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Electrolyte balance

Jejoong Yoo, Aleksei Aksimentiev
In contrast to ordinary polymers, the vast majority of biological macromolecules adopt highly ordered three-dimensional structures that define their functions. The key to folding of a biopolymer into a unique 3D structure or to an assembly of several biopolymers into a functional unit is a delicate balance between the attractive and repulsive forces that also makes such self-assembly reversible under physiological conditions. The all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) method has emerged as a powerful tool for studies of individual biomolecules and their functional assemblies, encompassing systems of ever increasing complexity...
March 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Satoko Noguchi, Junichi Saito, Tomoyuki Kudo, Eiji Hashiba, Kazuyoshi Hirota
Background: We have reviewed four cases of Kawasaki disease treated with plasma exchange with 5% albumin in electrolyte-balanced solution, according to the recommended guidelines for Kawasaki disease in the intensive care unit, as their responses to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy were poor. Case presentation: The four cases were aged between 5 months and 3 years and weighted between 6.4 and 15.6 kg. The plasma levels of C-reactive protein were significantly decreased after plasma exchange ( p  < 0...
2018: JA Clin Rep
Koen H Hendriks, Sophia G Robinson, Miles N Braten, Christo S Sevov, Brett A Helms, Matthew S Sigman, Shelley D Minteer, Melanie S Sanford
Nonaqueous redox flow batteries (NRFBs) represent an attractive technology for energy storage from intermittent renewable sources. In these batteries, electrical energy is stored in and extracted from electrolyte solutions of redox-active molecules (termed catholytes and anolytes) that are passed through an electrochemical flow cell. To avoid battery self-discharge, the anolyte and catholyte solutions must be separated by a membrane in the flow cell. This membrane prevents crossover of the redox active molecules, while simultaneously allowing facile transport of charge-balancing ions...
February 28, 2018: ACS Central Science
Zhala Meran, Alexandros Besinis, Tracy De Peralta, Richard D Handy
Patients with facial prostheses suffer from yeast, Candida albicans, infections. This study aimed to determine the biocompatibility and antifungal properties of silicone facial prostheses coated with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in vitro. Medical grade silicone discs were coated with 5 and 50 mg L-1 dispersions of either Ag NPs or AgNO3 . Coatings were fully characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The biocompatibility was examined using human dermal fibroblasts (Hs68), whereas antifungal efficacy was tested against C...
April 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Ana Margarida Monteiro, Olinda Marques, Sofia Martins, Ana Antunes
The authors report a case of a 15-year-old girl with hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk interruption syndrome diagnosed in the neonatal period. The patient was admitted to the emergency room with impaired consciousness and hypoglycaemia. The day before, she increased her water intake to about 1.5 L to perform a pelvic ultrasound. In the following hours, she developed vomiting and food refusal. Blood analysis revealed hypoglycaemia, hyponatraemia, decreased serum osmolality and normal urinary density. Hyponatraemia and adrenal crisis were managed with a gradual but slow resolution of consciousness and electrolytic balance...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Apensu Dey, Victoria Sandre, Daniel Gerrard Marangoni, Soumen Ghosh
Ibuprofen (IBF), 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid, is a surface active, common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID); IBF possesses a high critical micelle concentration (cmc) when compared to conventional surfactants. The interactions of this common NSAID with an anionic surfactant, sodium octyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) were studied bytensiometric, fluorimetric, and calorimetric measurementsin order to investigate this system as a possible model drug delivery system for an NSAID like IBF, particularly in a high dose regime for IBF...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Katja N Adamik, Rafael Obrador, Judith Howard
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a 6% hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.42) in either a buffered, electrolyte-balanced (HES-BAL) or saline (HES-SAL) carrier solution on electrolyte concentrations and acid-base parameters in healthy anaesthetized dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomised clinical study. ANIMALS: A group of 40 client-owned dogs undergoing general anaesthesia for elective surgical procedures or diagnostic imaging. METHODS: During anaesthesia, dogs were intravenously administered 15 mL kg-1 of either HES-SAL (n = 20) or HES-BAL (n = 20) over 30-40 minutes...
January 11, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Lucas E Orth, Keliana L O'Mara
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether there are differences in the incidence of metabolic bone disease (MBD) between preterm neonates first exposed to diuretics prior to 2 weeks of life versus those exposed after 2 weeks. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of premature neonates born at a tertiary care center between 2011 and 2015 who received either furosemide or chlorothiazide. The primary outcome was incidence of MBD. Secondary outcomes included growth, electrolyte disturbances, oxygen requirement, and length of stay...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Daniela Chlíbková, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle, Josef Bednář
Purpose: Hypohydration and hyperhydration are significant disorders of fluid metabolism in endurance performance; however, little relevant data exist regarding multi-stage endurance activities. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of running seven marathons in 7 consecutive days on selected anthropometric, hematological and biochemical characteristics with an emphasis on hydration status. Methods: Participants included 6 women and 20 men (age 42.6 ± 6.2 years). Data was collected before day 1 (B1 ) and after day 1 (A1 ), 4 (A4 ), and 7 (A7 )...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mujan Varasteh Kia, Sharon Barone, Alicia A McDonough, Kamyar Zahedi, Jie Xu, Manoocher Soleimani
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are prone to the development of metabolic alkalosis; however, the pathogenesis of this life threatening derangement remains unknown. We hypothesized that altered acid base transport machinery in the kidney collecting duct underlies the mechanism of impaired bicarbonate elimination in the CF kidney. METHODS: Balance studies in metabolic cages were performed in WT and CFTR knockout (CF) mice with the intestinal rescue in response to bicarbonate loading or salt restriction, and the expression levels and cellular distribution of acid base and electrolyte transporters in the proximal tubule, collecting duct and small intestine were examined by western blots, northern blots and/or immunofluorescence labeling...
February 21, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Santosh L Saraf, Justin R Sysol, Alexandru Susma, Suman Setty, Xu Zhang, Krishnamurthy P Gudehithlu, Jose A L Arruda, Ashok K Singh, Roberto F Machado, Victor R Gordeuk
Homozygosity for the hemoglobin (Hb) S mutation (HbSS, sickle cell anemia) results in hemoglobin polymerization under hypoxic conditions leading to vaso-occlusion and hemolysis. Sickle cell anemia affects 1:500 African Americans and is a strong risk factor for kidney disease, although the mechanisms are not well understood. Heterozygous inheritance (HbAS; sickle cell trait) affects 1:10 African Americans and is associated with an increased risk for kidney disease in some reports. Using transgenic sickle mice, we investigated the histopathologic, ultrastructural, and gene expression differences with the HbS mutation...
February 2, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Bin Yin, Shu Tang, Jiarui Sun, Xiaohui Zhang, Jiao Xu, Liangjiao Di, Zhihong Li, Yurong Hu, Endong Bao
Heat stress is exacerbated by global warming and affects human and animal health, leading to heart damage caused by imbalances in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant system, acid-base chemistry, electrolytes and respiratory alkalosis. Vitamin C scavenges excess ROS, and sodium bicarbonate maintains acid-base and electrolyte balance, and alleviates respiratory alkalosis. Herein, we explored the ability of vitamin C alone and in combination with equimolar sodium bicarbonate (Vitamin C-Na) to stimulate endogenous antioxidants and heat shock proteins (HSPs) to relieve heat stress in H9C2 cells...
February 13, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Isiaka Ayofe Adekunle, Christian Eseigbe Imafidon, Ayowole Abraham Oladele, Abiodun Oladele Ayoka
Cyclosporine (CYA), a common immuno-suppressant drug that is used in organ transplants, is associated with nephrotoxic effects. Scientific exploration of natural products of plant origin should be considered; especially, in a world with increasing prevalence of kidney diseases. Effects of ginger polyphenols (GP) in Wistar rats with CYA-induced perturbations in electrolyte balance and kidney function was determined. Fifty Wistar rats were recruited for this study such that graded doses of GP were administered following CYA-induced kidney injury and comparisons were made against control and toxic groups at p < 0...
February 7, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
Meiwei Qi, Ke Li, Yongli Zheng, Tahir Rasheed, Yongfeng Zhou
A Novel thermoresponsive hyperbranched multiarm copolymer with a hydrophobic hyperbranched poly[3-ethyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)oxetane] (HBPO) core and many poly(acrylamide-co-acrylonitrile) (P(AAm-co-AN)) arms was for the first time synthesized through a reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. These copolymers show reversible, sharp and controlled temperature-responsive phase transitions at the upper critical solution temperature (UCST) in water and electrolyte solution. It is the first report on the hyperbranched copolymers with a UCST transition...
February 11, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Alexander Ziebart, Christian Möllmann, Andreas Garcia-Bardon, Jens Kamuf, Moritz Schäfer, Rainer Thomas, Erik K Hartmann
BACKGROUND: During early treatment of haemorrhagic shock maintenance of cerebral and end-organ oxygen supply by fluid resuscitation is mandatory. Gelatin-polysuccinat (GP) recently regained attention despite a still unclear risk profile and widely unknown effects on cerebral and peripheral microcirculation. This study investigates the effects of GP versus balanced electrolyte solution (BEL) with focus on cerebral regional oxygen saturation and peripheral microcirculation in a porcine haemorrhagic shock model...
February 9, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Ben A Johnson, Asamanjoy Bhunia, Honghan Fei, Seth M Cohen, Sascha Ott
Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as electrocatalysis scaffolds are appealing due to the large concentration of catalytic units that can be assembled in three dimensions. To harness the full potential of these materials, charge transport to the redox-catalysts within the MOF has to be ensured. Herein, we report the first electroactive MOF with the UiO/PIZOF topology (Zr(dcphOH-NDI)), i.e. one of the most widely used MOFs for catalyst incorporation, by using redox-active naphthalene diimide-based linkers (dcphOH-NDI)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Lindsay B Baker, Corey T Ungaro, Bridget C Sopeña, Ryan P Nuccio, Adam J Reimel, James M Carter, John R Stofan, Kelly A Barnes
This study determined the relations between regional (REG) and whole body (WB) sweating rate (RSR and WBSR, respectively) and REG and WB sweat [Na+] during exercise. Twenty-six recreational athletes (17 men, 9 women) cycled for 90 min while WB sweat [Na+] was measured using the washdown technique. RSR and REG sweat [Na+] were measured from 9 regions using absorbent patches. RSR and REG sweat [Na+] from all regions were significantly (p<0.05) correlated with WBSR (r=0.58-0.83) and WB sweat [Na+] [r=0.74-0...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Doreen Crawford
Fluid requirements differ between infants and children. It is important for children's nurses to understand the principles of fluid mechanics and apply this understanding to ensure each child's state of hydration, and thereby preserve their safety and well-being. This two-part article aims to introduce the concept of fluid balance and electrolytes to children's nursing students, help them identify what is normal and what is not, and provide guidance on what actions should be taken when problems occur. It may also be useful for registered nurses to use for revalidation...
February 7, 2018: Nursing Children and Young People
Jian Chen, Xuehui Chen, Qingfeng Zhang, Yidan Zhang, Xiangli Ou, Lizhe An, Huyuan Feng, Zhiguang Zhao
Plant pectin methyl-esterase (PME) and PME inhibitor (PMEI) belong to large gene families whose members are proposed to be widely involved in growth, development, and stress responses; however, the biological functions of most PMEs and PMEIs have not been characterized. In this study, we studied the roles of CbPMEI1, a cold-induced pectin methyl-esterase inhibitor (PMEI) gene from Chorispora bungeana, under freezing and salt stress. The putative CbPMEI1 peptide shares highest similarity (83%) with AT5G62360 (PMEI13) of Arabidopsis...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Alexander Yulaev, Vladimir P Oleshko, Paul M Haney, Jialin Liu, Yue Qi, A Alec Talin, Marina S Leite, Andrei Kolmakov
Li metal is the preferred anode material for all-solid-state Li batteries. However, a stable plating and stripping of Li metal at the anode-solid electrolyte interface remains a significant challenge particularly at practically feasible current densities. This problem usually relates to high and/or inhomogeneous Li-electrode-electrolyte interfacial impedance and formation and growth of high-aspect-ratio dendritic Li deposits at the electrode-electrolyte interface, which eventually shunt the battery. To better understand details of Li metal plating, we use operando electron microscopy and Auger spectroscopy to probe nucleation, growth, and stripping of Li metal during cycling of a model solid-state Li battery as a function of current density and oxygen pressure...
February 3, 2018: Nano Letters
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