose of getting you lost as quickly as possible. Nothing but untrustworthy parameters to guide you through this dark wood. And when you finally see light at the end of the tunnel, there is always some staff member, alias electrolyte aficionado, who enjoys public interrogation and makes you feel you're back to square one...
November 8, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845866/a-canola-oil-supplemented-diet-prevents-type-i-diabetes-caused-lipotoxicity-and-renal-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model
#4
Edgar Cano-Europa, Rocio Ortiz-Butron, Estela Melendez Camargo, María Miriam Esteves-Carmona, Rosa Maria Oliart-Ros, Vanessa Blas-Valdivia, Margarita Franco-Colin
We investigated the effect of a canola oil-supplemented diet on the metabolic state and diabetic renal function of a type I diabetes experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) normoglycemic+chow diet, (2) normoglycemic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet, (3) diabetic+chow diet, and (4) diabetic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet. For 15 weeks, animals were fed a diet of Purina rat chow alone or supplemented with 30% canola oil. Energetic intake, water intake, body weight, and adipose tissue fat pad were measured; renal function, electrolyte balance, glomerular filtration rate, and the plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were evaluated...
November 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820813/collagen-intrafibrillar-mineralization-as-a-result-of-the-balance-between-osmotic-equilibrium-and-electroneutrality
#5
Li-Na Niu, Sang Eun Jee, Kai Jiao, Lige Tonggu, Mo Li, Liguo Wang, Yao-Dong Yang, Ji-Hong Bian, Lorenzo Breschi, Seung Soon Jang, Ji-Hua Chen, David H Pashley, Franklin R Tay
Mineralization of fibrillar collagen with biomimetic process-directing agents has enabled scientists to gain insight into the potential mechanisms involved in intrafibrillar mineralization. Here, by using polycation- and polyanion-directed intrafibrillar mineralization, we challenge the popular paradigm that electrostatic attraction is solely responsible for polyelectrolyte-directed intrafibrillar mineralization. As there is no difference when a polycationic or a polyanionic electrolyte is used to direct collagen mineralization, we argue that additional types of long-range non-electrostatic interaction are responsible for intrafibrillar mineralization...
November 7, 2016: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806202/electrochemical-reduction-of-dissolved-oxygen-in-alkaline-solid-polymer-electrolyte-films
#6
David M Novitski, Aslan Kosakian, Thomas Weissbach, Marc Secanell, Steven Holdcroft
Mass transport of oxygen through ionomer contained within the cathode catalyst layer in an anion exchange membrane fuel cell is critical for a functioning fuel cell, yet is relatively unexplored. Moreover, since water is a reactant in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media, an adequate supply of water is required. In this work, ORR mass transport behavior is reported for methylated hexamethyl-p-terphenyl polymethylbenzimidazoles (HMT-PMBI), charge balanced by hydroxide ions (IEC from 2.1 meq/g to 2...
November 2, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801972/development-of-a-chitosan-based-tissue-engineered-renal-proximal-tubule-conduit
#7
I-Ni Chiang, Wan-Chen Huang, Chao-Yuan Huang, Yeong-Shiau Pu, Tai-Horng Young
Renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) are responsible for glomerular filtration and maintenance of water/electrolyte balance. To regenerate a proximal tubule, sufficient cell numbers and normal cell function are requisite. Collagen has been routinely used as a substrate for culturing human RPTCs (HRPTCs); however, the role of biomaterials has not been thoroughly explored. In this study, RPTCs retrieved from human nephrectomy/nephroureterectomy specimens were cultivated on chitosan as a substrate in serum-free condition for up to 150 days...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800480/post-exercise-rehydration-effect-of-consumption-of-beer-with-varying-alcohol-content-on-fluid-balance-after-mild-dehydration
#8
Annemarthe H C Wijnen, Jora Steennis, Milène Catoire, Floris C Wardenaar, Marco Mensink
PURPOSE: The effects of moderate beer consumption after physical activity on rehydration and fluid balance are not completely clear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of beer consumption, with varying alcohol content, on fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration. METHODS: Eleven healthy males were included in this cross over study (age 24.5 ± 4.7 years, body weight 75.4 ± 3.3 kg, VO2max 58.3 ± 6.4 mL kg min(-1)). Subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 45 min at 60% of their maximal power output (Wmax) until mild dehydration (1% body mass loss)...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754186/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#9
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713414/n-type-organic-electrochemical-transistors-with-stability-in-water
#10
Alexander Giovannitti, Christian B Nielsen, Dan-Tiberiu Sbircea, Sahika Inal, Mary Donahue, Muhammad R Niazi, David A Hanifi, Aram Amassian, George G Malliaras, Jonathan Rivnay, Iain McCulloch
Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are receiving significant attention due to their ability to efficiently transduce biological signals. A major limitation of this technology is that only p-type materials have been reported, which precludes the development of complementary circuits, and limits sensor technologies. Here, we report the first ever n-type OECT, with relatively balanced ambipolar charge transport characteristics based on a polymer that supports both hole and electron transport along its backbone when doped through an aqueous electrolyte and in the presence of oxygen...
October 7, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704826/controllable-self-assembly-of-amphiphilic-dendrimers-at-silica-surface-effect-of-molecular-topological-structure-and-salinity
#11
Minghui Zhang, Jinben Wang, Pei Zhang
The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium of amphiphilic dendrimers based on poly(amidoamine) PAMAM modified with dodecyl chain GnQPAMC12(n represents the generation number) with different generation at silica-water interface have been investigated. The effect of molecular shape with different charge characteristics on the adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms and the conformation of self-assembled layer has been elucidated. For the adsorption kinetics, two steps were observed including the adsorption of individual molecules at the concentrations below cmc and the predominant adsorption of aggregates above cmc...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643143/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#12
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627089/-the-difference-and-ratio-between-serum-concentrations-of-natrium-and%C3%A2-chlorides-in-patients-with-hyponatremia
#13
Otto Schück, Miroslava Horáčková
UNLABELLED: The differential diagnosis of hyponatremia is often difficult. This most frequently occurring disorder of the water and electrolyte metabolism is frequently connected with deviations relating to the acid-base balance (ABB). This survey analyzes the relationship between the changes of the volume of body fluids and ABB and infers to what extent the analysis of combinations of the two disorders can support the differential diagnosis of different forms of hyponatremia (differentiation between the dilution vs...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598420/water-balance-and-salt-wasting-in-the-first-year-of-life-the-role-of-aldosterone-signaling-defects
#14
Carla Bizzarri, Stefania Pedicelli, Marco Cappa, Stefano Cianfarani
In newborns and infants, dehydration and salt wasting represent a relatively common cause of admission to hospital and may result in life-threatening complications. Kidneys are responsible for electrolyte homoeostasis, but neonatal kidneys show low glomerular filtration rate and immaturity of the distal nephron, leading to reduced ability to concentrate urine. High extrarenal fluid losses often contribute to the increased occurrence of electrolyte disorders. Aldosterone is essential for sodium retention in the kidney, salivary glands, sweat glands and colon...
September 7, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590096/assessing-acid-base-status-physiologic-versus-physicochemical-approach
#15
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
The physiologic approach has long been used in assessing acid-base status. This approach considers acids as hydrogen ion donors and bases as hydrogen ion acceptors and the acid-base status of the organism as reflecting the interaction of net hydrogen ion balance with body buffers. In the physiologic approach, the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer pair is used for assessing acid-base status and blood pH is determined by carbonic acid (ie, Paco2) and serum bicarbonate levels. More recently, the physicochemical approach was introduced, which has gained popularity, particularly among intensivists and anesthesiologists...
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555161/severe-hypernatremia-associated-catheter-malposition-in-an-intensive-care-patient
#16
Musa Silahli, Mahmut Gökdemir, Enes Duman, Zeynel Gökmen
We present a catheter related severe hypernatremia in a 2-month-old baby who was admitted to the pediatric intensive care. Imbalance of plasma sodium is commonly seen in pediatric intensive care patients. The water and sodium balance is a complex process. Especially, brain and kidneys are the most important organs that affect the water and sodium balance. Other mechanisms of the cellular structure include osmoreceptors, Na-K ATPase systems, and vasopressin. Hypernatremia is usually an iatrogenic condition in hospitalized patients due to mismanagement of water electrolyte imbalance...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508806/-op-lb-02-06-investigation-of-urinary-peptidome-over-pregnancy-in-rodent-model-of-hypertension
#17
S Samji, H Y Small, S Coley, H Mischak, W Mullen, C Delles
OBJECTIVE: Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) are a model of chronic hypertension relative to normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Our studies on urinary protein and electrolyte levels have shown kidney dysfunction and impaired water balance in pregnant SHRSP. We investigated whether urinary peptidomics can identify target molecules involved in kidney dysfunction in pregnant SHRSP. DESIGN AND METHOD: We analyzed urine of non-pregnant and pregnant WKY and SHRSP (n = 7) at 0th, 12th and 18th gestational day (GD) using capillary electrophoresis on-line coupled to ESI-TOF-MS...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478591/the-utility-and-accuracy-of-four-equations-in-predicting-sodium-levels-in-dysnatremic-patients
#18
Ramy Magdy Hanna, Wan-Ting Yang, Eduardo A Lopez, Joseph Nabil Riad, James Wilson
BACKGROUND: Improper correction of hyponatremia can cause severe complications, including osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS). The Adrogué-Madias equation (AM), the Barsoum-Levine (BL) equation, the Electrolyte Free Water Clearance (EFWC) equation and the Nguyen-Kurtz (NK) equation are four derived equations based on the empirically derived Edelman equation for predicting sodium at a later time (Na2) from a known starting sodium (Na1), fluid/electrolyte composition and input and output volumes...
August 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477047/a-metered-intake-of-milk-following-exercise-and-thermal-dehydration-restores-whole-body-net-fluid-balance-better-than-a-carbohydrate-electrolyte-solution-or-water-in-healthy-young-men
#19
Suzanne Seery, Philip Jakeman
Appropriate rehydration and nutrient intake in recovery is a key component of exercise performance. This study investigated whether the recovery of body net fluid balance (NFB) following exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of body mass (BM) was enhanced by a metered rate of ingestion of milk (M) compared with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CE) or water (W). In randomised order, seven active men (aged 26·2 (sd 6·1) years) undertook exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of BM on three occasions...
September 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468495/-infusion-therapy-in-reconstructive-maxillofacial-surgery
#20
Zajcev A Yu, K V Dubrovin, V A Svetlov
UNLABELLED: Restricted infusion strategy in combination with antifibrinolytic agents such as aprotinin and tranexamic acid is effective for blood saving in maxillofacial surgery. But reduction of infusion volume can lead to intraoperative hypovolemia. The goal of this study was to assess compensative effect of different regimes of infusion therapy and antifibrinolytics on intraoperative volume status and electrolyte balance in reconstructive maxillofacial surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 65 patients were included in the study...
March 2016: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
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