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Electrolyte balance

Minjeong Gu, Keunchang Cho, Seong Ho Kang
The migration behavior of organic fluorescent dyes (i.e., crystal violet, methyl violet base, methyl violet B base, rhodamine 6G, and rhodamine B base) in non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) was investigated by focusing on the physicochemical properties of various organic solvents [ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol, dimethylformamide (DMF), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)] in background electrolyte (BGE). Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and UV/Vis detectors were employed to observe both the migration time of organic dyes and the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in NACE, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Catherine J M Russo, Michel E B Ohmer, Rebecca L Cramp, Craig E Franklin
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ( Bd ) is a pathogenic fungus that causes the cutaneous, infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated in population declines of numerous anuran species worldwide. Proximate cause of death by chytridiomycosis is asystolic cardiac arrest as a consequence of severe disruption to electrolyte balance. Animals heavily infected with Bd also experience a disruption to their skin sloughing regime, indicating that core functions of the skin, such as water retention, may be severely impacted...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Sanjeev R Shah, Gautam Bhave
Dysnatremias or abnormalities in plasma [Na+ ] are often termed disorders of water balance, an unclear physiologic concept often confused with changes in total fluid balance. However, most clinicians clearly recognize that hypertonic or hypotonic gains or losses alter plasma [Na+ ], while isotonic changes do not modify plasma [Na+ ]. This concept can be conceptualized as the electrolyte free water balance (EFWB), which defines the non-isotonic components of inputs and outputs to determine their effect on plasma [Na+ ]...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Tianting Pang, Yan Wang, Hui Yang, Tianlei Wang, Wangfeng Cai
A dynamic model of semi-batch three-dimensional electrode reactor was established based on the limiting current density, Faraday's law, mass balance and a series of assumptions. Semi-batch experiments of phenol degradation were carried out in a three-dimensional electrode reactor packed with activated carbon under different conditions to verify the model. The factors such as the current density, the electrolyte concentration, the initial pH value, the flow rate of organic and the initial organic concentration were examined to know about the pollutant degradation in the three-dimensional electrode reactor...
April 21, 2018: Chemosphere
Gisu Doo, Ji Hye Lee, Seongmin Yuk, Sungyu Choi, Dong-Hyun Lee, Dong Wook Lee, Hyun Gyu Kim, Sung Hyun Kwon, Seung Geol Lee, Hee-Tak Kim
With the demands for better performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), studies on controlling the distribution of ionomers have recently gained interest. Here, we present a tunable ionomer distribution in the catalyst layer (CL) with dipropylene glycol (DPG) and water mixtures as ionomer dispersion medium. Dynamic light scattering and molecular dynamics simulation demonstrate that, by increasing the DPG content in the dispersion, the size of the ionomer aggregates in the dispersion is exponentially reduced due to the higher affinity of DPG for Nafion ionomers...
May 3, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wen Jing Nie, Shuo Shuo Wang, Xin Jing, Biao Gong, Min Wei, Feng Juan Yang, Yan Li, Qing Hua Shi
The effects of 0.2 μmol·L-1 exogenous 2,4-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the growth and reactive oxygen species metabolism of cucumber seedlings ('Jinyan 4' cucumber) under salt-alkaline stress (30 mmol·L-1 NaHCO3 ) were examined by hydroponics method. The results showed that NaHCO3 stress significantly induced production of O2 -· and accumulation of H2 O2 in leaves and roots, resulting in the increases of MDA content and electrolyte leakage. Under NaHCO3 stress, activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbatereductase, monodehydrodroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase as well as contents of ascorbic acid and glutathione were firstly increased and then decreased with progress of stress time...
March 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Andreas Margraf, Jan M Herter, Katharina Kühne, Anika Stadtmann, Thomas Ermert, Manuel Wenk, Melanie Meersch, Hugo Van Aken, Alexander Zarbock, Jan Rossaint
BACKGROUND: Increased vascular permeability is a pathophysiological hallmark of sepsis and results in increased transcapillary leakage of plasma fluid, hypovolemia, and interstitial edema formation. 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES 130/0.4) is commonly used to treat hypovolemia to maintain adequate organ perfusion and oxygen delivery. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of 6% HES 130/0.4 on glycocalyx integrity and vascular permeability in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation and systemic inflammation in mice...
May 1, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Judith N Lezutekong, Anish Nikhanj, Gavin Y Oudit
The main function of the intestinal barrier is to regulate the absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from the lumen into circulation and to prevent the entry of pathogenic microorganisms and toxic luminal substances. To maintain this function, an ideal microbiota balance is required and gut microbiota are critical for the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction and for the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. There is a demonstrable link between dysbiosis and intestinal dysfunction and diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease...
April 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Ziwei Ji, Zhuo Huang, Bowei Chen, Yuhui He, Makusu Tsutsui, Xiangshui Miao
Weak electrolyte transport in nanochannels or nanopores has been actively explored in recent experiments. In this paper, we establish a new electrokinetic model where the ionization balance effect of weak electrolytes is outlined, and performed numerical calculations for H3PO4 concentration-biased nanochannel systems. By considering the roles of local chemical equilibrium in phosphorous acid ionization, the simulation results show quantitative agreement with experimental observations. Based on the model, we predict that enhanced energy harvesting capacity could be accomplished by utilizing weak electrolytes compared to the conventional strong electrolyte approaches in a concentration gradient-based power generating system...
April 30, 2018: Nanotechnology
Berislav Momčilović, Juraj Prejac, Anatoly Viktorovich Skalny, Ninoslav Mimica
The principles and practice of assessing the human body nutritional status or its environmental exposure through hair bioelement analysis are presented; herein the term "bioelements" is used as a common denominator for the major elements, trace elements and ultra-trace elements that are found in the human body. The accumulation of bioelements in the hair followed the statistical Power Law and the resulting sigmoid curve can be zoned into five regions in the ascending order of abundance (Low, Marginal, Adequate, High, and Excessive)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Wei-Chieh Lee, Hsiu-Yu Fang, Chih-Yuan Fang
RATIONALE: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is one of the most serious adverse effects of contrast media and is related to three distinct but interacting mechanisms: medullary ischemia, formation of reactive oxygen species and direct tubular cell toxicity, especially in the patients with chronic kidney disease. The strategies of treatment, including stabilization of hemodynamic parameters and maintenance of normal fluid and electrolyte balance, were similar to the management of other types of acute kidney injury...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Daxiang Gui, Xing Dai, Zetian Tao, Tao Zheng, Xiangxiang Wang, Mark A Silver, Jie Shu, Lanhua Chen, Yanlong Wang, Tiantian Zhang, Jian Xie, Lin Zou, Yuanhua Xia, Jujia Zhang, Jin Zhang, Ling Zhao, Juan Diwu, Ruhong Zhou, Zhifang Chai, Shuao Wang
Although comprehensive progress has been made in the area of coordination polymer (CP)/metal-organic framework (MOF)-based proton conducting materials over the past decade, searching for a CP/MOF with stable, intrinsic, high anhydrous proton conductivity that can be directly used as a practical electrolyte in an intermediate-temperature proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) assembly for durable power generation remains a substantial challenge. Here, we introduce a new proton conducting CP, (NH4)3[Zr(H2/3PO4)3] (ZrP), which consists of one-dimensional zirconium phosphate anionic chains and fully ordered charge-balancing NH4+ cations...
April 25, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Hyun Jeong Kwak, Oh Kyung Lim, Jae Myung Baik, Youn Yi Jo
Background: To compare the effects of intraoperative infusions of balanced electrolyte solution (BES)-based hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and saline-based albumin on metabolic acidosis and acid/base changes during major abdominal surgery conducted using Stewart's approach. Methods: Forty patients, aged 20-65 years, undergoing major abdominal surgery, were randomly assigned to the HES group (n = 20; received 500 ml of BES-based 6% HES 130/0.4) or the albumin group (n = 20; received 500 ml of normal saline-based 5% albumin)...
April 24, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Ahmet Mor, Yildirim Kayacan, Gokhan Ipekoglu, Erkal Arslanoglu
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effect of CHO-E consumption after high-intensity exercise on insulin, cortisol hormones and blood glucose responses, which is important for performance and recovery in athletes. METHODS: Sixteen volunteers, male athletes, participated into this study. Athletes were divided into two groups as experiment (CHO-E) and placebo (PLA). Blood was taken from the athletes three times as basal, post-exercise (PE) and 2 h after ingestion of supplement (PS)...
April 21, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Dzenan Jahic, Edin Begic
Introduction: Exercise-associated muscle cramp (EAMC) is one of the most common conditions that occur during or immediately after the exercise, with questionable etiology. Aim: Aim of article was to present doubts about the cause of EAMC, whether it is primarily a neurological condition or it is water and salt imbalance. Results: Strongest evidence supports the neuromuscular aetiology with the focus on the muscle fatigue. Muscle overload and fatigue affects the balance between the excitatory drive from muscle spindles and the inhibitory drive from the Golgi tendon organs (GTO)...
March 2018: Materia Socio-medica
Jason A Horowitz, Amit Jain, Varun Puvanesarajah, Rabia Qureshi, Hamid Hassanzadeh
OBJECTIVE: Identify the independent risk factors, additional length of stay, and additional cost associated with postoperative ileus following anterior lumbar interbody fusion in the elderly. METHODS: The PearlDiver Patient Records Database (Young & Ellison, LLC, Colorado Springs, CO) was queried for all Medicare patients 65 years of age and older undergoing 1 or 2 level primary elective anterior lumbar interbody fusion from 2005-2014. Independent risk factors, additional length of stay, and additional cost associated with postoperative ileus were evaluated with multivariate analysis...
April 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Michael J Tchou, Sonya Tang Girdwood, Benjamin Wormser, Meifawn Poole, Stephanie Davis-Rodriguez, J Timothy Caldwell, Lauren Shannon, Philip A Hagedorn, Eric Biondi, Jeffrey Simmons, Jeffrey Anderson, Patrick W Brady
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite studies indicating a high rate of overuse, electrolyte testing remains common in pediatric inpatient care. Frequently repeated electrolyte tests often return normal results and can lead to patient harm and increased cost. We aimed to reduce electrolyte testing within a hospital medicine service by >25% within 6 months. METHODS: We conducted an improvement project in which we targeted 6 hospital medicine teams at a large academic children's hospital system by using the Model for Improvement...
April 4, 2018: Pediatrics
Philip G Robinson, David Newman, Cara L Reitz, Lena Z Vaynberg, Dalbir K Bahga, Morton H Levitt
The purpose of this study is to see whether a large drawing of a nephron helped medical students in self-directed learning groups learn renal physiology, histology, and pharmacology before discussing clinical cases. The end points were the grades on the renal examination and a student survey. The classes in the fall of 2014 and 2015 used the drawing, but not those of 2012 and 2013. The Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine at Florida Atlantic University is a newly formed Florida medical school, which enrolled its first class in the fall of 2011...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
James D Byrne, Mohammad R N Jajja, Adrian T O'Neill, Allison N Schorzman, Amanda W Keeler, J Christopher Luft, William C Zamboni, Joseph M DeSimone, Jen Jen Yeh
PURPOSE: Effective treatment of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer is a significant unmet clinical need. One major hurdle that exists is inadequate drug delivery due to the desmoplastic stroma and poor vascularization that is characteristic of pancreatic cancer. The local iontophoretic delivery of chemotherapies provides a novel way of improving treatment. With the growing practice of highly toxic combination therapies in the treatment of pancreatic cancer, the use of iontophoresis for local delivery can potentiate the anti-cancer effects of these therapies while sparing unwanted toxicity...
March 30, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Zaccaria Ricci, Stefano Romagnoli
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is commonly applied in critically ill patients affected by severe acute kidney injury for solute and volume control and to optimize acid-base and electrolytes balance. Although CRRT represents a life-saving procedure for these patients, it is a representation of a non-physiologic artificial kidney and the potential benefits of the treatment could be hampered by clinical and technical side effects. Different parts of the CRRT system can be a source of technical complications...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
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