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Water and electrolytes balance

Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Alexander Giovannitti, Christian B Nielsen, Dan-Tiberiu Sbircea, Sahika Inal, Mary Donahue, Muhammad R Niazi, David A Hanifi, Aram Amassian, George G Malliaras, Jonathan Rivnay, Iain McCulloch
Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are receiving significant attention due to their ability to efficiently transduce biological signals. A major limitation of this technology is that only p-type materials have been reported, which precludes the development of complementary circuits, and limits sensor technologies. Here, we report the first ever n-type OECT, with relatively balanced ambipolar charge transport characteristics based on a polymer that supports both hole and electron transport along its backbone when doped through an aqueous electrolyte and in the presence of oxygen...
October 7, 2016: Nature Communications
Minghui Zhang, Jinben Wang, Pei Zhang
The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium of amphiphilic dendrimers based on poly(amidoamine) PAMAM modified with dodecyl chain GnQPAMC12(n represents the generation number) with different generation at silica-water interface have been investigated. The effect of molecular shape with different charge characteristics on the adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms and the conformation of self-assembled layer has been elucidated. For the adsorption kinetics, two steps were observed including the adsorption of individual molecules at the concentrations below cmc and the predominant adsorption of aggregates above cmc...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Otto Schück, Miroslava Horáčková
UNLABELLED: The differential diagnosis of hyponatremia is often difficult. This most frequently occurring disorder of the water and electrolyte metabolism is frequently connected with deviations relating to the acid-base balance (ABB). This survey analyzes the relationship between the changes of the volume of body fluids and ABB and infers to what extent the analysis of combinations of the two disorders can support the differential diagnosis of different forms of hyponatremia (differentiation between the dilution vs...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Carla Bizzarri, Stefania Pedicelli, Marco Cappa, Stefano Cianfarani
In newborns and infants, dehydration and salt wasting represent a relatively common cause of admission to hospital and may result in life-threatening complications. Kidneys are responsible for electrolyte homoeostasis, but neonatal kidneys show low glomerular filtration rate and immaturity of the distal nephron, leading to reduced ability to concentrate urine. High extrarenal fluid losses often contribute to the increased occurrence of electrolyte disorders. Aldosterone is essential for sodium retention in the kidney, salivary glands, sweat glands and colon...
September 7, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
The physiologic approach has long been used in assessing acid-base status. This approach considers acids as hydrogen ion donors and bases as hydrogen ion acceptors and the acid-base status of the organism as reflecting the interaction of net hydrogen ion balance with body buffers. In the physiologic approach, the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer pair is used for assessing acid-base status and blood pH is determined by carbonic acid (ie, Paco2) and serum bicarbonate levels. More recently, the physicochemical approach was introduced, which has gained popularity, particularly among intensivists and anesthesiologists...
August 30, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Musa Silahli, Mahmut Gökdemir, Enes Duman, Zeynel Gökmen
We present a catheter related severe hypernatremia in a 2-month-old baby who was admitted to the pediatric intensive care. Imbalance of plasma sodium is commonly seen in pediatric intensive care patients. The water and sodium balance is a complex process. Especially, brain and kidneys are the most important organs that affect the water and sodium balance. Other mechanisms of the cellular structure include osmoreceptors, Na-K ATPase systems, and vasopressin. Hypernatremia is usually an iatrogenic condition in hospitalized patients due to mismanagement of water electrolyte imbalance...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
S Samji, H Y Small, S Coley, H Mischak, W Mullen, C Delles
OBJECTIVE: Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) are a model of chronic hypertension relative to normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Our studies on urinary protein and electrolyte levels have shown kidney dysfunction and impaired water balance in pregnant SHRSP. We investigated whether urinary peptidomics can identify target molecules involved in kidney dysfunction in pregnant SHRSP. DESIGN AND METHOD: We analyzed urine of non-pregnant and pregnant WKY and SHRSP (n = 7) at 0th, 12th and 18th gestational day (GD) using capillary electrophoresis on-line coupled to ESI-TOF-MS...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ramy Magdy Hanna, Wan-Ting Yang, Eduardo A Lopez, Joseph Nabil Riad, James Wilson
BACKGROUND: Improper correction of hyponatremia can cause severe complications, including osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS). The Adrogué-Madias equation (AM), the Barsoum-Levine (BL) equation, the Electrolyte Free Water Clearance (EFWC) equation and the Nguyen-Kurtz (NK) equation are four derived equations based on the empirically derived Edelman equation for predicting sodium at a later time (Na2) from a known starting sodium (Na1), fluid/electrolyte composition and input and output volumes...
August 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
Suzanne Seery, Philip Jakeman
Appropriate rehydration and nutrient intake in recovery is a key component of exercise performance. This study investigated whether the recovery of body net fluid balance (NFB) following exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of body mass (BM) was enhanced by a metered rate of ingestion of milk (M) compared with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CE) or water (W). In randomised order, seven active men (aged 26·2 (sd 6·1) years) undertook exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of BM on three occasions...
September 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Zajcev A Yu, K V Dubrovin, V A Svetlov
UNLABELLED: Restricted infusion strategy in combination with antifibrinolytic agents such as aprotinin and tranexamic acid is effective for blood saving in maxillofacial surgery. But reduction of infusion volume can lead to intraoperative hypovolemia. The goal of this study was to assess compensative effect of different regimes of infusion therapy and antifibrinolytics on intraoperative volume status and electrolyte balance in reconstructive maxillofacial surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 65 patients were included in the study...
March 2016: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
M Schrader, B Treff, T Sandholtet, N Maassen, V Shushakov, J Kaesebieter, M Maassen
BACKGROUND: Investigations of the effect of beverages containing carbohydrates, only, on the sodium and fluid balance during intermittent exercise of high intensity are rare. Therefore, we compared the effects of water and carbohydrate supplementation on plasma, blood volume, and electrolyte shifts during intermittent exercise. METHODS: Ten male subjects performed an intermittent exercise test twice. In one trial, tap water (4 ml/kg/15 min) was consumed (Plac trial)...
September 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
F Grundmann
Disturbances of water and electrolyte balance are commonly encountered in older patients due to a multitude of physiological changes and preexisting morbidities with hyponatremia being the most common disorder. Even mild chronic hyponatremia can lead to cognitive deficits and gait instability and is associated with an increased rate of falls and fractures. Additionally, experimental and epidemiological data suggest that hyponatremia promotes bone resorption and therefore increases the risk of osteoporosis. Furthermore, osteoporosis and sarcopenia can be stimulated by hypomagnesemia...
August 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Lieqi Tang, Catherine Y Cheng, Xiangrong Sun, Alexandra J Pedicone, Mansour Mohamadzadeh, Sam X Cheng
Different from other epithelia, the intestinal epithelium has the complex task of providing a barrier impeding the entry of toxins, food antigens, and microbes, while at the same time allowing for the transfer of nutrients, electrolytes, water, and microbial metabolites. These molecules/organisms are transported either transcellularly, crossing the apical and basolateral membranes of enterocytes, or paracellularly, passing through the space between enterocytes. Accordingly, the intestinal epithelium can affect energy metabolism, fluid balance, as well as immune response and tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
F Braun, P T Brinkkötter
The incidence and prevalence of chronic renal disease (CKD) in elderly patients are continuously increasing worldwide. Loss of renal function is not only considered to be part of the aging process itself but also reflects the multimorbidity of many geriatric patients. Calculating the glomerular filtration rate using specific algorithms validated for the elderly population and measuring the amount of proteinuria allow an estimation of renal function in elderly patients with high accuracy. Chronic renal failure has many clinical consequences and not only results in a delayed excretion of toxins cleared by the kidneys but also affects hematogenesis, water and electrolyte balance as well as mineral bone metabolism...
August 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Ramona Pais, Juraj Rievaj, Pierre Larraufie, Fiona Gribble, Frank Reimann
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the key hormone mediator of the renin angiotensin system, which regulates blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. Here we report that in the colonic epithelium, the Ang II type 1 receptor is highly and exclusively expressed in enteroendocrine L cells, which produce the gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY (PYY). Ang II stimulated glucagon-like peptide-1 and PYY release from primary cultures of mouse and human colon, which was antagonized by the specific Ang II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan...
October 2016: Endocrinology
Hikmet Bıçakçı, Mustafa Sarsılmaz, Seda Ocaklı, Murat Uysal, Hilal Irmak Sapmaz, Tolgahan Acar, İsmet Demirtaş, Rauf Açıkgöz
OBJECTIVE: Aquaporin (AQP) 1 and AQP 4 are expressed in human heart and several studies have been focused on these two aquaporins. For this purpose, the present study is aimed to research the effects of aging on AQP 1 and AQP 4 in heart tissue. METHODS: In this study, 14 Balb/C type white mice were used. Animals were divided into two equal groups. Group I consisted of 2-month-old young animals (n=7), and group II consisted of 18-month-old animals (n=7). To determine the AQP1 and AQP4 expression in the myocardium, the heart tissue was removed to perform western blotting and immunohistochemical and histopathological evaluations...
June 29, 2016: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Tingting Yang, Hai-Liang Zhang, Qingnan Liang, Yingtang Shi, Yan-Ai Mei, Paula Q Barrett, Changlong Hu
Aldosterone, which plays a key role in maintaining water and electrolyte balance, is produced by zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex. Autonomous overproduction of aldosterone from zona glomerulosa cells causes primary hyperaldosteronism. Recent clinical studies have highlighted the pathological role of the KCNJ5 potassium channel in primary hyperaldosteronism. Our objective was to determine whether small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (SK) channels may also regulate aldosterone secretion in human adrenocortical cells...
September 2016: Hypertension
Jennifer L Whiting, Leah Ogier, Katherine A Forbush, Paula Bucko, Janani Gopalan, Ole-Morten Seternes, Lorene K Langeberg, John D Scott
Filtration through the kidney eliminates toxins, manages electrolyte balance, and controls water homeostasis. Reabsorption of water from the luminal fluid of the nephron occurs through aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water pores in principal cells that line the kidney-collecting duct. This vital process is impeded by formation of an "actin barrier" that obstructs the passive transit of AQP2 to the plasma membrane. Bidirectional control of AQP2 trafficking is managed by hormones and signaling enzymes. We have discovered that vasopressin-independent facets of this homeostatic mechanism are under the control of A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 220 (AKAP220; product of the Akap11 gene)...
July 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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