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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156484/-perioperative-intravenous-fluid-therapy-in-children
#1
Robert Sümpelmann
The objective of this consensus-based S1 Guideline for perioperative fluid therapy in children is to maintain or re-establish the child's homeostasis. Therefore, the perioperative fasting times should be as short as possible to prevent patient discomfort, dehydration, and ketoacidosis. For the intraoperative background infusion a physiologically composed balanced isotonic electrolyte solution (BS) with 1 - 2.5% glucose is recommended to maintain normal glucose concentrations and to avoid hyponatremia, hyperchloremia, and lipolysis...
November 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156066/dehydration-of-older-patients-in-institutional-care-and-the-home-environment
#2
Amadeus Lešnik, Nejc Piko, Danica Železnik, Sebastjan Bevc
Dehydration in older adults is an important clinical problem associated with more comorbidities, longer hospital stays, and higher mortality rates. However, in daily clinical practice, no single gold standard marker of hydration status in older adults is available. The aim of the current study was to define the fluid balance status in older adults residing in institutional care or the home. Four hundred ten patients (192 from institutional care and 218 from home care) 65 and older from the region of lower Styria (Slovenia) were included in the study...
November 1, 2017: Research in Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151143/salinity-reduces-2-4-d-efficacy-in-echinochloa-crusgalli-by-affecting-redox-balance-nutrient-acquisition-and-hormonal-regulation
#3
Faisal Islam, Yuan Xie, Muhammad A Farooq, Jian Wang, Chong Yang, Rafaqat A Gill, Jinwen Zhu, Weijun Zhou
Distinct salinity levels have been reported to enhance plants tolerance to different types of stresses. The aim of this research is to assess the interaction of saline stress and the use of 2,4-D as a means of controlling the growth of Echinochloa crusgalli. The resultant effect of such interaction is vital for a sustainable approach of weed management and food production. The results showed that 2,4-D alone treatment reduces the chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic capacity, enhanced MDA, electrolyte leakage, and ROS production (H2O2, O2(·-)) and inhibited the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes...
November 18, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151001/intravenous-fluid-therapy-for-hospitalized-and-critically-ill-children-rationale-available-drugs-and-possible-side-effects
#4
Thomas Langer, Rosamaria Limuti, Concezione Tommasino, Niels van Regenmortel, Els L I M Duval, Pietro Caironi, Manu L N G Malbrain, Antonio Pesenti
Human beings are constituted mainly of water. In particular, children's total body water might reach 75-80% of their body weight, compared to 60-70% in adults. It is therefore not surprising, that children, especially hospitalized newborns and infants, are markedly prone to water and electrolyte imbalances. Parenteral fluid therapy is a cornerstone of medical treatment and is thus of exceptional relevance in this patient population. It is crucial to appreciate the fact that intravenous fluids are drugs with very different characteristics, different indications, contraindications and relevant side effects...
November 18, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137593/central-pontine-myelinolysis-after-living-donor-liver-transplant-a-report-of-2-cases
#5
Ya-Lan Hsu, Chia-En Hsieh, Kuo-Hua Lin, Chen-Te Chou, Ping-Yi Lin, Su-Han Wang, Yao-Li Chen
Here, we present 2 patients who developed central pontine myelinolysis after living-donor liver transplant. Both patients had abnormal sodium level before living-donor liver transplant. Patient 1 presented with severe hyponatremia on admission. After administration of 3% saline, her sodium level during the first 24 hours was kept at 100 mEq/L and then increased to 116 mEq/L during the next 24 hours. The level increased 5.8 mEq/L during the 4- to 5-hour transplant procedure. Patient 2 was admitted to the hospital with an unprovoked seizure...
November 15, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134279/dietary-k-and-cl-independently-regulate-basolateral-conductance-in-principal-and-intercalated-cells-of-the-collecting-duct
#6
Viktor N Tomilin, Oleg Zaika, Arohan R Subramanya, Oleh Pochynyuk
The renal collecting duct contains two distinct cell types, principal and intercalated cells, expressing potassium Kir4.1/5.1 (KCNJ10/16) and chloride ClC-K2 (ClC-Kb in humans) channels on their basolateral membrane, respectively. Both channels are thought to play important roles in controlling systemic water-electrolyte balance and blood pressure. However, little is known about mechanisms regulating activity of Kir4.1/5.1 and ClC-K2/b. Here, we employed patch clamp analysis at the single channel and whole cell levels in freshly isolated mouse collecting ducts to investigate regulation of Kir4...
November 13, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121319/should-we-use-hypotonic-or-isotonic-maintenance-intravenous-fluids-in-sick-patients-why-a-study-in-healthy-volunteers-will-not-provide-the-answer-response-to-effect-of-isotonic-versus-hypotonic-maintenance-fluid-therapy-on-urine-output-fluid-balance-and-electrolyte
#7
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119469/learning-to-prescribe-intravenous-fluids-a%C3%A2-scoping-review
#8
REVIEW
Richard F R McCrory, Gerard Joseph Gormley, Alexander Peter Maxwell, Tim Dornan
INTRODUCTION: Prescribing intravenous (IV) fluid therapy is a core skill expected of qualified doctors at the point of graduation, but medical graduates often feel ill-equipped to perform this task. This lack of preparedness contributes to treatment-related patient harm. This scoping review maps the current state of published evidence about how junior doctors prescribe IV fluid therapy and learn how to do it. METHODS: We searched five electronic databases and grey literature from 1994 until June 2016 for articles describing any aspect of IV fluid prescribing practice or its education...
November 8, 2017: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081004/cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction-in-patients-with-idiopathic-diabetes-insipidus
#9
Mattia Barbot, Filippo Ceccato, Marialuisa Zilio, Nora Albiger, Riccardo Sigon, Giuseppe Rolma, Marco Boscaro, Carla Scaroni, Franca Bilora
INTRODUCTION: Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease characterized by the excretion of excessive volumes of dilute urine due to reduced levels of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), caused by an acquired or genetic defect in the neurohypophysis. The aim of this study was to identify any autonomic dysfunction (AD) in patients with DI as a possible cofactor responsible for their reportedly higher mortality. METHODS: The study involved 12 patients (6 females) with central idiopathic DI and a well-controlled electrolyte balance, and 12 controls matched for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors, who were assessed using the tilt, lying-to-standing, hand grip, deep breath, Valsalva maneuver and Stroop tests...
October 28, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079406/aldosterone-induced-protein-kinase-signalling-and-the-control-of-electrolyte-balance
#10
REVIEW
Brian J Harvey, Warren Thomas
Aldosterone acts through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to modulate gene expression in target tissues. In the kidney, the principal action of aldosterone is to promote sodium conservation in the distal nephron and so indirectly enhance water conservation under conditions of hypotension. Over the last twenty years the rapid activation of protein kinase signalling cascades by aldosterone has been described in various tissues. This review describes the integration of rapid protein kinase D signalling responses with the non-genomic actions of aldosterone and transcriptional effects of MR activation...
October 24, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077831/effect-of-isotonic-vs-hypotonic-maintenance-fluid-therapy-on-urine-output-fluid-balance-and-electrolyte-homeostasis-a-crossover-study-in-fasting-adult-volunteers-reply-from-the-authors
#11
N Van Regenmortel, P G Jorens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076349/the-therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-the-kir1-1-renal-outer-medullary-k-channel
#12
Birgit T Priest, Alexander Pasternak
Kir1.1 (renal outer medullary K(+)) channels are potassium channels expressed almost exclusively in the kidney and play a role in the body's electrolyte and water balance. Potassium efflux through Kir1.1 compliments the role of transporters and sodium channels that are the targets of known diuretics. Consequently, loss-of-function mutations in men and rodents are associated with salt wasting and low blood pressure. On this basis, Kir1.1 inhibitors may have value in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure...
October 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073182/blood-parameters-as-biomarkers-in-a-salmonella-spp-disease-model-of-weaning-piglets
#13
Emili Barba-Vidal, Victor Fernando Buttow Roll, Edgar Garcia Manzanilla, Carlos Torrente, José Antonio Moreno Muñoz, José Francisco Pérez, Susana María Martín-Orúe
BACKGROUND: The weaning pig is used as an experimental model to assess the impact of diet on intestinal health. Blood parameters (BP) are considered a useful tool in humans, but there is very scarce information of such indicators in the weaning pig. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the use of different BP as indicators in an experimental model of salmonellosis. METHODOLOGY: Seventy-two 28-day-old piglets were divided into four groups in a 2x2 factorial arrangement, with animals receiving or not a probiotic combination based on B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071091/the-use-of-the-renalguard-system-in-cardiac-surgery-with-cardiopulmonary-bypass-a-first-in-man-prospective-observational-feasibility-pilot-study
#14
Heyman Luckraz, Ramesh Giri, Benmjamin Wrigley, Anne-Marie Hennessy, Johann Nicholas, Alan Nevill
OBJECTIVES: As proof of concept, this prospective, observational study assessed the feasibility and early clinical outcomes of performing on-pump cardiac surgery with the RenalGuard system. BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is reported in up to 30% of patients undergoing cardiac surgery and is a recognised independent predictor of both morbidity and mortality. Forced diuresis with the RenalGuard system reduces the incidence of AKI during percutaneous coronary intervention procedures but its use in cardiac surgery has not been explored...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066445/collecting-duct-nitric-oxide-synthase-1%C3%A3-activation-maintains-sodium-homeostasis-during-high-sodium-intake-through-suppression-of-aldosterone-and-renal-angiotensin-ii-pathways
#15
Kelly A Hyndman, Elena V Mironova, Jorge F Giani, Courtney Dugas, Jessika Collins, Alicia A McDonough, James D Stockand, Jennifer S Pollock
BACKGROUND: During high sodium intake, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is downregulated and nitric oxide signaling is upregulated in order to remain in sodium balance. Recently, we showed that collecting duct nitric oxide synthase 1β is critical for fluid-electrolyte balance and subsequently blood pressure regulation during high sodium feeding. The current study tested the hypothesis that high sodium activation of the collecting duct nitric oxide synthase 1β pathway is critical for maintaining sodium homeostasis and for the downregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system-epithelial sodium channel axis...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064260/deterioration-of-limb-muscle-function-during-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
Raolat M Abdulai, Tina Jellesmark Jensen, Naimish R Patel, Michael I Polkey, Paul Jansson, Bartolomé R Celli, Stephen I Rennard
Important features of both stable and acute exacerbation of COPD are skeletal muscle weakness and wasting. Limb muscle dysfunction during an exacerbation has been linked to various adverse outcomes, including prolonged hospitalization, readmission, and mortality. The contributing factors leading to muscle dysfunction are similar to those seen in stable COPD: disuse, nutrition/energy balance, hypercapnia, hypoxemia, electrolyte derangements, inflammation, and drugs (i.e., glucocorticoids). These factors may be the trigger for a downstream cascade of local inflammatory changes, pathway process alterations, and structural degradation...
October 24, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059520/thermodynamic-description-of-synergy-in-solvent-extraction-ii-thermodynamic-balance-of-driving-forces-implied-in-synergistic-extraction
#17
J Rey, M Bley, J-F Dufrêche, S Gourdin, S Pellet-Rostaing, T Zemb, S Dourdain
In the second part of this study, we analyze the free energy of transfer in the case of synergistic solvent extraction. This free energy of the transfer of an ion in dynamic equilibrium between two coexisting phases is decomposed into four driving forces combining long-range interactions with the classical complexation free energy associated with the nearest neighbors. We demonstrate how the organometallic complexation is counterbalanced by the cost in free energy related to structural change on the colloidal scale in the solvent phase...
November 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043081/effects-of-phospho-and-calciotropic-hormones-on-electrolyte-transport-in-the-proximal-tubule
#18
REVIEW
Justin J Lee, Allein Plain, Megan R Beggs, Henrik Dimke, R Todd Alexander
Calcium and phosphate are critical for a myriad of physiological and cellular processes within the organism. Consequently, plasma levels of calcium and phosphate are tightly regulated. This occurs through the combined effects of the phospho- and calciotropic hormones, parathyroid hormone (PTH), active vitamin D 3, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). The organs central to this are the kidneys, intestine, and bone. In the kidney, the proximal tubule reabsorbs the majority of filtered calcium and phosphate, which amounts to more than 60% and 90%, respectively...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041883/-molecular-aspects-of-translational-cardiology-in-vascular-wall-research
#19
V A Maksimenko
Clinical-biochemical research of vascular wall hydrated state, water-electrolyte balance has broadened substantially our notions concerning initiation mechanism of vessel damages, methods of their prevention and treatment. Consecutive study of endothelial glycocalyx functioning, computational research of its interaction with oxidative stress, regulation of its state has been aimed at development of novel means of the vascular system protection. Mutual efforts of clinicians and scientists should contribute to the productivity of results of translational cardiology...
July 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035319/nutritional-therapy-in-liver-transplantation
#20
REVIEW
Ahmed Hammad, Toshimi Kaido, Vusal Aliyev, Claudia Mandato, Shinji Uemoto
Protein-energy malnourishment is commonly encountered in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. Malnutrition may further increase morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognized. The metabolic abnormalities induced by liver failure render the conventional assessment of nutritional status to be challenging...
October 16, 2017: Nutrients
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