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Electrolyte balance

Robert Sümpelmann, Karin Becke, Sebastian Brenner, Christian Breschan, Christoph Eich, Claudia Höhne, Martin Jöhr, Franz-Josef Kretz, Gernot Marx, Lars Pape, Markus Schreiber, Jochen Strauss, Markus Weiss
This consensus- based S1 Guideline for perioperative infusion therapy in children is focused on safety and efficacy. The objective is to maintain or re-establish the child's normal physiological state (normovolemia, normal tissue perfusion, normal metabolic function, normal acid- base- electrolyte status). Therefore, the perioperative fasting times should be as short as possible to prevent patient discomfort, dehydration, and ketoacidosis. A physiologically composed balanced isotonic electrolyte solution (BS) with 1-2...
October 17, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
M-C Horny, M Lazerges, J-M Siaugue, A Pallandre, D Rose, F Bedioui, C Deslouis, A-M Haghiri-Gosnet, J Gamby
Here, we describe the transposition of an ultramicroelectrode (UME) setup into a microfluidic chip configuration for DNA biosensors. The hydrodynamic properties of the fluidic channel microelectrode were screened with an [Fe(iii)(CN)6](3-)/[Fe(ii)(CN)6](4-) redox couple by cyclic voltammetry to provide a basis for further biological processes. A 23-base DNA probe was self-assembled into a monolayer on gold microelectrodes both in classical configuration and integrated in a microfluidic setup. Special interest was focused on the DNA target mimicking the liver-specific micro-ribonucleic acid 122 (miRNA122)...
October 10, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Jennifer G Jetton, Mark Sorenson
Both acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are seen more frequently in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as advances in supportive care improve the survival of critically ill infants as well as those with severe, congenital kidney and urinary tract anomalies. Many aspects of the infant's care, including fluid balance, electrolyte and mineral homeostasis, acid-base balance, and growth and nutrition require close monitoring by and collaboration among neonatologists, nephrologists, dieticians, and pharmacologists...
October 6, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Hang Yao, Priti Azad, Huiwen W Zhao, Juan Wang, Orit Poulsen, Beatriz C Freitas, Alysson R Muotri, Gabriel G Haddad
The sodium bicarbonate co-transporter (NBC) is the major bicarbonate-dependent acid-base transporter in mammalian astrocytes and has been implicated in ischemic brain injury. A malfunction of astrocytes could have great impact on the outcome of stroke due to their participation in the formation of blood-brain barrier, synaptic transmission, and electrolyte balance in the human brain. Nevertheless, the role of NBC in the ischemic astrocyte death has not been well understood. In this work, we obtained skin biopsies from healthy human subjects and had their fibroblasts grown in culture and reprogrammed into human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience
Alexander Giovannitti, Christian B Nielsen, Dan-Tiberiu Sbircea, Sahika Inal, Mary Donahue, Muhammad R Niazi, David A Hanifi, Aram Amassian, George G Malliaras, Jonathan Rivnay, Iain McCulloch
Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are receiving significant attention due to their ability to efficiently transduce biological signals. A major limitation of this technology is that only p-type materials have been reported, which precludes the development of complementary circuits, and limits sensor technologies. Here, we report the first ever n-type OECT, with relatively balanced ambipolar charge transport characteristics based on a polymer that supports both hole and electron transport along its backbone when doped through an aqueous electrolyte and in the presence of oxygen...
October 7, 2016: Nature Communications
Minghui Zhang, Jinben Wang, Pei Zhang
The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium of amphiphilic dendrimers based on poly(amidoamine) PAMAM modified with dodecyl chain GnQPAMC12(n represents the generation number) with different generation at silica-water interface have been investigated. The effect of molecular shape with different charge characteristics on the adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms and the conformation of self-assembled layer has been elucidated. For the adsorption kinetics, two steps were observed including the adsorption of individual molecules at the concentrations below cmc and the predominant adsorption of aggregates above cmc...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Mei-Yu Hsu, Hsiao-Hui Hsu, Ji-Yan Lyu
Leakage is a common complication of gastrostomy. Exposure of the skin surrounding the gastrostomy tube to moisture or chemical irritants may cause moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) and seriously affect the patient's quality of life. This case study describes a nursing experience with gastrostomy leakage that resulted in MASD. An assessment conducted from July 29, 2015 to August 20, 2015 revealed that heavy gastronomy leakage had caused extensive skin erosion, ulceration, hyperplasia, and superficial infection...
October 2016: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Cameron Ratliff, Rebecca S Sayre, Mauricio Lepiz
A hand-reared, 53-kg, female, 30-day-old black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis ) calf presented for magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography after demonstrating neurologic signs. The rhino was premedicated intramuscularly with butorphanol and midazolam, yielding satisfactory sedation. Induction was achieved using intravenous propofol until the trachea could be intubated. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in 100% oxygen (mean end-tidal concentration of 2 ± 0.5%). Mean values recorded during anesthesia included were heart rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide, respiratory rate, noninvasive blood pressure, and pulse oximetry...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Foroogh Sabzghabaei, Seyed Alireza Heydariezade, Rashin S Joodat
INTRODUCTION: Hemodialysis (HD) has impact on the cardiovascular system by inducing changes in the characteristics of body fluids such as PH, temperature and electrolyte concentrations. In the previous studies, prolongation of the QT interval and increase of QT dispersion have been reported during HD sessions. These changes were more significant while using solutions with less potassium and higher bicarbonate during dialysis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of different potassium and bicarbonate concentrations on electrocardiography (ECG) parameters and the electrochemical balance of cell membranes...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Fernando G Zampieri, Alexandre B Libório, Alexandre B Cavalcanti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent advances in the understanding of the role of fluid composition in renal outcomes in critically ill patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The debate on fluid composition is now focused in a pragmatic discussion on fluid electrolyte composition. The resurgence of this debate was propelled by several observational studies that suggested that balanced (i.e., low chloride) solutions were associated with less acute kidney injury in critically ill patients...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Dongping Zhan, Lianhuan Han, Jie Zhang, Kang Shi, Jian-Zhang Zhou, Zhao-Wu Tian, Zhong-Qun Tian
In the past several decades, electrochemical machining (ECM) has enjoyed the reputation of a powerful technique in the manufacturing industry. Conventional ECM methods can be classified as electrolytic machining and electroforming: the former is based on anodic dissolution and the latter is based on cathodic deposition of metallic materials. Strikingly, ECM possesses several advantages over mechanical machining, such as high removal rate, the capability of making complex three-dimensional structures, and the practicability for difficult-to-cut materials...
September 26, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Otto Schück, Miroslava Horáčková
UNLABELLED: The differential diagnosis of hyponatremia is often difficult. This most frequently occurring disorder of the water and electrolyte metabolism is frequently connected with deviations relating to the acid-base balance (ABB). This survey analyzes the relationship between the changes of the volume of body fluids and ABB and infers to what extent the analysis of combinations of the two disorders can support the differential diagnosis of different forms of hyponatremia (differentiation between the dilution vs...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Carla Bizzarri, Stefania Pedicelli, Marco Cappa, Stefano Cianfarani
In newborns and infants, dehydration and salt wasting represent a relatively common cause of admission to hospital and may result in life-threatening complications. Kidneys are responsible for electrolyte homoeostasis, but neonatal kidneys show low glomerular filtration rate and immaturity of the distal nephron, leading to reduced ability to concentrate urine. High extrarenal fluid losses often contribute to the increased occurrence of electrolyte disorders. Aldosterone is essential for sodium retention in the kidney, salivary glands, sweat glands and colon...
September 7, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
The physiologic approach has long been used in assessing acid-base status. This approach considers acids as hydrogen ion donors and bases as hydrogen ion acceptors and the acid-base status of the organism as reflecting the interaction of net hydrogen ion balance with body buffers. In the physiologic approach, the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer pair is used for assessing acid-base status and blood pH is determined by carbonic acid (ie, Paco2) and serum bicarbonate levels. More recently, the physicochemical approach was introduced, which has gained popularity, particularly among intensivists and anesthesiologists...
August 30, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Raghavan Murugan, Eric Hoste, Ravindra L Mehta, Sara Samoni, Xiaoqiang Ding, Mitchell H Rosner, John A Kellum, Claudio Ronco
Fluid management during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in critically ill patients is a dynamic process that encompasses 3 inter-related goals: maintenance of the patency of the CRRT circuit, maintenance of plasma electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis and regulation of patient fluid balance. In this article, we report the consensus recommendations of the 2016 Acute Disease Quality Initiative XVII conference on 'Precision Fluid Management in CRRT'. We discuss the principles of fluid management, describe various prescription methods to achieve circuit integrity and introduce the concept of integrated fluid balance for tailoring fluid balance to the needs of the individual patient...
2016: Blood Purification
Musa Silahli, Mahmut Gökdemir, Enes Duman, Zeynel Gökmen
We present a catheter related severe hypernatremia in a 2-month-old baby who was admitted to the pediatric intensive care. Imbalance of plasma sodium is commonly seen in pediatric intensive care patients. The water and sodium balance is a complex process. Especially, brain and kidneys are the most important organs that affect the water and sodium balance. Other mechanisms of the cellular structure include osmoreceptors, Na-K ATPase systems, and vasopressin. Hypernatremia is usually an iatrogenic condition in hospitalized patients due to mismanagement of water electrolyte imbalance...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Hyungseok Seo, Eugene Kim, Haesun Jung, Young-Jin Lim, Jin Wook Kim, Chul-Kee Park, Young-Bem Se, Young-Tae Jeon, Jung-Won Hwang, Hee-Pyoung Park
OBJECTIVE Mannitol is used intraoperatively to induce brain relaxation in patients undergoing supratentorial brain tumor resection. The authors sought to determine the dose of mannitol that provides adequate brain relaxation with the fewest adverse effects. METHODS A total of 124 patients were randomized to receive mannitol at 0.25 g/kg (Group A), 0.5 g/kg (Group B), 1.0 g/kg (Group C), and 1.5 g/kg (Group D). The degree of brain relaxation was classified according to a 4-point scale (1, bulging; 2, firm; 3, adequate; and 4, perfectly relaxed) by neurosurgeons; Classes 3 and 4 were considered to indicate satisfactory brain relaxation...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Caroline Cole
CASE SUMMARY: A 6 yr old 45 kg child with severe Cushinoid features was admitted to PICU with probable hypertensive encephalopathy. She presented with increasing headaches, vomiting and seizures becoming unresponsive with a GCS of 3. She was profoundly hypertensive and her cortisol levels were significantly elevated (>2000 nmol/L). Rapid reduction in cortisol levels was required to stabilise her condition prior to surgery. Etomidate is the only readily available intravenous preparation which reliably suppresses adrenocortical function...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Biao Ma, Yi-Zhen Song, Ji-Cheng Niu, Zhi-Yong Wu
We present a novel electrokinetic stacking (ES) method based on field amplification on a simple paper device for sample preconcentration. With voltage application, charged probe ions in a solution of lower conductivity stack and form a narrow band at the boundary between the sample and the background electrolyte of higher conductivity. The stacking band appears quickly and stabilizes in a few minutes. With this ES method, three orders of magnitude signal improvement was successfully achieved for both a fluorescein probe and a double-stranded DNA within 300 s...
September 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
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