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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814067/neuro-immune-interactions-in-allergic-diseases-novel-targets-for-therapeutics
#1
Tiphaine Voisin, Amélie Bouvier, Isaac M Chiu
Recent studies have highlighted an emerging role for neuro-immune interactions in mediating allergic diseases. Allergies are caused by an overactive immune response to a foreign antigen. The peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous system densely innervates mucosal barrier tissues including the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are exposed to allergens. It is increasingly clear that neurons actively communicate with and regulate the function of mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814066/mice-expressing-human-erap1-variants-associated-with-ankylosing-spondylitis-have-altered-t-cell-repertoires-and-nk-cell-functions-as-well-as-increased-in-utero-and-perinatal-mortality
#2
David P W Rastall, Fadel S Alyaquob, Patrick O'Connell, Yuliya Pepelyayeva, Douglas Peters, Sarah Godbehere-Roosa, Cristiane Pereira-Hicks, Yasser A Aldhamen, Andrea Amalfitano
Specific variants of endoplasmic reticulum-associated aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) identified by genome-wide association study modify the risk for developing ankylosing spondylitis. We previously confirmed that disease-associated ERAP1 variants have altered enzymatic abilities that can impact upon the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from cells expressing the same ERAP1 variants. To determine if these ERAP1 variants also impacted immune responses in vivo, we generated two strains of transgenic mice expressing human ERAP1 genes containing non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with an increased (ERAP1-High) or decreased (ERAP1-Low) risk for developing autoimmune disease...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813640/innate-immune-signaling-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-contributes-to-drug-primed-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking
#3
Kyle T Brown, Sophia C Levis, Casey E O'Neill, Alexis L Northcutt, Timothy J Fabisiak, Linda R Watkins, Ryan K Bachtell
Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by persistent perturbations to an organism's homeostatic processes that result in maladaptive drug seeking. Although considerable attention has been directed at the consequences of neuronal changes following chronic cocaine taking, few studies have examined the role of microglia, the brain's resident immune cells, following chronic cocaine administration. Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) is a molecular pattern receptor that recognizes pathogens, danger signals, and xenobiotics and induces proinflammatory signaling in the central nervous system...
August 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813529/natural-and-artificial-feeding-management-before-weaning-promote-different-rumen-microbial-colonization-but-not-differences-in-gene-expression-levels-at-the-rumen-epithelium-of-newborn-goats
#4
Leticia Abecia, Elisabeth Jiménez, Gonzalo Martínez-Fernandez, A Ignacio Martín-García, Eva Ramos-Morales, Eric Pinloche, Stuart E Denman, C Jamie Newbold, David R Yáñez-Ruiz
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding management during the first month of life (natural with the mother, NAT, or artificial with milk replacer, ART) on the rumen microbial colonization and the host innate immune response. Thirty pregnant goats carrying two fetuses were used. At birth one kid was taken immediately away from the doe and fed milk replacer (ART) while the other remained with the mother (NAT). Kids from groups received colostrum during first 2 days of life. Groups of four kids (from ART and NAT experimental groups) were slaughtered at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813514/the-helicobacter-pylori-type-iv-secretion-system-promotes-il-8-synthesis-in-a-model-of-pediatric-airway-epithelium-via-p38-map-kinase
#5
Myra G Dela Pena-Ponce, Monica T Jimenez, Lori M Hansen, Jay V Solnick, Lisa A Miller
Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse relationship between childhood Helicobacter pylori infection and development of allergic asthma. Because lung epithelium plays an important role in allergic asthma pathogenesis, we hypothesized that H. pylori may directly influence airway epithelial cell innate immune function, particularly in early childhood. To test our hypothesis, we established an in vitro H. pylori infection model using primary tracheobronchial epithelial cell cultures derived from infant, juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812775/polymorphic-light-eruption-and-il-1-family-members-any-difference-with-allergic-contact-dermatitis
#6
S Lembo, G Caiazzo, N Balato, G Monfrecola, V Patra, P Wolf, A Balato
Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) is described as a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR) toward a de novo light-induced antigen, yet to be identified. In effect, the inflammatory pathways of PLE and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) share common patterns in terms of the mediators involved from the innate and adaptive immune system participating in the DTHR. As we have previously highlighted the role of interleukin (IL)-1 family members in ACD, we hypothesised that the same mediators could have similar functions in PLE...
August 16, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812709/adaptation-to-deep-sea-chemosynthetic-environments-as-revealed-by-mussel-genomes
#7
Jin Sun, Yu Zhang, Ting Xu, Yang Zhang, Huawei Mu, Yanjie Zhang, Yi Lan, Christopher J Fields, Jerome Ho Lam Hui, Weipeng Zhang, Runsheng Li, Wenyan Nong, Fiona Ka Man Cheung, Jian-Wen Qiu, Pei-Yuan Qian
Hydrothermal vents and methane seeps are extreme deep-sea ecosystems that support dense populations of specialized macro-benthos such as mussels. But the lack of genome information hinders the understanding of the adaptation of these animals to such inhospitable environments. Here we report the genomes of a deep-sea vent/seep mussel (Bathymodiolus platifrons) and a shallow-water mussel (Modiolus philippinarum). Phylogenetic analysis shows that these mussel species diverged approximately 110.4 million years ago...
April 3, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812393/innate-lymphoid-cells-the-role-in-respiratory-infections-and-lung-tissue-damage
#8
Anna Głobińska, Marek L Kowalski
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent a diverse family of cells of the innate immune system, which play an important role in regulation of tissue homeostasis, immunity and inflammation. Emerging evidence has highlighted the importance of ILCs in both protective immunity to respiratory infections and their pathological roles in the lungs. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge, interpret and integrate it into broader perspective, enabling greater insight into the role of ILCs in respiratory diseases...
August 16, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812211/the-immune-system-in-obesity-developing-paradigms-amidst-inconvenient-truths
#9
REVIEW
Madhur Agrawal, Philip A Kern, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adipose tissue (AT) houses both innate and adaptive immune systems that are crucial for preserving AT function and metabolic homeostasis. In this review, we summarize recent information regarding progression of obesity-associated AT inflammation and insulin resistance. We additionally consider alterations in AT distribution and the immune system in males vs. females and among different racial populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Innate and adaptive immune cell-derived inflammation drives insulin resistance both locally and systemically...
August 15, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811704/gastrointestinal-neuroendocrine-peptides-amines-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
REVIEW
Magdy El-Salhy, Tefera Solomon, Trygve Hausken, Odd Helge Gilja, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic recurrent condition whose etiology is unknown, and it includes ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and microscopic colitis. These three diseases differ in clinical manifestations, courses, and prognoses. IBD reduces the patients' quality of life and is an economic burden to both the patients and society. Interactions between the gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine peptides/amines (NEPA) and the immune system are believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of IBD...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811681/osteopontin-impacts-west-nile-virus-pathogenesis-and-resistance-by-regulating-inflammasome-components-and-cell-death-in-the-central-nervous-system-at-early-time-points
#11
Nikki Bortell, Claudia Flynn, Bruno Conti, Howard S Fox, Maria Cecilia G Marcondes
Osteopontin (OPN) is a molecule that is common in central nervous system (CNS) pathologies, which participates in the activation, migration, and survival of inflammatory cells. However, the mechanisms by which OPN modulates inflammatory pathways are not clear. To understand the role of OPN in CNS viral infections, we used a lethal mouse model of West Nile virus (WNV), characterized by the injection of high doses of the Eg101 strain of WNV, causing the increase of OPN levels in the brain since early time points...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811347/tifa-signaling-in-gastric-epithelial-cells-initiates-the-cag-type-4-secretion-system-dependent-innate-immune-response-to-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#12
Alevtina Gall, Ryan G Gaudet, Scott D Gray-Owen, Nina R Salama
Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, causing inflammation which, in some cases, leads to gastric ulcers and cancer. The clinical outcome of infection depends on a complex interplay of bacterial, host genetic, and environmental factors. Although H. pylori is recognized by both the innate and adaptive immune systems, this rarely results in bacterial clearance. Gastric epithelial cells are the first line of defense against H. pylori and alert the immune system to bacterial presence...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810880/nlrp7-contributes-to-in-vitro-decidualization-of-endometrial-stromal-cells
#13
Jyun-Yuan Huang, Pei-Hsiu Yu, Yueh-Chun Li, Pao-Lin Kuo
BACKGROUND: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NACHT), leucine rich repeat (LRR) and pyrin domain (PYD) 7 containing protein, NLRP7, is a member of the NLR family which serves as innate immune sensors. Mutations and genetic variants of NLRP7 have been found in women with infertility associated conditions, such as recurrent hydatidiform mole, recurrent miscarriage, and preeclampsia. Decidualization of endometrial stromal cells is a hallmark of tissue remodeling to support embryo implantation and proper placental development...
August 15, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810801/may-dietary-supplementation-augment-respiratory-burst-in-wound-site-inflammatory-cells
#14
Amitava Das, Ryan Dickerson, Piya Das Ghatak, Gayle Gordillo, Scott Chaffee, Abhijoy Saha, Savita Khanna, Sashwati Roy
Persistent infection contributes to wound chronicity. At the wound-site, NADPH oxidase activity in immune cells fights infection to enable the healing process. Fermented Papaya Preparation (FPP) is a carbohydrate-rich nutritional supplement that has demonstrated ability to bolster respiratory burst in experimental rodent systems. In FPP, glucose co-exists with fructose and maltose in addition to multiple other sugar alcohols such as inositol. We have previously reported that FPP supplementation augments wound healing in diabetic mice via improvement of respiratory-burst activity of wound innate immune cells...
August 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809949/maturation-dependent-expression-of-aim2-in-human-b-cells
#15
Alexandra Svensson, Marianela Patzi Churqui, Kerstin Schlüter, Liza Lind, Kristina Eriksson
Intracellular DNA- and RNA-sensing receptors, such as the IFN-inducible protein Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2), serve as host sensors against a wide range of infections. Immune sensing and inflammasome activation by AIM2 has been implicated in innate antiviral recognition in many experimental systems using cell-lines and animal models. However, little is known about the expression and function of AIM2 in freshly isolated human cells. In this study we investigated the expression of AIM2 in different cell types derived from human cord and adult peripheral blood, in steady state and following in vitro-activation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808975/isolation-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-from-mouse-lungs
#16
Claudia U Duerr, Jörg H Fritz
The recently described group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) exert critical roles in type 2 immune responses, epithelial repair at mucosal tissues and metabolic homeostasis. ILC2 release large amounts of type 2 cytokines such as interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13, driving type 2 immunity such as the defense against helminths. However, if not tightly regulated ILC2 can trigger unwanted type 2 immunopathologies including allergic airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness, and atopic dermatitis. Viral respiratory tract infections, archetypal triggers of type 1 immune responses, often give rise to pulmonary type 2 immunopathologies such as asthma and asthma exacerbations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808972/chromosome-conformation-capture-for-research-on-innate-antiviral-immunity
#17
Yoon Jung Kim, Tae Hoon Kim
Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology has revolutionized our knowledge on chromatin folding and nuclear organization. This cis-loop detection approach can be used to identify candidate regulatory elements interacting with target gene of interest. This chapter introduces the application of 3C technique to investigate a dynamic alteration in the chromosome folding structure or genomic architecture resulting from interaction changes between the enhancer and its target gene. Innate antiviral immunity is one of the well-known gene induction systems, involving rapid first-line response to virus or pathogen to trigger gene expression changes in order to protect cells and to limit further infection...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808968/cgamp-quantification-in-virus-infected-human-monocyte-derived-cells-by-hplc-coupled-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
Jennifer Paijo, Volkhard Kaever, Ulrich Kalinke
Upon virus infection, cells of the innate immune system such as dendritic cells and macrophages can mount type I interferon (IFN-I) responses that restrict viral dissemination. To inform host cells of virus infection, detection of cytosolic DNA is one important mechanism. Inappropriate sensing of endogenous DNA and subsequent induction of IFN-I responses can also cause autoimmunity, highlighting the need to tightly regulate DNA sensing. The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) was recently identified to be the major sensor of cytosolic DNA that triggers IFN-I expression...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808961/zebrafish-as-a-model-for-the-study-of-host-virus-interactions
#19
Peng Fei Zou, Pin Nie
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become an increasingly important model for in vivo and in vitro studies on host-pathogen interaction, offering scientists with optical accessibility and genetic tractability, and a vertebrate-type immunity that can be separated into innate and adaptive ones. Although it is shown in previous studies that few species of viruses can naturally infect zebrafish, the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV), a rhabdovirus that causes contagious acute hemorrhagic viraemia in a variety of cyprinid fishes, can infect zebrafish by both injection and static immersion methods in laboratory conditions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808328/light-guided-in-vivo-activation-of-innate-immune-cells-with-photocaged-tlr-2-6-agonist
#20
Keun Ah Ryu, Bethany McGonnigal, Troy Moore, Tawnya Kargupta, Rock J Mancini, Aaron P Esser-Kahn
The complexity of the immune system creates challenges in exploring its importance and robustness. To date, there have been few techniques developed to manipulate individual components of the immune system in an in vivo environment. Here we show a light-based dendritic cell (DC) activation allowing spatial and temporal control of immune activation in vivo. Additionally, we show time dependent changes in RNA profiles of the draining lymph node, suggesting a change in cell profile following DC migration and indicating that the cells migrating have been activated towards antigen presentation...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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