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innate immune system

Shannon C Agner, Robyn S Klein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are known to acutely cause pathology in the form of cytokine-mediated neural tissue damage and inflammation, the pathophysiology of neurologic sequelae after viral clearance is incompletely understood. RECENT FINDINGS: Alterations in microglial and glial biology in response to initial infiltration of immune cells that persist within the CNS have recently been shown to promote neuronal dysfunction and cognitive deficits in animal models of viral encephalitis...
March 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Anna E Kersh, Ron J Feldman
Rituximab is an anti-CD20 antibody used to deplete B lymphocytes in lymphoma and autoimmune disease. Case reports in the literature describe patients who paradoxically develop autoimmune disease in response to rituximab therapy. We review the reports of autoimmune pathology in response to rituximab treatment and the proposed mechanisms of this reaction. These autoimmune diseases manifest in various organ systems, most frequently the skin and lungs, and involve distinct mechanisms of pathogenesis mediated by potential alterations in B and T lymphocytes, innate immune system, and specific environmental factors...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Diane E Griffin, Wen-Hsuan W Lin, Ashley N Nelson
Measles is an acute systemic viral disease with initial amplification of infection in lymphoid tissue and subsequent spread over 10-14 days to multiple organs. Failure of the innate response to control initial measles virus (MeV) replication is associated with the ability of MeV to inhibit the induction of type I interferon and interferon-stimulated antiviral genes. Rather, the innate response is characterized by the expression of proteins regulated by nuclear factor kappa B and the inflammasome. With eventual development of the adaptive response, the rash appears with immune cell infiltration into sites of virus replication to initiate the clearance of infectious virus...
2018: F1000Research
Cynthia Louis, Chris Burns, Ian Wicks
The pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is driven by genetic predisposition and environmental triggers that lead to dysregulated immune responses. These include the generation of pathogenic autoantibodies and aberrant production of inflammatory cytokines. Current therapies for RA and other autoimmune diseases reduce inflammation by targeting inflammatory mediators, most of which are innate response cytokines, resulting in generalized immunosuppression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Petrus Linge, Paul R Fortin, Christian Lood, Anders A Bengtsson, Eric Boilard
Dysregulation of lymphocyte function, accumulation of autoantibodies and defective clearance of circulating immune complexes and apoptotic cells are hallmarks of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Moreover, it is now evident that an intricate interplay between the adaptive and innate immune systems contributes to the pathogenesis of SLE, ultimately resulting in chronic inflammation and organ damage. Platelets circulate in the blood and are chiefly recognized for their role in the prevention of bleeding and promotion of haemostasis; however, accumulating evidence points to a role for platelets in both adaptive and innate immunity...
March 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Michael Loesche, Kamyar Farahi, Kimberly Capone, Steven Fakharzadeh, Andrew Blauvelt, Kristina Callis Duffin, Samuel E DePrimo, Ernesto J Muñoz-Elías, Carrie Brodmerkel, Bidisha Dasgupta, Marc Chevrier, Kevin Smith, Joseph Horwinski, Amanda Tyldsley, Elizabeth A Grice
BACKGROUND: Plaque psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the skin, is thought to have a multifactorial etiology, including innate immune system dysregulation, environmental triggers, and genetic susceptibility. PURPOSE: We sought to further understand the role of skin microbiota in psoriasis pathogenesis, as well as their response to therapy. We systematically analyzed dynamic microbiota colonizing psoriasis lesions and adjacent nonlesional skin in 114 patients prior to and during ustekinumab treatment in a Phase 3b clinical trial...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Garcia-Chagollan Mariel, Carranza-Torres Irma Edith, Carranza-Rosales Pilar, Guzmán-Delgado Nancy Elena, Ramírez-Montoya Humberto, Martínez-Silva María Guadalupe, Mariscal-Ramirez Ignacio, Barrón-Gallardo Carlos Alfredo, Pereira-Suárez Ana Laura, Aguilar-Lemarroy Adriana, Jave-Suárez Luis Felipe
BACKGROUND: Currently, one of the most used strategies for the treatment of newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer is neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on the application of taxanes and anthracyclines. However, despite the high number of patients who develop a complete pathological clinical response, resistance and relapse following this therapy continue to be a clinical challenge. As a component of the innate immune system, the cytotoxic function of Natural Killer (NK) cells plays an important role in the elimination of tumor cells...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Timsy Uppal, Roni Sarkar, Ranjit Dhelaria, Subhash C Verma
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or Human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8), an oncogenic human herpesvirus and the leading cause of cancer in HIV-infected individuals, is a major public health concern with recurring reports of epidemics on a global level. The early detection of KSHV virus and subsequent activation of the antiviral immune response by the host's immune system are crucial to prevent KSHV infection. The host's immune system is an evolutionary conserved system that provides the most important line of defense against invading microbial pathogens, including viruses...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Kerri M Malone, Kévin Rue-Albrecht, David A Magee, Kevin Conlon, Olga T Schubert, Nicolas C Nalpas, John A Browne, Alicia Smyth, Eamonn Gormley, Ruedi Aebersold, David E MacHugh, Stephen V Gordon
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) are the causative agents of tuberculosis in a range of mammals, including humans. A key feature of MTBC pathogens is their high degree of genetic identity yet distinct host tropism. Notably, while Mycobacterium bovis is highly virulent and pathogenic for cattle, the human pathogen M. tuberculosis is attenuated in cattle. Previous research also suggests that host preference amongst MTBC members has a basis in host innate immune responses. To explore MTBC host tropism, we present in-depth profiling of the MTBC reference strains M...
March 20, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Geoffrey Littlejohn, Emma Guymer
Fibromyalgia is a high impact chronic pain disorder with a well-defined and robust clinical phenotype. Key features include widespread pain and tenderness, high levels of sleep disturbance, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and emotional distress. Abnormal processing of pain and other sensory input occurs in the brain, spinal cord and periphery and is related to the processes of central and peripheral sensitization. As such, fibromyalgia is deemed to be one of the central sensitivity syndromes. There is increasing evidence of neurogenically derived inflammatory mechanisms occurring in the peripheral tissues, spinal cord and brain in fibromyalgia...
March 19, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Xiaoyong Chen, Shasha Liu, Mohsan Ullah Goraya, Mohamed Maarouf, Shile Huang, Ji-Long Chen
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are contagious pathogens responsible for severe respiratory infection in humans and animals worldwide. Upon detection of IAV infection, host immune system aims to defend against and clear the viral infection. Innate immune system is comprised of physical barriers (mucus and collectins), various phagocytic cells, group of cytokines, interferons (IFNs), and IFN-stimulated genes, which provide first line of defense against IAV infection. The adaptive immunity is mediated by B cells and T cells, characterized with antigen-specific memory cells, capturing and neutralizing the pathogen...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Martin F Flajnik
The adaptive immune system arose 500 million years ago in ectothermic (cold-blooded) vertebrates. Classically, the adaptive immune system has been defined by the presence of lymphocytes expressing recombination-activating gene (RAG)-dependent antigen receptors and the MHC. These features are found in all jawed vertebrates, including cartilaginous and bony fish, amphibians and reptiles and are most likely also found in the oldest class of jawed vertebrates, the extinct placoderms. However, with the discovery of an adaptive immune system in jawless fish based on an entirely different set of antigen receptors - the variable lymphocyte receptors - the divergence of T and B cells, and perhaps innate-like lymphocytes, goes back to the origin of all vertebrates...
March 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Corinne Cayrol, Anais Duval, Pauline Schmitt, Stephane Roga, Mylène Camus, Alexandre Stella, Odile Burlet-Schiltz, Anne Gonzalez-de-Peredo, Jean-Philippe Girard
Allergic inflammation has crucial roles in allergic diseases such as asthma. It is therefore important to understand why and how the immune system responds to allergens. Here we found that full-length interleukin 33 (IL-33FL ), an alarmin cytokine with critical roles in type 2 immunity and asthma, functioned as a protease sensor that detected proteolytic activities associated with various environmental allergens across four kingdoms, including fungi, house dust mites, bacteria and pollens. When exposed to allergen proteases, IL-33FL was rapidly cleaved in its central 'sensor' domain, which led to activation of the production of type 2 cytokines in group 2 innate lymphoid cells...
March 19, 2018: Nature Immunology
Arunkumar Krishnan, Lakshminarayan M Iyer, Stephen J Holland, Thomas Boehm, L Aravind
AID/APOBEC deaminases (AADs) convert cytidine to uridine in single-stranded nucleic acids. They are involved in numerous mutagenic processes, including those underpinning vertebrate innate and adaptive immunity. Using a multipronged sequence analysis strategy, we uncover several AADs across metazoa, dictyosteliida, and algae, including multiple previously unreported vertebrate clades, and versions from urochordates, nematodes, echinoderms, arthropods, lophotrochozoans, cnidarians, and porifera. Evolutionary analysis suggests a fundamental division of AADs early in metazoan evolution into secreted deaminases (SNADs) and classical AADs, followed by diversification into several clades driven by rapid-sequence evolution, gene loss, lineage-specific expansions, and lateral transfer to various algae...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hantao Lou, Matthew C Pickering
Extracellular DNA is secreted from various sources including apoptotic cells, NETotic neutrophils and bacterial biofilms. Extracellular DNA can stimulate innate immune responses to induce type-I IFN production after being endocytosed. This process is central in antiviral responses but it also plays important role in the pathogenesis of a range of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. We discuss the recent advances in the understanding of the role of extracellular DNA, released from apoptotic and NETotic cells, in autoimmunity...
March 19, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
M Sacchetti, I Abicca, A Bruscolini, C Cavaliere, M Nebbioso, A Lambiase
Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) includes a wide spectrum of clinical entities characterized by different incidence, age of onset, natural course, clinical outcome and response to treatment. Taken together, they represent one of the most frequent ocular surface diseases affecting more than 30% of the young-adult population and show an increasing incidence over the years. Moreover, comorbidities with other systemic atopic conditions such as asthma, atopic dermatitis and rhinitis require a multidisciplinary approach...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Jacob D Estes, Roger LeGrand, Constantinos Petrovas
Immunological inductive tissues, such as secondary lymphoid organs, are composed of distinct anatomical microenvironments for the generation of immune responses to pathogens and immunogens. These microenvironments are characterized by the compartmentalization of highly specialized immune and stromal cell populations, as well as the presence of a complex network of soluble factors and chemokines that direct the intra-tissue trafficking of naïve and effector cell populations. Imaging platforms have provided critical contextual information regarding the molecular and cellular interactions that orchestrate the spatial microanatomy of relevant cells and the development of immune responses against pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Srikant Rangaraju, Syed Ali Raza, Noel Xiang'An Li, Ranjita Betarbet, Eric B Dammer, Duc Duong, James J Lah, Nicholas T Seyfried, Allan I Levey
In the central nervous system (CNS), microglia are innate immune mononuclear phagocytes (CNS MPs) that can phagocytose infectious particles, apoptotic cells, neurons, and pathological protein aggregates, such as Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD). While CD11b+ CD45low microglia account for the majority of CNS MPs, a small population of CD11b+ CD45high CNS MPs is also recognized in AD that surround Aβ plaques. These transcriptionally and pathologically unique CD45high cells have unclear origin and undefined phagocytic characteristics...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Siddharth Mallapragada, Ananya Wadhwa, Pallavi Agrawal
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are biological molecules bridging the innate and acquired immune systems of the defense mechanism. They have been found to be effective against not only Gram-positive and -negative bacterial species but also fungi and viruses with their broad spectrum of activity. Among the various niches where they are found in the human body, in the oral cavity, the AMPs are secreted by the epithelial cells, defense cells, crevicular fluid, and in the salivary secretions and form the first line of defense against bacterial invasion...
November 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Stephanie C Ray, Chad A Rappleye
The dimorphic fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum takes advantage of the innate immune system, utilizing host macrophages as a proliferative niche while largely avoiding stimulation of signaling host receptors. As a result, innate immune cells are unable to control H. capsulatum on their own. Not all host phagocytes respond to H. capsulatum in the same way, with neutrophils and dendritic cells playing important roles in impeding fungal growth and initiating a protective TH 1 response, respectively. Dendritic cells prime T-cell differentiation after internalization of yeasts via VLA-5 receptors and subsequent degradation of the yeasts...
March 15, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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