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anti-obesity AND diabetes mellitus

Maria das Graças Coelho de Souza, Luiz Guilherme Kraemer-Aguiar, Eliete Bouskela
Obesity is a crescent epidemic in the world, affecting more than half a billion of adults worldwide. Obesity is associated to main cardiovascular risk factors, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia. The excessive adiposity causes a dysregulation of adipokines secretion by adipose tissue, upregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines and downregulating the anti-inflammatory ones. This scenario contributes for the appearance of atherosclerosis...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Min-Jun Park, Ji-Hye Song, Myung-Soo Shon, Hae Ok Kim, O Jun Kwon, Seong-Soo Roh, Choon Young Kim, Gyo-Nam Kim
Obesity is a major risk factor for various metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we prepared ethanol extracts from Agastache rugosa (ARE), Chrysanthemum zawadskii (CZE), Mentha arvensis (MAE), Perilla frutescens (PFE), Leonurus sibiricus (LSE), Gardenia jasminoides (GJE), and Lycopus coreanus (LCE). The anti-oxidant and anti-adipogenic effects were evaluated. The IC50 values for ascorbic acid and LCE against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 246...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Everton Cazzo, José Carlos Pareja, Bruno Geloneze, Elinton Adami Chaim, Maria Rita Lazzarini Barreto, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery usually leads to improvement on the general lipid profile, but its role in the levels of apolipoprotein A-IV (Apo-AIV) is not completely understood. Apo-AIV is a gut-released lipoprotein which is enrolled in satiety regulation and presents anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anti-oxidative properties. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) in the levels of Apo-AIV. METHODS: This is a prospective exploratory study which evaluated eight obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who underwent BPD (Scopinaro operation) and were followed-up for 12 months...
October 15, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Oral Ospanov, Almantas Maleckas, Akzhunus Orekeshova
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Established anti-reflux procedures such as fundoplications are less efficient in obese patients. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical effectiveness of the fundoplication combined with gastric greater curvature plication in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in obese patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the period from June 2010 to September 2014, patients operated for GERD with BMI from 30 to 39.9kg/m(2) were included into the prospective study...
September 20, 2016: Medicina
Tracey Ying, Samantha Chan, Stephen Lane, Christine Somerville
AIM: To identify risk factors for acute kidney injury following major orthopaedic surgery. METHODS: We included all patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery at University Hospital Geelong between 2008 and 2014 in the study. Out of 2188 surgeries audited, we identified cases of acute kidney injury using the RIFLE criteria and matched those to controls 2:1 for age, sex, procedure and chronic kidney disease stage. We reviewed their records for risk factors of postoperative acute kidney injury, including medications such as gentamicin, diuretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker use...
October 5, 2016: Nephrology
Stefano Vendrame, Cristian Del Bo', Salvatore Ciappellano, Patrizia Riso, Dorothy Klimis-Zacas
Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of risk factors which often includes central obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, as well as a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and pro-thrombotic environment. This leads to a dramatically increased risk of developing type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death both in the United States and worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that berry fruit consumption has a significant potential in the prevention and treatment of most risk factors associated with Metabolic Syndrome and its cardiovascular complications in the human population...
September 30, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Wendy Del C Dzib-Guerra, Fabiola Escalante-Erosa, Karlina García-Sosa, Séverine Derbré, Patricia Blanchard, Pascal Richomme, Luis M Peña-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) is recognized as a major pathogenic process in diabetic complications, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, reactive oxygen species and free radicals have also been reported to participate in AGE formation and in cell damage. Natural products with antioxidant and antiAGE activity have great therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension and related complications. Objective: to test ethanolic extracts and aqueous-traditional preparations of plants used to treat diabetes, hypertension and obesity in Yucatecan traditional medicine for their anti-AGE and free radical scavenging activities...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Elizabeth Salt, Amanda T Wiggins, Mary Kay Rayens, Brent J Morris, David Mannino, Andrew Hoellein, Ryan P Donegan, Leslie J Crofford
OBJECTIVE: Inconclusive findings about infection risks, importantly the use of immunosuppressive medications in patients who have undergone large-joint total joint arthroplasty, challenge efforts to provide evidence-based perioperative total joint arthroplasty recommendations to improve surgical outcomes. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe risk factors for developing a post-operative infection in patients undergoing TJA of a large joint (total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, or total shoulder arthroplasty) by identifying clinical and demographic factors, including the use of high-risk medications (i...
August 24, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Shuang Chen, Xiaofan Guo, Yintao Chen, Siyuan Dong, Yingxian Sun
OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients and identify contributing risk factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in rural areas of China, and 1,198 type 2 diabetic patients with complete data were recruited. Elevated ALT and AST levels were defined as >40 U/L. Prevalence of abnormal liver enzymes was analyzed and multivariable analysis was used to identify independent risk factors...
October 17, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Giovanni Luca, Iva Arato, Francesca Mancuso, Mario Calvitti, Giulia Falabella, Giuseppe Murdolo, Giuseppe Basta, Don F Cameron, Barbara C Hansen, Francesca Fallarino, Tiziano Baroni, Maria Chiara Aglietti, Cristina Tortoioli, Maria Bodo, Riccardo Calafiore
BACKGROUND: Increased abdominal fat and chronic inflammation in the expanded adipose tissue of obesity contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The emerging immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of Sertoli cells have prompted their application to experimental models of autoimmune/inflammatory disorders, including diabetes. The main goal of this work was to verify whether transplantation of microencapsulated prepubertal porcine Sertoli cells (MC-SC) in the subcutaneous abdominal fat depot of spontaneously diabetic and obese db/db mice (homozygous for the diabetes spontaneous mutation [Lepr(db) ]) would: (i) improve glucose homeostasis and (ii) modulate local and systemic immune response and adipokines profiles...
September 27, 2016: Xenotransplantation
Manish M Wanjari, Sujata Mishra, Yadu Nandan Dey, Deepti Sharma, Sudesh N Gaidhani, Ankush D Jadhav
BACKGROUND: Chandraprabha vati is a classical Ayurvedic formulation, markedly used for mitigation of Prameha, which correlates in many ways with obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to investigate effect of Chandraprabha vati in experimentally-induced hyperglycemia and lipid profile alterations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antidiabetic effect of Chandraprabha vati was studied in fifty five Wistar rats...
July 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Xinyan Bi, Joseph Lim, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health care problem worldwide both in developing and developed countries. Many factors, including age, obesity, sex, and diet, are involved in the etiology of DM. Nowadays, drug and dietetic therapies are the two major approaches used for prevention and control of DM. Compared to drug therapy, a resurgence of interest in using diet to manage and treat DM has emerged in recent years. Conventional dietary methods to treat DM include the use of culinary herbs and/or spices...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jan Martel, David M Ojcius, Chih-Jung Chang, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Chia-Chen Lu, Yun-Fei Ko, Shun-Fu Tseng, Hsin-Chih Lai, John D Young
Obesity is reaching global epidemic proportions as a result of factors such as high-calorie diets and lack of physical exercise. Obesity is now considered to be a medical condition, which not only contributes to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer, but also negatively affects longevity and quality of life. To combat this epidemic, anti-obesogenic approaches are required that are safe, widely available and inexpensive. Several plants and mushrooms that are consumed in traditional Chinese medicine or as nutraceuticals contain antioxidants, fibre and other phytochemicals, and have anti-obesogenic and antidiabetic effects through the modulation of diverse cellular and physiological pathways...
September 16, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Jillian Frieder, Caitriona Ryan
Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and related comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and obesity. The precise mechanistic links underlying the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease remain unknown, however, multiple pathologic mechanisms have been proposed. Shared inflammatory pathways between psoriasis and atherosclerosis are likely involved. Other possible mechanisms include endothelial dysfunction, cytokine dysregulation, platelet upregulation, and dyslipidemia...
September 14, 2016: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash Shantha, Anita Ashok Kumar, Vimal Ravi, Rohit C Khanna, Scott Kahan, Lawrence J Cheskin
BACKGROUND: We assessed the predictive accuracy of an empirically-derived score (weight loss, insulin resistance, and glycemic control: "WIG") to predict patients who will be successful in reducing diabetes mellitus (DM) medication use with weight loss. METHODS: Case records of 121 overweight and obese patients with DM at two outpatient weight management centers were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean period of follow-up was 12.5 ± 3.5 months. To derive the "WIG" scoring algorithm, one point each was assigned to "W" (loss of 5% of initial body weight within the first 3 months of attempting weight loss), "I" (triglyceride [TGL]/highdensity lipoprotein ratio >3 [marker of insulin resistance] at baseline), and "G" (glycosylated hemoglobin [A1c%] >8...
June 2016: Biomedical Journal
Jong Dai Kim, Won Young Lee
It is well known that many Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were non-obese and had decreased insulin secretion in past. However, during the past three decades, lifestyles in Korea have been westernized. As a result, the prevalence of obesity, the main cause of diabetes has increased. Thus, there is still a question as to whether the main pathophysiology of current Korean T2DM is insulin resistance or an insulin secretion defect. Because various anti-diabetes medications having different mechanisms of action are currently used as therapeutics, it is important to understand which of these factors is the main physiology in the development of diabetes in Koreans...
September 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism
Tushar Madaan, Mohd Akhtar, Abul Kalam Najmi
Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects millions of people worldwide and its prevalence is estimated to rise in the future. Billions of dollars are spent each year around the world in health expenditure related to diabetes. There are several anti-diabetic drugs in the market for the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In this article, we will be talking about a relatively new class of anti-diabetic drugs called sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. This class of drugs has a unique mechanism of action focusing on inhibition of glucose reabsorption that separates it from other classes...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Maira Bes-Rastrollo, Miguel A Martínez-González
Inflammation is an underlying pathophysiological process in chronic diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. In fact, a number of systematic reviews have shown the association between inflammatory biomarkers, such as CRP, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-4, or IL-10, and cardio-metabolic diseases. Diet is one of the main lifestyle-related factors which modulates the inflammatory process. Different individual foods and dietary patterns can have a beneficial health effect associated with their anti-inflammatory properties...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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