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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341877/characterizing-the-effects-of-insertion-of-a-5-2%C3%A2-kb-region-of-a-vacv-genome-which-contains-known-immune-evasion-genes-on-mva-immunogenicity
#1
Melissa R Ryerson, Joanna L Shisler
Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated Vaccinia virus (VACV) that is a popular vaccine vector candidate against many different pathogens. Its replication-restricted nature makes it a safe vaccine. However, higher doses or multiple boosts of MVA are necessary to elicit an immune response similar to wild-type VACV. Multiple strategies have been used to create modified MVA viruses that remain safe, but have increased immunogenicity. For example, one common strategy is to delete MVA immunomodulatory proteins in hopes of increasing the host immune response...
January 13, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341450/characterization-of-a-novel-papain-inducible-murine-model-of-eosinophilic-rhinosinusitis
#2
Anuj Tharakan, Alex Dobzanski, Nyall R London, Syed M Khalil, Nitya Surya, Andrew P Lane, Murugappan Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is a disease characterized by eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate and a local type 2 cytokine milieu. Current animal models fail to recapitulate many of the innate and adaptive immunologic hallmarks of the disease, thus hindering the development of effective therapeutics. In the present study, mice were exposed intranasally to the cysteine protease papain, which shares functional similarities with parasitic proteases and aeroallergens, to generate a rapidly inducible murine model of eosinophilic rhinosinusitis...
January 17, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339461/cooperative-immune-suppression-by-escherichia-coli-and-shigella-effector-proteins
#3
Maarten F de Jong, Neal M Alto
The enteric attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens EHEC and EPEC and invasive pathogens EIEC and Shigella encode Type III secretion systems (T3SS) used to inject effector proteins into human host cells during infection. Among these are a group of effectors required for NF-κB mediated host immune evasion. Recent studies have identified several effector proteins from A/E pathogens and EIEC/Shigella that are involved in suppression of NF-κB and uncovered their cellular and molecular functions. A novel mechanism among these effectors from both groups of pathogens is to coordinate effector function during infection...
January 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339423/immune-protection-against-lethal-fungal-bacterial-intra-abdominal-infections
#4
Elizabeth A Lilly, Melanie Ikeh, Evelyn E Nash, Paul L Fidel, Mairi C Noverr
Polymicrobial intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) are clinically prevalent and cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially those involving fungi. Our laboratory developed a mouse model of IAI and demonstrated that intraperitoneal inoculation with Candida albicans or other virulent non-albicans Candida (NAC) species plus Staphylococcus aureus resulted in 70 to 80% mortality in 48 to 72 h due to robust local and systemic inflammation (sepsis). Surprisingly, inoculation with Candida dubliniensis or Candida glabrata with S...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338093/longitudinal-profiles-of-metabolism-and-bioenergetics-associated-with-innate-immune-hormonal-inflammatory-responses-and-amino-acid-kinetics-in-severe-sepsis-and-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-in-children
#5
Anna Maria Spanaki, Theonymfi Tavladaki, Helen Dimitriou, Andrey V Kozlov, J Catharina Duvigneau, Eftychia Meleti, Adelheid Weidinger, Evangelos Papakonstantinou, George Briassoulis
BACKGROUND: Experimental data indicate that sepsis influences the mitochondrial function and metabolism. We aim to investigate longitudinal bioenergetic, metabolic, hormonal, amino-acid, and innate immunity changes in children with sepsis. METHODS: Sixty-eight children (sepsis, 18; systemic inflammatory response syndrome [SIRS], 23; healthy controls, 27) were enrolled. Plasma amino acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); flow-cytometry expressed as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of heat shock protein (HSP) levels from monocytes (m) and neutrophils (n); resistin, adiponectin, and extracellular (e) HSPs evaluated by ELISA; ATP levels in white blood cells by luciferase luminescent assay; lipid peroxidation products (TBARS) by colorimetric test; nitrite and nitrate levels by chemiluminescent assay; biliverdin reductase (BVR) activity by enzymatic assay; and energy-expenditure (EE) by E-COVX...
January 16, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337856/interaction-between-hepatitis-b-virus-and-toll-like-receptors-current-status-and-potential-therapeutic-use-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#6
REVIEW
Zhiyong Ma, Qian Cao, Yong Xiong, Ejuan Zhang, Mengji Lu
Immune defense against infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is complex and involves both host innate and adaptive immune systems. It is well accepted that the development of sufficient HBV-specific T cell and B cell responses are required for controlling an HBV infection. However, the contribution of innate immunity to removing HBV has been explored in recent years. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are recognized as the first line of antiviral immunity because they initiate intracellular signaling pathways to induce antiviral mediators such as interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines...
January 16, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337070/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-contributors-to-defective-cd8-t-cell-responses-with-aging
#7
REVIEW
Mladen Jergović, Megan J Smithey, Janko Nikolich-Žugich
Aging has a profound effect on the immune system, and both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system show functional decline with age. In response to infection with intracellular microorganisms, old animals mobilize decreased numbers of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells with reduced production of effector molecules and impaired cytolytic activity. However, the CD8+ T cell-intrinsic contribution to, and molecular mechanisms behind, these defects remain unclear. In this review we will discuss the mechanistic contributions of age related changes in the CD8+ T cell pool and the relative roles of intrinsic functional defects in aged CD8+ T cells vs...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334418/antimicrobial-and-stress-responses-to-increased-temperature-and-bacterial-pathogen-challenge-in-the-holobiont-of-a-reef-building-coral
#8
Jeroen A J M van de Water, Maryam Chaib De Mares, Groves B Dixon, Jean-Baptiste Raina, Bette L Willis, David G Bourne, Madeleine J H van Oppen
Global increases in coral disease prevalence have been linked to ocean warming through changes in coral-associated bacterial communities, pathogen virulence and immune system function. However, the interactive effects of temperature and pathogens on the coral holobiont are poorly understood. Here, we assessed three compartments of the holobiont (host, Symbiodinium, bacterial community) of the coral Montipora aequituberculata challenged with the pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus and the commensal bacterium Oceanospirillales sp...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333691/the-innate-immune-system-in-chronic-cardiomyopathy-a-european-society-of-cardiology-esc-scientific-statement-from-the-working-group-on-myocardial-function-of-the-esc
#9
REVIEW
Stefan Frantz, Ines Falcao-Pires, Jean-Luc Balligand, Johann Bauersachs, Dirk Brutsaert, Michele Ciccarelli, Dana Dawson, Leon J de Windt, Mauro Giacca, Nazha Hamdani, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner, Emilio Hirsch, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Manuel Mayr, Thomas Thum, Carlo G Tocchetti, Jolanda van der Velden, Gilda Varricchi, Stephane Heymans
Activation of the immune system in heart failure (HF) has been recognized for over 20 years. Initially, experimental studies demonstrated a maladaptive role of the immune system. However, several phase III trials failed to show beneficial effects in HF with therapies directed against an immune activation. Preclinical studies today describe positive and negative effects of immune activation in HF. These different effects depend on timing and aetiology of HF. Therefore, herein we give a detailed review on immune mechanisms and their importance for the development of HF with a special focus on commonalities and differences between different forms of cardiomyopathies...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333670/pustular-psoriasis-and-related-pustular-skin-diseases
#10
REVIEW
H Bachelez
Patients with pustular psoriasis or related pustular diseases may have genetic abnormalities impairing the function of key players of the innate skin immune system. Recently, identification of these abnormalities has changed the paradigm of several of these diseases. These include generalized pustular psoriasis, palmoplantar pustular psoriasis and acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau, and also drug-induced acute exanthematous generalized pustular eruption. Identified mutations in IL36RN, CARD14 and AP1S3 in different groups of patients lead to enhanced inflammatory cascade in several cellular subtypes including keratinocytes, and to the recruitment and activation of neutrophils and macrophages...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332285/immunity-associated-programmed-cell-death-as-a-tool-for-the-identification-of-genes-essential-for-plant-innate-immunity
#11
Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng
Plants have evolved a sophisticated innate immune system to contend with potential infection by various pathogens. Understanding and manipulation of key molecular mechanisms that plants use to defend against various pathogens are critical for developing novel strategies in plant disease control. In plants, resistance to attempted pathogen infection is often associated with hypersensitive response (HR), a form of rapid programmed cell death (PCD) at the site of attempted pathogen invasion. In this chapter, we describe a method for rapid identification of genes that are essential for plant innate immunity...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331956/adenosine-production-by-biomaterial-supported-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-reduces-the-innate-inflammatory-response-in-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#12
Eric Y Shin, Lanfang Wang, Marina Zemskova, Juline Deppen, Kai Xu, Frederick Strobel, Andrés J García, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Rebecca D Levit
BACKGROUND: During myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury, there is extensive release of immunogenic metabolites that activate cells of the innate immune system. These include ATP and AMP, which upregulate chemotaxis, migration, and effector function of early infiltrating inflammatory cells. These cells subsequently drive further tissue devitalization. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a potential treatment modality for MI/R because of their powerful anti-inflammatory capabilities; however, the manner in which they regulate the acute inflammatory milieu requires further elucidation...
January 13, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331367/molecular-characterization-and-differential-expression-analysis-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-from-ovis-aries
#13
Yi-Ming Shui, Shi-Ying Lu, Xing Guo, Xi-Lin Liu, Bao-Quan Fu, Pan Hu, Lin-Lin Qu, Nan-Nan Liu, Yan-Song Li, Lu-Lu Wang, Fei-Fei Zhai, Dan-Di Ju, Zeng-Shan Liu, Yu Zhou, Hong-Lin Ren
The interleukin-1 family is an important component of the innate immune system and plays an important role in regulating immune responses on the invasion of intracellular parasites in the acquired immune system. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is one of the members of the IL-1 family that predominantly activates downstream signaling pathways to play immunological functions of stimulating T and B lymphocyte activation and promoting the various syntheses of inflammatory substances in conjunction with other cytokines...
January 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330325/cutting-edge-plasmodium-falciparum-induces-trained-innate-immunity
#14
Jacob E Schrum, Juliet N Crabtree, Katherine R Dobbs, Michael C Kiritsy, George W Reed, Ricardo T Gazzinelli, Mihai G Netea, James W Kazura, Arlene E Dent, Katherine A Fitzgerald, Douglas T Golenbock
Malarial infection in naive individuals induces a robust innate immune response. In the recently described model of innate immune memory, an initial stimulus primes the innate immune system to either hyperrespond (termed training) or hyporespond (tolerance) to subsequent immune challenge. Previous work in both mice and humans demonstrated that infection with malaria can both serve as a priming stimulus and promote tolerance to subsequent infection. In this study, we demonstrate that initial stimulation with Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs or the malaria crystal hemozoin induced human adherent PBMCs to hyperrespond to subsequent ligation of TLR2...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329794/redox-signals-and-macrophage-biology-for-the-upcoming-issue-of-molecular-aspects-of-medicine-on-signaling-by-reactive-oxygen-species
#15
REVIEW
Andreas Weigert, Andreas von Knethen, Dominik Fuhrmann, Nathalie Dehne, Bernhard Brüne
Macrophages are known for their versatile role in biology. They sense and clear structures that contain exogenous or endogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This process is tightly linked to the production of a mixture of potentially harmful oxidants and cytokines. Their inherent destructive behavior is directed against foreign material or structures of 'altered self', which explains the role of macrophages during innate immune reactions and inflammation. However, there is also another side of macrophages when they turn into a tissue regenerative, pro-resolving, and healing phenotype...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329391/oxidative-burst-and-dectin-1-triggered-phagocytosis-affected-by-norepinephrine-and-endocannabinoids-implications-for-fungal-clearance-under-stress
#16
Judith-Irina Buchheim, Spencer Hoskyns, Dominique Moser, Bing Han, Elisabeth Deindl, Marion Hörl, Katharina Biere, Matthias Feuerecker, Gustav Schelling, Alexander Chouker
A prolonged stress burden is known to hamper the efficiency of both the innate and adaptive immune systems and to attenuate the stress responses by the catecholaminergic and endocannabinoid (EC) systems. Key mechanisms of innate immunity are the eradication of pathogens through phagocytosis and the respiratory burst. We tested the concentration-dependent, spontaneous and stimulated (via TNFα and fMLP) release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by human PMNs in vitro in response to norepinephrine (NE) and AM1241, a pharmacological ligand for the endocannabinoid receptor CB2...
January 10, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328911/western-diet-triggers-nlrp3-dependent-innate-immune-reprogramming
#17
Anette Christ, Patrick Günther, Mario A R Lauterbach, Peter Duewell, Debjani Biswas, Karin Pelka, Claus J Scholz, Marije Oosting, Kristian Haendler, Kevin Baßler, Kathrin Klee, Jonas Schulte-Schrepping, Thomas Ulas, Simone J C F M Moorlag, Vinod Kumar, Min Hi Park, Leo A B Joosten, Laszlo A Groh, Niels P Riksen, Terje Espevik, Andreas Schlitzer, Yang Li, Michael L Fitzgerald, Mihai G Netea, Joachim L Schultze, Eicke Latz
Long-term epigenetic reprogramming of innate immune cells in response to microbes, also termed "trained immunity," causes prolonged altered cellular functionality to protect from secondary infections. Here, we investigated whether sterile triggers of inflammation induce trained immunity and thereby influence innate immune responses. Western diet (WD) feeding of Ldlr-/- mice induced systemic inflammation, which was undetectable in serum soon after mice were shifted back to a chow diet (CD). In contrast, myeloid cell responses toward innate stimuli remained broadly augmented...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328787/immune-responses-to-retroviruses
#18
Asier Saez-Cirion, Nicolas Manel
Retroviruses are genome invaders that have shared a long history of coevolution with vertebrates and their immune system. Found endogenously in genomes as traces of past invasions, retroviruses are also considerable threats to human health when they exist as exogenous viruses such as HIV. The immune response to retroviruses is engaged by germline-encoded sensors of innate immunity that recognize viral components and damage induced by the infection. This response develops with the induction of antiviral effectors and launching of the clonal adaptive immune response, which can contribute to protective immunity...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328416/endotoxin-tolerance-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-preconditioning-protects-against-surgery%C3%A2-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-aging-mice
#19
Zhijie Zhang, Muhuo Ji, Yanlin Liao, Jianjun Yang, Jun Gao
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by varying degrees of cognitive functional decline in patients following major surgery. Inflammation and a dysregulated innate immune system exert broad effects in the periphery and central nervous system, yet the mechanisms underlying POCD remain poorly understood and without effective therapy. It has been reported that modulation of the dysregulated inflammatory response with low‑dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning, a phenomenon additionally referred to as endotoxin tolerance, has the potential to reduce neuroinflammation, blood‑brain barrier disruption, and cognitive impairment in a number of disease states...
January 2, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327704/emerging-nonmetabolic-functions-of-skin-fat
#20
REVIEW
Christian F Guerrero-Juarez, Maksim V Plikus
Although the major white adipose depots evolved primarily to store energy, secrete hormones and thermo-insulate the body, multiple secondary depots developed additional specialized and unconventional functions. Unlike any other fat tissue, dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) evolved a large repertoire of novel features that are central to skin physiology, which we discuss in this Review. dWAT exists in close proximity to hair follicles, the principal appendages of the skin that periodically grow new hairs. Responding to multiple hair-derived signals, dWAT becomes closely connected to cycling hair follicles and periodically cycles itself...
January 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
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