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Electrolyte balance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641182/unraveling-the-complexities-of-the-velocity-dependency-of-e-coli-retention-and-release-parameters-in-saturated-porous-media
#1
Salini Sasidharan, Scott A Bradford, Saeed Torkzaban, Xueyan Ye, Joanne Vanderzalm, Xinqiang Du, Declan Page
Escherichia coli transport and release experiments were conducted to investigate the pore-water velocity (v) dependency of the sticking efficiency (α), the fraction of the solid surface area that contributed to retention (Sf), the percentage of injected cells that were irreversibly retained (Mirr), and cell release under different (10-300mM) ionic strength (IS) conditions. Values of α, Sf, and Mirr increased with increasing IS and decreasing v, but the dependency on v was greatest at intermediate IS (30 and 50mM)...
June 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636684/balanced-work-function-as-a-driver-for-facile-hydrogen-evolution-reaction-comprehension-and-experimental-assessment-of-interfacial-catalytic-descriptor
#2
Aleksandar R Zeradjanin, Ashokanand Vimalanandan, George Polymeros, Angel A Topalov, Karl J J Mayrhofer, Michael Rohwerder
A major step in the development of (electro)catalysis would be the possibility to estimate accurately the energetics of adsorption processes related to reaction intermediates. Computational chemistry (e.g. using DFT) developed significantly in that direction and allowed the fast prediction of (electro)catalytic activity trends and improved the general understanding of adsorption at electrochemical interfaces. However, building a reliable and comprehensive picture of electrocatalytic reactions undoubtedly requires experimental assessment of adsorption energies...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622163/novel-roles-for-mucin-1-in-the-kidney
#3
Mohammad M Al-Bataineh, Rebecca P Hughey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies in the kidney have revealed that the well characterized tumor antigen mucin 1 (MUC1/Muc1) also has numerous functions in the normal and injured kidney. RECENT FINDINGS: Mucin 1 is a transmembrane mucin with a robust glycan-dependent apical targeting signal and efficient recycling from endosomes. It was recently reported that the TRPV5 calcium channel is stabilized on the cell surface by galectin-dependent cross-linking to mucin 1, providing a novel mechanism for regulation of ion channels and normal electrolyte balance...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618760/changes-in-the-serum-liver-and-renal-cortical-lipids-and-electrolytes-in-rabbits-with-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity
#4
Abdelgayoum Ahmed Abdel-Gayoum, Mohamed Hamza Sulaiman Ahmida
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cisplatin is an anticancer drug that can induce nephrotoxicity. Its toxicity is associated with dyslipidemia and disturbed electrolyte balance. In the present study we investigated the changes in serum lipid profile and electrolyte levels and their contents in kidney and liver tissues of rabbits treated with cisplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight adult male New Zealand White rabbits were used in the experiment. Animals of groups C, P1, and P2 were injected with saline, cisplatin (4...
June 12, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616210/acute-kidney-injury-an-overview-of-diagnostic-methods-and-clinical-management
#5
Daniel Hertzberg, Linda Rydén, John W Pickering, Ulrik Sartipy, Martin J Holzmann
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition in multiple clinical settings. Patients with AKI are at an increased risk of death, over both the short and long term, and of accelerated renal impairment. As the condition has become more recognized and definitions more unified, there has been a rapid increase in studies examining AKI across many different clinical settings. This review focuses on the classification, diagnostic methods and clinical management that are available, or promising, for patients with AKI...
June 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557965/the-assessment-of-renal-function-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-hypertension-the-role-of-hyperuricemia-as-a-risk-factor-for-chronic-kidney-disease-preliminary-study
#6
Monika Komendarek-Kowalska
For the last few years, the role of uric acid in the pathogenesis of the hypertension and chronic kidney disease has drawn attention due to the increasing prevalence of the aforementioned states. Uric acid (UA), formed as a result of purine metabolism, is subject in the renal proximal tubule to filtration, reabsorption and secretion. The mechanisms of deleterious effect of UA on the kidney involve endothelial damage and the increment of hydrostatic pressure in the glomerulus which in turn lead to hypertrophy and glomerulosclerosis...
May 23, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553873/does-fluid-resuscitation-with-balanced-solutions-induce-electrolyte-and-metabolic-abnormalities-an-in-vitro-assessment
#7
Łukasz J Krzych, Piotr F Czempik
BACKGROUND: Popular intravenous fluids in clinical use may have impact on electrolyte concentration and metabolic balance and should be considered as powerful pharmacologic agents. There is growing body of evidence that fluid therapy should be more individualized and preferably based on balanced solutions. AIM: We sought to investigate impact of three commonly used balanced fluids on electrolytes and metabolic equilibrium in an in vitro setting. METHODS: Study group comprised 32 healthy male volunteers (no history of any acute/chronic disorder or known metabolic abnormalities), aged 21-35 (29 ± 4) years, weighting 59-103 (81...
May 29, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551002/development-of-a-computer-interpretable-clinical-guideline-model-for-decision-support-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-hyponatremia
#8
Arturo González-Ferrer, M Ángel Valcárcel, Martín Cuesta, Joan Cháfer, Isabelle Runkle
INTRODUCTION: Hyponatremia is the most common type of electrolyte imbalance, occurring when serum sodium is below threshold levels, typically 135mmol/L. Electrolyte balance has been identified as one of the most challenging subjects for medical students, but also as one of the most relevant areas to learn about according to physicians and researchers. We present a computer-interpretable guideline (CIG) model that will be used for medical training to learn how to improve the diagnosis of hyponatremia applying an expert consensus document (ECDs)...
July 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544917/effective-and-safe-mannitol-administration-in-patients-undergoing-supratentorial-tumor-surgery-a-prospective-randomized-and-double-blind-study
#9
Eren Fatma Akcil, Ozlem Korkmaz Dilmen, Esra Sultan Karabulut, Serdar Selcuk Koksal, Fatis Altindas, Yusuf Tunali
OBJECTIVES: Although osmotic diuresis with mannitol is commonly used to provide brain relaxation, there is no consensus regarding its optimal dose and combination with loop diuretics. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of mannitol and combination of furosemide with different doses of mannitol on brain relaxation and on blood electrolytes, lactate level, urine output, fluid balance and blood osmolarity in patients undergoing supratentorial tumor surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study included 51 patients (ASA I-III) scheduled for elective supratentorial craniotomy...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544484/neglected-issues-concerning-teaching-human-adrenal-steroidogenesis-in-popular-biochemistry-textbooks
#10
Zhiyong Han, Mark S Elliott
In the human body, the adrenal steroids collectively regulate a plethora of fundamental functions, including electrolyte and water balance, blood pressure, stress response, intermediary metabolism, inflammation, and immunity. Therefore, adrenal steroidogenesis is an important biochemistry topic for students to learn in order for them to understand health consequences caused by deficiencies of enzymes in the adrenal steroidogenic pathways. However, popular biochemistry textbooks contain insufficient information and may sometimes give students a misimpression about certain aspects of human adrenal steroidogenesis...
May 19, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540379/fundamental-aspects-of-electrochemically-controlled-wetting-of-nanoscale-composite-materials
#11
A Robert Hillman, Karl S Ryder, Hani K Ismail, Asuman Unal, Annelies Voorhaar
Electroactive films based on conducting polymers have numerous potential applications, but practical devices frequently require a combination of properties not met by a single component. This has prompted an extension to composite materials, notably those in which particulates are immobilised within a polymer film. Irrespective of the polymer and the intended application, film wetting is important: by various means, it facilitates transport processes - of electronic charge, charge-balancing counter ions ("dopant") and analyte/reactant molecules - and motion of polymer segments...
May 25, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533088/a-ubiquitin-proteasome-inhibitor-bortezomib-suppresses-the-expression-of-cyp11b2-a-key-enzyme-of-aldosterone-synthesis
#12
Ryo Ito, Ikuko Sato, Tadayuki Tsujita, Atsushi Yokoyama, Akira Sugawara
CYP11B2 is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. CYP11B2 expression in the adrenal glands is controlled by the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and plays an important role in the maintenance of electrolyte metabolism in higher organisms. Abnormal overexpression of CYP11B2 results in the disruption of mineral balance and can lead to hypertension. Though the molecular mechanism of the regulation of CYP11B2 expression has remained elusive, we hypothesize that compounds that prevent CYP11B2 expression could represent a novel class of antihypertensive drugs...
July 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520883/effect-of-isotonic-versus-hypotonic-maintenance-fluid-therapy-on-urine-output-fluid-balance-and-electrolyte-homeostasis-a-crossover-study-in-fasting-adult-volunteers
#13
N Van Regenmortel, T De Weerdt, A H Van Craenenbroeck, E Roelant, W Verbrugghe, K Dams, M L N G Malbrain, T Van den Wyngaert, P G Jorens
Background.: Daily and globally, millions of adult hospitalized patients are exposed to maintenance i.v. fluid solutions supported by limited scientific evidence. In particular, it remains unclear whether fluid tonicity contributes to the recently established detrimental effects of fluid, sodium, and chloride overload. Methods.: This crossover study consisted of two 48 h study periods, during which 12 fasting healthy adults were treated with a frequently prescribed solution (NaCl 0...
June 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514645/oleanolic-acid-modulates-the-renin-angiotensin-system-and-cardiac-natriuretic-hormone-concomitantly-with-volume-and-pressure-balance-in-rats
#14
You Mee Ahn, Yoon Hee Choi, Jung Joo Yoon, Yun Jung Lee, Kyung Woo Cho, Dae Gill Kang, Ho Sub Lee
Oleanolic acid is known to possess beneficial effects on the regulation of the cardiovascular homeostasis. However, the exact nature of the role of oleanolic acid on the regulation of body fluid balance and blood pressure homeostasis and its mechanisms involved are not well defined. Experiments were performed to identify the effects of oleanolic acid on the renin-angiotensin system and cardiac natriuretic hormone (ANP) system, and also renal function and blood pressure in normotensive and renovascular hypertensive rats...
May 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504348/broad-spectrum-macromolecular-antimicrobials-with-biofilm-disruption-capability-and-in-vivo-efficacy
#15
Jeremy P K Tan, Daniel J Coady, Haritz Sardon, Alexander Yuen, Shujun Gao, Shaun W Lim, Zhen Chang Liang, Eddy W Tan, Shrinivas Venkataraman, Amanda C Engler, Mareva Fevre, Robert Ono, Yi Yan Yang, James L Hedrick
In this study, antimicrobial polymers are synthesized by the organocatalytic ring-opening polymerization of an eight-membered heterocyclic carbonate monomer that is subsequently quaternized with methyl iodide. These polymers demonstrate activity against clinically relevant Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungus Candida albicans with fast killing kinetics. Importantly, the polymer efficiently inhibits biofilm growth and lyses existing biofilm, leading to a reduction in biomass and cell viability...
May 15, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501123/attenuation-of-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury%C3%A2-by-%C3%AE-alanine-a-potentially-glycine-receptor-mediated-effect
#16
Lisa Brencher, Rabea Verhaegh, Michael Kirsch
BACKGROUND: Acute mesenteric ischemia is often caused by embolization of the mesenteric arterial circulation. Coherent intestinal injury due to ischemia and following reperfusion get visible on macroscopic and histologic level. In previous studies, application of glycine caused an ameliorated intestinal damage after ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Because we speculated that glycine acted here as a signal molecule, we investigated whether the glycine-receptor agonist β-alanine evokes the same beneficial effect in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482333/ethephon-improved-drought-tolerance-in-maize-seedlings-by-modulating-cuticular-wax-biosynthesis-and-membrane-stability
#17
Haiyue Yu, Yushi Zhang, Yan Xie, Yubin Wang, Liusheng Duan, Mingcai Zhang, Zhaohu Li
Cuticular wax is the outermost thin hydrophobic layer covering the surface of aerial plant parts, which provides a primary waterproof barrier and protection against different environmental stresses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of ethephon, as an ethylene-releasing compound, in counteracting drought stress by modulating cuticular wax biosynthesis, water balance, and antioxidant regulation in maize seedlings. Our results showed that ethephon significantly increased the ethylene evolution rate, regulate the expression of cuticular wax synthesis regulatory gene ZmERE and the wax biosynthetic genes ZmGL1, ZmGL15, ZmFDH1, and ZmFAE1, and promote cuticular wax accumulation in maize seedlings under normal or drought stress conditions...
July 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470638/-management-of-massive-intraoperative-blood-loss-using-a-case-study
#18
Andreas Pape, Angelo Ippolito, Joanna Warszawska, Florian Raimann, Kai Zacharowski
Massive intraoperative bleeding is a major and potentially life-threatening complication during surgical procedures. The lethal triade of hemorrhagic shock with metabolic acidosis, hypothermia and coagulopathy enhances bleeding tendency. Avoiding this vitious circle requires a well-structured and standardized procedure. Primary goals include the maintenance of adequate tissue oxygenation, restauration of proper coagulatory function, normothermia and homeostasis of acid-base and electrolyte balance. In the present article, these therapeutic goals and their pathophysiological background are illustrated with a clinical case example...
April 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469455/perioperative-care-of-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Naeem Abbas, Jasbir Makker, Hafsa Abbas, Bhavna Balar
The incidence of cirrhosis is rising, and identification of these patients prior to undergoing any surgical procedure is crucial. The preoperative risk stratification using validated scores, such as Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, perioperative optimization of hemodynamics and metabolic derangements, and postoperative monitoring to minimize the risk of hepatic decompensation and complications are essential components of medical management. The advanced stage of cirrhosis, emergency surgery, open surgeries, old age, and coexistence of medical comorbidities are main factors influencing the clinical outcome of these patients...
2017: Health Services Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448122/iodine-pseudohalogen-ionic-liquid-based-electrolytes-for-quasi-solid-state-dye-sensitized-solar-cells
#20
Annkatrin Lennert, Michelle Sternberg, Karsten Meyer, Rubén D Costa, Dirk M Guldi
In the current work, novel symmetrically alkyl-substituted imidazolium-based ionic liquids have been synthesized featuring either iodide (I(-)) or selenocyanate (SeCN(-)) as counteranions. Physicochemical assays based on spectroscopy and electrochemistry techniques have been performed to identify the best ionic liquid for application as electrolytes in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (qssDSSC). The latter were mixed with additives such as 4-tert-butylpyridine (4tbpy) and guanidinium thiocyanate (GuSCN) to optimize electrode surface coverage, ionic diffusion, and dye regeneration...
April 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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