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Electrolyte balance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908485/managing-fluid-and-electrolyte-disorders-in-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
Cathy Langston
Because of the role of the kidneys in maintaining homeostasis in the body, kidney disease leads to derangements of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. The most effective therapy of a uremic crisis is careful management of fluid balance, which involves thoughtful assessment of hydration, a fluid treatment plan personalized for the specific patient, and repeated and frequent reassessment of fluid and electrolyte balance. Disorders of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus are commonly encountered in kidney disease and some may be life-threatening...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900717/intravenous-fluids-balancing-solutions
#2
REVIEW
Ewout J Hoorn
The topic of intravenous (IV) fluids may be regarded as "reverse nephrology", because nephrologists usually treat to remove fluids rather than to infuse them. However, because nephrology is deeply rooted in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, IV fluids belong in the realm of our specialty. The field of IV fluid therapy is in motion due to the increasing use of balanced crystalloids, partly fueled by the advent of new solutions. This review aims to capture these recent developments by critically evaluating the current evidence base...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#3
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895287/sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-is-there-a-connection-with-inner-ear-electrolytic-disorders-a-literature-review
#4
EDITORIAL
Andrea Ciorba, Virginia Corazzi, Chiara Bianchini, Claudia Aimoni, Henryk Skarzynski, Piotr Henryk Skarzynski, Stavros Hatzopoulos
Electrolytic disorders of the inner ear represent a model that could be implicated in partially explaining the pathogenesis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Different types of electrolytes and different inner-ear loci are involved in cochlear homeostasis physiologically, to ensure the maintenance of an ion-balanced cochlear environment allowing a normal hair cell function. It has been hypothesized that a sudden loss of endocochlear potential, due to a rapid disruption of the inner ear fluid osmolality, could be responsible for a deterioration of the hearing function caused by damaged hair cells...
December 2016: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892449/otorrhagia-and-nosebleed-as-first-signs-of-intravascular-absorption-syndrome-during-hysteroscopy-from-bench-to-bedside
#5
V Giacobbe, D Rossetti, S G Vitale, A M C Rapisarda, F Padula, A S Laganà, V I Palmara
Hysteroscopic surgery is indicated for the treatment of several intrauterine diseases. The surgeon needs to be aware of, and know how to prevent, possible complications related to these procedures. In the case of operative hysteroscopy, the systemic effects of low-viscosity fluid uptake must be considered in order to prevent the complications in the patient. We report on two unusual clinical signs of intravascular absorption syndrome (IAS) that developed during an operative hysteroscopy with glycine 1.5% as the fluid of distension...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889788/inhibition-of-angiotensin-ii-production-increases-susceptibility-to-acute-ischemia-reperfusion-arrhythmia
#6
Eylem Taskin, Kadir Ali Tuncer, Celal Guven, Salih Tunc Kaya, Nurcan Dursun
BACKGROUND Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion lead to impairment of electrolyte balance and, eventually, lethal arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pharmacological inhibition of angiotensin-II (Ang-II) production on heart tissue with ischemia-reperfusion damage, arrhythmia, and oxidative stress. MATERIAL AND METHODS Rats were divided into 4 groups: only ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R), captopril (CAP), aliskiren (AL), and CAP+AL. The drugs were given by gavage 30 min before anesthesia...
November 27, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889623/training-needs-of-clinical-nurses-at-an-university-hospital-in-turkey
#7
Emine Kol, Emine İlaslan, Mehtap Turkay
The learning needs of clinical nurses should be determined and evaluated at regular intervals for evaluate the continuity and the efficiency of education. The descriptive study was conducted to determine the training needs of nurses working in an educational hospital between February 1st 2012 and May 1st 2012. It was determined that, among the training topics related to patient care, those demanded the most were cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, fluid-electrolyte balance, safe drug administration and wound Care...
November 16, 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865300/effect-of-dapagliflozin-treatment-on-fluid-and-electrolyte-balance-in-diabetic-rats
#8
Ling Chen, Lauren M LaRocque, Orhan Efe, Juan Wang, Jeff M Sands, Janet D Klein
AIM: This study evaluates the effect of dapagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, on fluid or electrolyte balance and its effect on urea transporter-A1 (UT-A1), aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) protein abundance in diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by injection of streptozotocin into the tail vein. Serum Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) concentration, urine Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) excretion, blood glucose, urine glucose excretion, urine volume, urine osmolality and urine urea excretion were analyzed after the administration of dapagliflozin...
November 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863592/nursing-interventions-in-stroke-care-delivery-an-evidence-based-clinical-review
#9
Dimitrios Theofanidis, Bernard Gibbon
INTRODUCTION: Generally, nursing interventions during the acute stages following a stroke aim at preventing secondary brain injury (intracranial hypertension), maintaining the airways (due to paralysis of the pharynx muscles), providing general body support (vital signs, fluid and electrolyte balance), and anticipating the occurrence of complications (atelectasis and pneumonia). AIM: This literature review is to prioritize nursing interventions for acute stroke and to update nursing roles and input considering recommended levels of evidence of care to date...
December 2016: Journal of Vascular Nursing: Official Publication of the Society for Peripheral Vascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862139/differential-diagnosis-of-hyponatraemia-moving-forward
#10
Ewout J Hoorn
Hyponatraemia is a resident's nightmare. A water balance disorder disguised as decreased serum sodium concentration. A plethora of diagnostic algorithms that seem to have been developed with the sole purpose of getting you lost as quickly as possible. Nothing but untrustworthy parameters to guide you through this dark wood. And when you finally see light at the end of the tunnel, there is always some staff member, alias electrolyte aficionado, who enjoys public interrogation and makes you feel you're back to square one...
November 8, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857193/a-self-regenerable-soot-sensor-with-a-proton-conductive-thin-electrolyte-and-a-nanostructured-platinum-sensing-electrode
#11
Peiling Lv, Takenori Ito, Akihide Oogushi, Kensaku Nakashima, Masahiro Nagao, Takashi Hibino
In recent years, exhaust sensors have become increasingly attractive for use in energy and environmental technologies. Important issues regarding practical applications of these sensors, especially for soot measurements, include the further development of ion-conductive electrolytes and active electrode catalysts for meeting performance and durability requirements. Herein, we design a proton conductor with a high breakdown voltage and a sensing electrode with high sensitivity to electrochemical carbon oxidation, enabling continuous soot monitoring with self-regeneration of the sensor...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845866/a-canola-oil-supplemented-diet-prevents-type-i-diabetes-caused-lipotoxicity-and-renal-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model
#12
Edgar Cano-Europa, Rocio Ortiz-Butron, Estela Melendez Camargo, María Miriam Esteves-Carmona, Rosa Maria Oliart-Ros, Vanessa Blas-Valdivia, Margarita Franco-Colin
We investigated the effect of a canola oil-supplemented diet on the metabolic state and diabetic renal function of a type I diabetes experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) normoglycemic+chow diet, (2) normoglycemic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet, (3) diabetic+chow diet, and (4) diabetic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet. For 15 weeks, animals were fed a diet of Purina rat chow alone or supplemented with 30% canola oil. Energetic intake, water intake, body weight, and adipose tissue fat pad were measured; renal function, electrolyte balance, glomerular filtration rate, and the plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were evaluated...
November 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828935/fluid-and-electrolyte-imbalances-interpretation-and-assessment
#13
Mandi D Walker
Maintaining the balance of fluid and electrolytes is crucial to the care of patients across the continuum. To do this, a practitioner must be cognizant of key monitoring and assessment parameters. Key electrolytes, their function within the body, normal values, signs and symptoms of imbalances, key treatment modalities, and other considerations are discussed.
November 2016: Journal of Infusion Nursing: the Official Publication of the Infusion Nurses Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820813/collagen-intrafibrillar-mineralization-as-a-result-of-the-balance-between-osmotic-equilibrium-and-electroneutrality
#14
Li-Na Niu, Sang Eun Jee, Kai Jiao, Lige Tonggu, Mo Li, Liguo Wang, Yao-Dong Yang, Ji-Hong Bian, Lorenzo Breschi, Seung Soon Jang, Ji-Hua Chen, David H Pashley, Franklin R Tay
Mineralization of fibrillar collagen with biomimetic process-directing agents has enabled scientists to gain insight into the potential mechanisms involved in intrafibrillar mineralization. Here, by using polycation- and polyanion-directed intrafibrillar mineralization, we challenge the popular paradigm that electrostatic attraction is solely responsible for polyelectrolyte-directed intrafibrillar mineralization. As there is no difference when a polycationic or a polyanionic electrolyte is used to direct collagen mineralization, we argue that additional types of long-range non-electrostatic interaction are responsible for intrafibrillar mineralization...
November 7, 2016: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813057/fluid-therapy-for-acute-bacterial-meningitis
#15
REVIEW
Ian K Maconochie, Soumyadeep Bhaumik
BACKGROUND: Acute bacterial meningitis remains a disease with high mortality and morbidity rates. However, with prompt and adequate antimicrobial and supportive treatment, the chances for survival have improved, especially among infants and children. Careful management of fluid and electrolyte balance is an important supportive therapy. Both over- and under-hydration are associated with adverse outcomes. This is the latest update of a review first published in 2005 and updated in 2008 and 2014...
November 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811445/a-retrospective-analysis-of-blood-gases-with-two-different-insulin-infusion-protocols-in-patients-undergoing-cardiovascular-surgery
#16
S M Kuskonmaz, Ö Kurtipek, M E Aydın, M E Erbatur, M Alkan, Y Ünal, M Arslan
AIM: Intraoperative blood glucose concentration is known to be an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. Arterial blood gas analysis is an important investigation to monitor the acid-base balance and gas exchange in these patients. Hyperglycemia leads to a series of metabolic changes which affect acid-base balance and serum electrolytes. In this study, we aimed to look into the effect of glycemic control on arterial blood gas parameters, serum electrolytes, and hemoglobin (Hb)...
November 2016: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806202/electrochemical-reduction-of-dissolved-oxygen-in-alkaline-solid-polymer-electrolyte-films
#17
David M Novitski, Aslan Kosakian, Thomas Weissbach, Marc Secanell, Steven Holdcroft
Mass transport of oxygen through ionomer contained within the cathode catalyst layer in an anion exchange membrane fuel cell is critical for a functioning fuel cell, yet is relatively unexplored. Moreover, since water is a reactant in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media, an adequate supply of water is required. In this work, ORR mass transport behavior is reported for methylated hexamethyl-p-terphenyl polymethylbenzimidazoles (HMT-PMBI), charge balanced by hydroxide ions (IEC from 2.1 meq/g to 2...
November 2, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801972/development-of-a-chitosan-based-tissue-engineered-renal-proximal-tubule-conduit
#18
I-Ni Chiang, Wan-Chen Huang, Chao-Yuan Huang, Yeong-Shiau Pu, Tai-Horng Young
Renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) are responsible for glomerular filtration and maintenance of water/electrolyte balance. To regenerate a proximal tubule, sufficient cell numbers and normal cell function are requisite. Collagen has been routinely used as a substrate for culturing human RPTCs (HRPTCs); however, the role of biomaterials has not been thoroughly explored. In this study, RPTCs retrieved from human nephrectomy/nephroureterectomy specimens were cultivated on chitosan as a substrate in serum-free condition for up to 150 days...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800480/post-exercise-rehydration-effect-of-consumption-of-beer-with-varying-alcohol-content-on-fluid-balance-after-mild-dehydration
#19
Annemarthe H C Wijnen, Jora Steennis, Milène Catoire, Floris C Wardenaar, Marco Mensink
PURPOSE: The effects of moderate beer consumption after physical activity on rehydration and fluid balance are not completely clear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of beer consumption, with varying alcohol content, on fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration. METHODS: Eleven healthy males were included in this cross over study (age 24.5 ± 4.7 years, body weight 75.4 ± 3.3 kg, VO2max 58.3 ± 6.4 mL kg min(-1)). Subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 45 min at 60% of their maximal power output (Wmax) until mild dehydration (1% body mass loss)...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791143/ordinary-extraordinary-transition-in-dynamics-of-solutions-of-charged-macromolecules
#20
Murugappan Muthukumar
The occurrence of the ubiquitous and intriguing "ordinary-extraordinary" behavior of dynamics in solutions of charged macromolecules is addressed theoretically by explicitly considering counterions around the macromolecules. The collective and coupled dynamics of macromolecules and their counterion clouds in salt-free conditions are shown to lead to the "ordinary" behavior (also called the "fast" mode) where diffusion coefficients are independent of molar mass and polymer concentration and are comparable to those of isolated metallic ions in aqueous media, in agreement with experimental facts observed repeatedly over the past four decades...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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