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Electrolyte balance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344508/acid-base-and-electrolyte-disorders-in-patients-with-and-without-chronic-kidney-disease-an-update
#1
REVIEW
Tsering Dhondup, Qi Qian
Kidneys play a pivotal role in the maintenance and regulation of acid-base and electrolyte homeostasis, which is the prerequisite for numerous metabolic processes and organ functions in the human body. Chronic kidney diseases compromise the regulatory functions, resulting in alterations in electrolyte and acid-base balance that can be life-threatening. In this review, we discuss the renal regulations of electrolyte and acid-base balance and several common disorders including metabolic acidosis, alkalosis, dysnatremia, dyskalemia, and dysmagnesemia...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340799/fully-automated-life-support-an-implementation-and-feasibility-pilot-study-in-healthy-pigs
#2
Wilfried Klingert, Jörg Peter, Christian Thiel, Karolin Thiel, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Kathrin Klingert, Christian Grasshoff, Alfred Königsrainer, Martin Schenk
BACKGROUND: Automated systems are available in various application areas all over the world for the purpose of reducing workload and increasing safety. However, such support systems that would aid caregivers are still lacking in the medical sector. With respect to workload and safety, especially, the intensive care unit appears to be an important and challenging application field. Whereas many closed-loop subsystems for single applications already exist, no comprehensive system covering multiple therapeutic aspects and interactions is available yet...
January 16, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339230/balanced-crystalloids-vs-0-9-saline-for-adult-patients-undergoing-non-renal-surgery-a-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Lili Huang, Xiaoshuang Zhou, Hai Yu
BACKGROUND: Fluid maintenance and resuscitation is an important strategy during major surgeries. There has been a debate on the choice of crystalloids over the past decades. 0.9% saline (normal saline) is more likely to cause hyperchloremic acidosis when compared to balanced crystalloids with low chloride content. Meta-analyses comparing these two kinds of crystalloids have been performed in renal transplantations. We aim to compare the safety of balanced crystalloids to normal saline among adult patients undergoing non-renal surgery...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325595/mortality-impact-of-an-increased-blood-glucose-cut-off-level-for-hypoglycaemia-treatment-in-severely-sick-children-in-malawi-sugarfact-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Tim Baker, Queen Dube, Josephine Langton, Helena Hildenwall
BACKGROUND: Mortality in children remains high in sub-Saharan African hospitals. While antimalarial drugs, antibiotics and other definitive treatments are well understood, the role of emergency care with supportive therapies, such as maintaining normal glucose and electrolyte balances, has been given limited attention. Hypoglycaemia is common in children admitted to hospital in low-income settings. The current definition of hypoglycaemia is a blood glucose level < 2.5 mmol/L in a well-nourished child...
January 11, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288933/targeting-the-renin-angiotensin-system-as-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-pulmonary-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Wan Shun Daniel Tan, Wupeng Liao, Shuo Zhou, Dan Mei, Wai-Shiu Fred Wong
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in regulating electrolyte balance and blood pressure. RAS has also been implicated in the regulation of inflammation, proliferation and fibrosis in pulmonary diseases such as asthma, acute lung injury (ALI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Current therapeutics suffer from some drawbacks like steroid resistance, limited efficacies and side effects. Novel intervention is definitely needed to offer optimal therapeutic strategy and clinical outcome...
December 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287775/regulation-of-aldosterone-production-by-ion-channels-from-basal-secretion-to-primary-aldosteronism
#6
Tingting Yang, Min He, Changlong Hu
Aldosterone is produced by zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells of the adrenal cortex and plays a key role in balancing water and electrolytes levels. Autonomous overproduction of aldosterone leads to primary aldosteronism (PA), which is the most common form of secondary endocrine hypertension. Recently, significant progress has been made towards understanding the genetic basis of PA, where increasing clinical evidence suggests that mutations in ion channels appear to be the major cause of aldosterone-producing adenomas...
December 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283518/digestive-and-nondigestive-functions-of-rodents-salivary-glands
#7
V V Ivanova, I V Milto, I V Sukhodolo, O N Serebryakova, A V Buzenkova
Major salivary glands play a role not only in digestion, but also in regulation of other functions in rodents. In this review, we analyzed and summarized the data about the rodents' parotid, submandibular and sublingual salivary glands functions, which is not limited to the production of saliva and action of its hydrolytic enzymes on food in the oral cavity. In recent decades significantly expanded understanding of major salivary glands nondigestive functions. They are involved in excretion of metabolic products, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance...
January 2017: Uspekhi Fiziologicheskikh Nauk
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281773/fluid-and-electrolyte-management-across-the-age-continuum
#8
Tamara M Kear
Optional function of body systems depends upon fluid and electrolyte balance; however, across the lifespan, disorders of fluid and electrolytes offset this, and the causative factors are varied. Nurses play a major role in the management of fluid and electrolyte balance. This article focuses on the role total body water content, plasma proteins, kidney function, and drug metabolism have on the age-related physiology impacting fluid and electrolyte balance, and on nursing implications.
November 2017: Nephrology Nursing Journal: Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258604/water-t2-as-an-early-global-and-practical-biomarker-for-metabolic-syndrome-an-observational-cross-sectional-study
#9
Michelle D Robinson, Ina Mishra, Sneha Deodhar, Vipulkumar Patel, Katrina V Gordon, Raul Vintimilla, Kim Brown, Leigh Johnson, Sid O'Bryant, David P Cistola
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a highly prevalent condition that identifies individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Prevention of these diseases relies on early detection and intervention in order to preserve pancreatic β-cells and arterial wall integrity. Yet, the clinical criteria for MetS are insensitive to the early-stage insulin resistance, inflammation, cholesterol and clotting factor abnormalities that characterize the progression toward type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237822/potassium-regulated-distal-tubule-wnk-bodies-are-kidney-specific-wnk1-dependent
#10
Cary R Boyd-Shiwarski, Daniel J Shiwarski, Ankita Roy, Lubika J Nkashama, Hima N Namboodiri, Jian Xie, Kara L McClain, Allison Marciszyn, Thomas R Kleyman, Roderick J Tan, Donna B Stolz, Manojkumar A Puthenveedu, Chou-Long Huang, Arohan R Subramanya
With-No-Lysine (WNK) kinases coordinate volume and potassium homeostasis by regulating renal tubular electrolyte transport. In the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), potassium imbalance causes WNK signaling complexes to concentrate into large discrete foci, which we call "WNK bodies." Though these structures have been reported previously, the mechanisms that drive their assembly remain obscure. Here, we show that kidney-specific WNK1 (KS-WNK1), a truncated kinase-defective WNK1 isoform that is highly expressed in the DCT, is critical for WNK body formation...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233909/oral-contraceptives-and-renal-water-handling-a-diurnal-study-in-young-women
#11
Charlotte Graugaard-Jensen, Gitte M Hvistendahl, Jørgen Frøkiær, Peter Bie, Jens Christian Djurhuus
To test the hypothesis that use of oral contraceptives (OC) changes diurnal variation in fluid balance mechanisms including blood pressure, secretion of vasopressin and oxytocin, and renal water and electrolyte excretion. Fifteen naturally cycling (NC) women in mid-follicular phase and 11 long-term OC users were included in a 24-h standardized inpatient study for measurements of vasopressin, oxytocin, sodium, and osmolality in plasma as well as urinary excretion of electrolytes, aquaporin-2, and prostaglandin E2...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232274/from-theory-to-practice-the-diuretic-potential-of-sacubitril-valsartan-a-tale-of-2-patients
#12
Sabrina M Hormann, Lindsay E Davis, Elizabeth K Pogge
BACKGROUND: Heart failure prevalence continues to rise in the United States causing significant morbidity and mortality and costing billions in healthcare expenditures. Consensus guidelines updated in 2016 recommend an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNi) as a therapeutic option in lieu of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker for the management of stage C heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). For chronic HFrEF patients with New York Heart Association class II or III symptoms tolerating an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, a change in therapy to an ARNi is recommended to further reduce morbidity and mortality...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211441/mechanistic-study-of-electrolyte-additives-to-stabilize-high-voltage-cathode-electrolyte-interface-in-lithium-ion-batteries
#13
Han Gao, Filippo Maglia, Peter Lamp, Khalil Amine, Zonghai Chen
Current developments of electrolyte additives to stabilize electrode-electrolyte interface in Lithium-ion batteries highly rely on a trial-and-error search, which involves repetitive testing and intensive amount of resources. The lack of understandings on the fundamental protection mechanisms of the additives significantly increases the difficulty for the transformational development of new additives. In this study, we investigated two types of individual protection routes to build a robust cathode-electrolyte interphase at high potentials: (i) a direct reduction in the catalytic decomposition of the electrolyte solvent; and (ii) formation of a "corrosion inhibitor film" that prevents severely attack and passivation from protons that generated from the solvent oxidation, even the decomposition of solvent cannot not mitigated...
December 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200369/anesthetic-management-of-a-patient-with-a-history-of-rhabdomyolysis-for-dental-treatment
#14
Hitomi Terasaki, Shinichi Ito
When general anesthesia is administered for patients considered at high risk for rhabdomyolysis, appropriate precautions are warranted. The use of suitable anesthetics, with attention to intravenous fluid management, electrolyte balance, respiration, and metabolism, should be addressed. We performed general anesthesia for dental treatment and biopsy for fibrous hyperplasia of the buccal mucosa in a patient with a history of rhabdomyolysis. We utilized thiamylal sodium, midazolam, rocuronium bromide, nitrous oxide, fentanyl, and remifentanil without using volatile anesthetics and propofol for this case...
2017: Anesthesia Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193764/the-interstitium-conducts-extrarenal-storage-of-sodium-and-represents-a-third-compartment-essential-for-extracellular-volume-and-blood-pressure-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
H Wiig, F C Luft, J M Titze
The role of salt in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension is not well understood. According to the current understanding, the central mechanism for blood pressure (BP) regulation relies on classical studies linking BP and Na+ balance, placing the kidney at the very centre of long-term BP regulation. To maintain BP homeostasis, the effective circulating fluid volume and thereby body Na+ content has to be maintained within very narrow limits. From recent work in humans and rats, the notion has emerged that Na+ could be stored somewhere in the body without commensurate water retention to buffer free extracellular Na+ and that previously unidentified extrarenal, tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms are operative regulating the release and storage of Na+ from a kidney-independent reservoir...
November 28, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183573/age-dependent-physiological-dynamics-in-acid-base-balance-electrolytes-and-blood-metabolites-in-growing-goats
#16
S Redlberger, S Fischer, H Köhler, R Diller, P Reinhold
There is a paucity of published data reporting acid-base equilibrium in goats, and no information is available on how the acid-base complexity changes when suckling goat kids become ruminants. The aims of this study were to evaluate young healthy goats for age-related changes in serum proteins, metabolites, and electrolytes; differences in results when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation or strong ion approaches were used were also assessed. To assess biological variability and reproducibility, two consecutive long-term studies, each lasting from the 6th to 56th week of life (wl), were performed in 15 (Study 1) and 10 (Study 2) animals...
November 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170998/introducing-topmast-the-first-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial-specifically-dedicated-to-perioperative-maintenance-fluid-therapy-in-adults
#17
Steven Hendrickx, Karen Van Vlimmeren, Ingrid Baar, Walter Verbrugghe, Karolien Dams, Sophie Van Cromphaut, Ella Roelant, Bart Embrecht, Anouk Wittock, Pieter Mertens, Jeroen M Hendriks, Patrick Lauwers, Paul E Van Schil, Amaryllis H Van Craenenbroeck, Tim Van den Wyngaert, Philippe Jorens, Niels Van Regenmortel
BACKGROUND: Although prescribed to every patient undergoing surgery, maintenance fluid therapy is a poorly researched part of perioperative fluid therapy. The tonicity of the chosen solutions, on the other hand, could be an important cause of morbidity, with hyponatremia being a potential side effect of hypotonic solutions, where isotonic solution could lead to fluid overload. METHODS: The TOPMAST-trial is an ongoing prospective single-center double-blind randomized trial comparing an isotonic and a hypotonic maintenance fluid strategy during and after surgery in patients undergoing different types of major thoracic surgery...
November 24, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165910/retrospective-evaluation-of-the-prognostic-utility-of-plasma-lactate-concentration-base-deficit-ph-and-anion-gap-in-canine-and-feline-emergency-patients
#18
Casey J Kohen, Kate Hopper, Philip H Kass, Steven E Epstein
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of plasma lactate concentration, pH, base deficit (BD), and anion gap (AG) in dogs and cats on presentation to an emergency room with outcome, and to compare the prognostic significance of hyperlactatemia with a concurrent metabolic acidosis with that of hyperlactatemia and a normal metabolic acid-base balance. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Five hundred sixty-six dogs and 185 cats that had venous blood gas analysis performed...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156484/-perioperative-intravenous-fluid-therapy-in-children
#19
Robert Sümpelmann
The objective of this consensus-based S1 Guideline for perioperative fluid therapy in children is to maintain or re-establish the child's homeostasis. Therefore, the perioperative fasting times should be as short as possible to prevent patient discomfort, dehydration, and ketoacidosis. For the intraoperative background infusion a physiologically composed balanced isotonic electrolyte solution (BS) with 1 - 2.5% glucose is recommended to maintain normal glucose concentrations and to avoid hyponatremia, hyperchloremia, and lipolysis...
November 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156066/dehydration-of-older-patients-in-institutional-care-and-the-home-environment
#20
Amadeus Lešnik, Nejc Piko, Danica Železnik, Sebastjan Bevc
Dehydration in older adults is an important clinical problem associated with more comorbidities, longer hospital stays, and higher mortality rates. However, in daily clinical practice, no single gold standard marker of hydration status in older adults is available. The aim of the current study was to define the fluid balance status in older adults residing in institutional care or the home. Four hundred ten patients (192 from institutional care and 218 from home care) 65 and older from the region of lower Styria (Slovenia) were included in the study...
November 1, 2017: Research in Gerontological Nursing
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