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Electrolyte balance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533088/a-ubiquitin-proteasome-inhibitor-bortezomib-suppresses-the-expression-of-cyp11b2-a-key-enzyme-of-aldosterone-synthesis-as-revealed-by-chemical-screening
#1
Ryo Ito, Ikuko Sato, Tadayuki Tsujita, Atsushi Yokoyama, Akira Sugawara
CYP11B2 is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. CYP11B2 expression in the adrenal glands is controlled by the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and plays an important role in the maintenance of electrolyte metabolism in higher organisms. Abnormal overexpression of CYP11B2 results in the disruption of mineral balance and can lead to hypertension. Though the molecular mechanism of the regulation of CYP11B2 expression has remained elusive, we hypothesize that compounds that prevent CYP11B2 expression could represent a novel class of antihypertensive drugs...
May 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520883/effect-of-isotonic-versus-hypotonic-maintenance-fluid-therapy-on-urine-output-fluid-balance-and-electrolyte-homeostasis-a-crossover-study-in-fasting-adult-volunteers
#2
N Van Regenmortel, T De Weerdt, A H Van Craenenbroeck, E Roelant, W Verbrugghe, K Dams, M L N G Malbrain, T Van den Wyngaert, P G Jorens
Background.: Daily and globally, millions of adult hospitalized patients are exposed to maintenance i.v. fluid solutions supported by limited scientific evidence. In particular, it remains unclear whether fluid tonicity contributes to the recently established detrimental effects of fluid, sodium, and chloride overload. Methods.: This crossover study consisted of two 48 h study periods, during which 12 fasting healthy adults were treated with a frequently prescribed solution (NaCl 0...
May 16, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514645/oleanolic-acid-modulates-the-renin-angiotensin-system-and-cardiac-natriuretic-hormone-concomitantly-with-volume-and-pressure-balance-in-rats
#3
You Mee Ahn, Yoon Hee Choi, Jung Joo Yoon, Yun Jung Lee, Kyung Woo Cho, Dae Gill Kang, Ho Sub Lee
Oleanolic acid is known to possess beneficial effects on the regulation of the cardiovascular homeostasis. However, the exact nature of the role of oleanolic acid on the regulation of body fluid balance and blood pressure homeostasis and its mechanisms involved are not well defined. Experiments were performed to identify the effects of oleanolic acid on the renin-angiotensin system and cardiac natriuretic hormone (ANP) system, and also renal function and blood pressure in normotensive and renovascular hypertensive rats...
May 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504348/broad-spectrum-macromolecular-antimicrobials-with-biofilm-disruption-capability-and-in-vivo-efficacy
#4
Jeremy P K Tan, Daniel J Coady, Haritz Sardon, Alexander Yuen, Shujun Gao, Shaun W Lim, Zhen Chang Liang, Eddy W Tan, Shrinivas Venkataraman, Amanda C Engler, Mareva Fevre, Robert Ono, Yi Yan Yang, James L Hedrick
In this study, antimicrobial polymers are synthesized by the organocatalytic ring-opening polymerization of an eight-membered heterocyclic carbonate monomer that is subsequently quaternized with methyl iodide. These polymers demonstrate activity against clinically relevant Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungus Candida albicans with fast killing kinetics. Importantly, the polymer efficiently inhibits biofilm growth and lyses existing biofilm, leading to a reduction in biomass and cell viability...
May 15, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501123/attenuation-of-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury%C3%A2-by-%C3%AE-alanine-a-potentially-glycine-receptor-mediated-effect
#5
Lisa Brencher, Rabea Verhaegh, Michael Kirsch
BACKGROUND: Acute mesenteric ischemia is often caused by embolization of the mesenteric arterial circulation. Coherent intestinal injury due to ischemia and following reperfusion get visible on macroscopic and histologic level. In previous studies, application of glycine caused an ameliorated intestinal damage after ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Because we speculated that glycine acted here as a signal molecule, we investigated whether the glycine-receptor agonist β-alanine evokes the same beneficial effect in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482333/ethephon-improved-drought-tolerance-in-maize-seedlings-by-modulating-cuticular-wax-biosynthesis-and-membrane-stability
#6
Haiyue Yu, Yushi Zhang, Yan Xie, Yubin Wang, Liusheng Duan, Mingcai Zhang, Zhaohu Li
Cuticular wax is the outermost thin hydrophobic layer covering the surface of aerial plant parts, which provides a primary waterproof barrier and protection against different environmental stresses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of ethephon, as an ethylene-releasing compound, in counteracting drought stress by modulating cuticular wax biosynthesis, water balance, and antioxidant regulation in maize seedlings. Our results showed that ethephon significantly increased the ethylene evolution rate, regulate the expression of cuticular wax synthesis regulatory gene ZmERE and the wax biosynthetic genes ZmGL1, ZmGL15, ZmFDH1, and ZmFAE1, and promote cuticular wax accumulation in maize seedlings under normal or drought stress conditions...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470638/-management-of-massive-intraoperative-blood-loss-using-a-case-study
#7
Andreas Pape, Angelo Ippolito, Joanna Warszawska, Florian Raimann, Kai Zacharowski
Massive intraoperative bleeding is a major and potentially life-threatening complication during surgical procedures. The lethal triade of hemorrhagic shock with metabolic acidosis, hypothermia and coagulopathy enhances bleeding tendency. Avoiding this vitious circle requires a well-structured and standardized procedure. Primary goals include the maintenance of adequate tissue oxygenation, restauration of proper coagulatory function, normothermia and homeostasis of acid-base and electrolyte balance. In the present article, these therapeutic goals and their pathophysiological background are illustrated with a clinical case example...
April 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469455/perioperative-care-of-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Naeem Abbas, Jasbir Makker, Hafsa Abbas, Bhavna Balar
The incidence of cirrhosis is rising, and identification of these patients prior to undergoing any surgical procedure is crucial. The preoperative risk stratification using validated scores, such as Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, perioperative optimization of hemodynamics and metabolic derangements, and postoperative monitoring to minimize the risk of hepatic decompensation and complications are essential components of medical management. The advanced stage of cirrhosis, emergency surgery, open surgeries, old age, and coexistence of medical comorbidities are main factors influencing the clinical outcome of these patients...
2017: Health Services Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448122/iodine-pseudohalogen-ionic-liquid-based-electrolytes-for-quasi-solid-state-dye-sensitized-solar-cells
#9
Annkatrin Lennert, Michelle Sternberg, Karsten Meyer, Rubén D Costa, Dirk M Guldi
In the current work, novel symmetrically alkyl-substituted imidazolium-based ionic liquids have been synthesized featuring either iodide (I(-)) or selenocyanate (SeCN(-)) as counteranions. Physicochemical assays based on spectroscopy and electrochemistry techniques have been performed to identify the best ionic liquid for application as electrolytes in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (qssDSSC). The latter were mixed with additives such as 4-tert-butylpyridine (4tbpy) and guanidinium thiocyanate (GuSCN) to optimize electrode surface coverage, ionic diffusion, and dye regeneration...
April 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439282/overexpression-of-cucumber-phospholipase-d-alpha-gene-cspld%C3%AE-in-tobacco-enhanced-salinity-stress-tolerance-by-regulating-na-k-balance-and-lipid-peroxidation
#10
Tuo Ji, Shuzhen Li, Meili Huang, Qinghua Di, Xiufeng Wang, Min Wei, Qinghua Shi, Yan Li, Biao Gong, Fengjuan Yang
Plant phospholipase D (PLD), which can hydrolyze membrane phospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid (PA), a secondary signaling molecule, has been proposed to function in diverse plant stress responses. In this research, we characterized the roles of the cucumber phospholipase D alpha gene (PLDα, GenBank accession number EF363796) in growth and tolerance to short- and long-term salt stress in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Fresh and dry weights of roots, PLD activity and content, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene expression, Na(+)-K(+) homeostasis, expression of genes encoding ion exchange, reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and osmotic adjustment substances were investigated in wild type (WT) and CsPLDα-overexpression tobacco lines grown under short- and long-term high salt (250 mM) stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436529/modifying-surface-forces-through-control-of-surface-potentials
#11
Ran Tivony, Jacob Klein
Combining direct surface force measurements with in situ regulation of surface potential provides an exceptional opportunity for investigating and manipulating interfacial phenomena. Recently, we studied the interaction between gold and mica surfaces in water with no added salt, while controlling the metal potential, and found that the surface charge at the metal may vary, and possibly even change its sign, as it progressively approaches the (constant-charge) mica surface [Langmuir, 2015, 31(47), 12845-12849]...
April 24, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431202/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-pancreatitis
#12
REVIEW
Elisabetta Moggia, Rahul Koti, Ajay P Belgaumkar, Federico Fazio, Stephen P Pereira, Brian R Davidson, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: In people with acute pancreatitis, it is unclear what the role should be for medical treatment as an addition to supportive care such as fluid and electrolyte balance and organ support in people with organ failure. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different pharmacological interventions in people with acute pancreatitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trial registers to October 2016 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs)...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422408/prevention-of-the-osmotic-demyelination-syndrome-after-liver-transplantation-a-multidisciplinary-perspective
#13
J F Crismale, K A Meliambro, S DeMaria, D B Bronster, S Florman, T D Schiano
The osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a serious neurologic condition that occurs in the setting of rapid correction of hyponatremia. It presents with protean manifestations, from encephalopathy to the "locked-in" syndrome. ODS can complicate liver transplantation (LT), and its incidence may increase with the inclusion of serum sodium as a factor in the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. A comprehensive understanding of risk factors for the development of ODS in the setting of LT, along with recommendations to mitigate the risk of ODS, are necessary...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409340/drosophila-malpighian-tubules-a-model-for-understanding-kidney-development-function-and-disease
#14
Naveen Kumar Gautam, Puja Verma, Madhu G Tapadia
The Malpighian tubules of insects are structurally simple but functionally important organs, and their integrity is important for the normal excretory process. They are functional analogs of human kidneys which are important physiological organs as they maintain water and electrolyte balance in the blood and simultaneously help the body to get rid of waste and toxic products after various metabolic activities. In addition, it receives early indications of insults to the body such as immune challenge and other toxic components and is essential for sustaining life...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405139/regulation-of-intestinal-permeability-the-role-of-proteases
#15
REVIEW
Hanne Van Spaendonk, Hannah Ceuleers, Leonie Witters, Eveline Patteet, Jurgen Joossens, Koen Augustyns, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Ingrid De Meester, Joris G De Man, Benedicte Y De Winter
The gastrointestinal barrier is - with approximately 400 m(2) - the human body's largest surface separating the external environment from the internal milieu. This barrier serves a dual function: permitting the absorption of nutrients, water and electrolytes on the one hand, while limiting host contact with noxious luminal antigens on the other hand. To maintain this selective barrier, junction protein complexes seal the intercellular space between adjacent epithelial cells and regulate the paracellular transport...
March 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373609/nutritional-counseling-regulates-interdialytic-weight-gain-and-blood-pressure-in-outpatients-receiving-maintenance-hemodialysis
#16
Atsuko Sakai, Hisayo Hamada, Keiko Hara, Kyoko Mori, Takayuki Uchida, Takashi Mizuguchi, Jun Minaguchi, Kenji Shima, Shu Kawashima, Yasuhiro Hamada, Takeshi Nikawa
Maintenance hemodialysis outpatients must limit salt and water intake to maintain electrolyte balance and blood pressure. In Kawashima Hospital, nationally registered dietitians provide hemodialysis patients with monthly nutritional counseling. We investigated whether nutritional counseling affects interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and blood pressure. We investigated 48 hemodialysis patients whose monthly average IDWG ratio to dry weight exceeded 5.1% and who had not had a long-term hospital admittance of > 1 month...
2017: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371477/rafoxanide-and-closantel-inhibit-spak-and-osr1-kinases-by-binding-to-a-highly-conserved-allosteric-site-on-their-c-terminal-domains
#17
Mubarak A AlAmri, Hachemi Kadri, Luke J Alderwick, Nigel S Simpkins, Youcef Mehellou
SPAK and OSR1 are two protein kinases that have emerged as attractive targets in the discovery of novel antihypertensive agents due to their role in regulating electrolyte balance in vivo. Herein we report the identification of an allosteric pocket on the highly conserved C-terminal domains of these two kinases, which influences their activity. We also show that some known WNK signaling inhibitors bind to this allosteric site. Using in silico screening, we identified the antiparasitic agent rafoxanide as a novel allosteric inhibitor of SPAK and OSR1...
March 31, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360221/nfat5-and-slc4a10-loci-associate-with-plasma-osmolality
#18
Carsten A Böger, Mathias Gorski, Gearoid M McMahon, Huichun Xu, Yen-Pei C Chang, Peter J van der Most, Gerjan Navis, Ilja M Nolte, Martin H de Borst, Weihua Zhang, Benjamin Lehne, Marie Loh, Sian-Tsung Tan, Eric Boerwinkle, Morgan E Grams, Peggy Sekula, Man Li, Beth Wilmot, James G Moon, Paul Scheet, Francesco Cucca, Xiangjun Xiao, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Graciela Delgado, Tanja B Grammer, Marcus E Kleber, Sanaz Sedaghat, Fernando Rivadeneira, Tanguy Corre, Zoltan Kutalik, Sven Bergmann, Carrie M Nielson, Priya Srikanth, Alexander Teumer, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Anne Catharina Brockhaus, Arne Pfeufer, Wolfgang Rathmann, Annette Peters, Martha Matsumoto, Mariza de Andrade, Elizabeth J Atkinson, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Ian H de Boer, Shih-Jen Hwang, Iris M Heid, Martin Gögele, Maria Pina Concas, Toshiko Tanaka, Stefania Bandinelli, Mike A Nalls, Andrew Singleton, Salman M Tajuddin, Adebowale Adeyemo, Jie Zhou, Ayo Doumatey, Shannon McWeeney, Joanne Murabito, Nora Franceschini, Michael Flessner, Michael Shlipak, James G Wilson, Guanjie Chen, Charles N Rotimi, Alan B Zonderman, Michele K Evans, Luigi Ferrucci, Olivier Devuyst, Mario Pirastu, Alan Shuldiner, Andrew A Hicks, Peter Paul Pramstaller, Bryan Kestenbaum, Sharon L R Kardia, Stephen T Turner, LifeLines Cohort Study, Tamara Ellefson Briske, Christian Gieger, Konstantin Strauch, Christa Meisinger, Thomas Meitinger, Uwe Völker, Matthias Nauck, Henry Völzke, Peter Vollenweider, Murielle Bochud, Gerard Waeber, Mika Kähönen, Terho Lehtimäki, Winfried März, Abbas Dehghan, Oscar H Franco, Andre G Uitterlinden, Albert Hofman, Herman A Taylor, John C Chambers, Jaspal S Kooner, Caroline S Fox, Robert Hitzemann, Eric S Orwoll, Cristian Pattaro, David Schlessinger, Anna Köttgen, Harold Snieder, Afshin Parsa, David M Cohen
Disorders of water balance, an excess or deficit of total body water relative to body electrolyte content, are common and ascertained by plasma hypo- or hypernatremia, respectively. We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study meta-analysis on plasma sodium concentration in 45,889 individuals of European descent (stage 1 discovery) and 17,637 additional individuals of European descent (stage 2 replication), and a transethnic meta-analysis of replicated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 79,506 individuals (63,526 individuals of European descent, 8765 individuals of Asian Indian descent, and 7215 individuals of African descent)...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359306/clinicians-adherence-to-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-cardiac-function-monitoring-during-antipsychotic-treatment-a-retrospective-report-on-434-patients-with-severe-mental-illness
#19
Mirko Manchia, Giorgio Firinu, Bernardo Carpiniello, Federica Pinna
BACKGROUND: Severe mental illness (SMI) has considerable excess morbidity and mortality, a proportion of which is explained by cardiovascular diseases, caused in part by antipsychotic (AP) induced QT-related arrhythmias and sudden death by Torsade de Point (TdP). The implementation of evidence-based recommendations for cardiac function monitoring might reduce the incidence of these AP-related adverse events. To investigate clinicians' adherence to cardiac function monitoring before and after starting AP, we performed a retrospective assessment of 434 AP-treated SMI patients longitudinally followed-up for 5 years at an academic community mental health center...
March 31, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357122/therapeutically-targeting-guanylate-cyclase-c-computational-modeling-of-plecanatide-a-uroguanylin-analog
#20
Andrea Brancale, Kunwar Shailubhai, Salvatore Ferla, Antonio Ricci, Marcella Bassetto, Gary S Jacob
Plecanatide is a recently developed guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) agonist and the first uroguanylin analog designed to treat chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). GC-C receptors are found across the length of the intestines and are thought to play a key role in fluid regulation and electrolyte balance. Ligands of the GC-C receptor include endogenous agonists, uroguanylin and guanylin, as well as diarrheagenic, Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxins (ST)...
April 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
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