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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546564/roles-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-in-the-maintenance-of-gut-homeostasis
#1
REVIEW
Ryu Okumura, Kiyoshi Takeda
The intestine is a unique organ inhabited by a tremendous number of microorganisms. Intestinal epithelial cells greatly contribute to the maintenance of the symbiotic relationship between gut microbiota and the host by constructing mucosal barriers, secreting various immunological mediators and delivering bacterial antigens. Mucosal barriers, including physical barriers and chemical barriers, spatially segregate gut microbiota and the host immune system to avoid unnecessary immune responses to gut microbes, leading to the intestinal inflammation...
May 26, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546114/melaleuca-alternifolia-essential-oil-prevents-alterations-to-purinergic-enzymes-and-ameliorates-the-innate-immune-response-in-silver-catfish-infected-with-aeromonas-hydrophila
#2
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Pedro H Doleski, Agueda C de Vargas, Marta M M F Duarte, Thiago Duarte, Aline A Boligon, Daniela B R Leal, Bernardo Baldisserotto
Aeromonas hydrophila infection represents a major impediment to the development of aquaculture, leading to important economic losses. Over the last few years, different methods have been used to counteract and minimize the negative effects of this infection, such as the use of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, popularly known as tea tree oil (TTO), that possess a bactericide action against A. hydrophila. The purinergic system develops an important role in the inflammatory response, principally due to involvement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the inflammatory process, as well as by the anti-inflammatory properties of adenosine (Ado), a molecule that is controlled by NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzymes...
May 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546022/expression-of-immune-genes-in-systemic-and-mucosal-immune-tissues-of-channel-catfish-vaccinated-with-live-theronts-of-ichthyophthirius-multifiliis
#3
De-Hai Xu, Gabriel S A Moreira, Craig A Shoemaker, Dunhua Zhang, Benjamin H Beck
Ichthyophthiriasis caused by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) has a worldwide distribution and affects most freshwater fishes. Fish surviving natural infection and/or immunized with Ich develop strong innate and adaptive immune responses. However, there is a lack of the knowledge regarding immune gene expression patterns in systemic and mucosal immune tissues, and how immune genes interact and lead to innate and adaptive immune protection against Ich infection in fish. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of innate and adaptive immune-related genes in systemic (liver, spleen) and mucosal (gill, intestine) tissues of channel catfish over time following vaccination with live Ich theronts...
May 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546018/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-three-tlr-genes-in-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-responses-to-stimulation-of-aeromonas-hydrophila-and-tlr-ligands
#4
Kai-Lun Wang, Wei Ji, Gui-Rong Zhang, Kai-Jian Wei, Ze-Chao Shi, Xiao-Ting Zhang, Huan Zheng, Qi-Xue Fan
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the most extensively researched pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and play an important role in the innate immune system. In this study, partial cDNA sequences of the Pf_TLR18 and Pf_TLR19 genes and complete cDNA sequence of the Pf_TLR21 gene were cloned from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). The open reading frames (ORFs) of the Pf_TLR18, Pf_TLR19 and Pf_TLR21 genes were 1956 bp, 2262 bp and 2949 bp in length, encoding 651, 753 and 982 amino acids, respectively...
May 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545959/serpin-14-negatively-regulates-prophenoloxidase-activation-and-expression-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-chinese-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#5
Saima Kausar, Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Cen Qian, Baojian Zhu, Yu Sun, Yuxuan Sun, Lei Wang, Guoqing Wei, Iram Maqsood, Chao-Liang Liu
Genes encoding proteins of serpins superfamily are widely distributed in invertebrates. In insects, serpins play important roles in regulating immune responses and other physiological processes. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of cDNA of Apserpin-14 from Chinese oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi). The Apserpin-14 gene contains 1206 bp open reading frame, encoding a predicted 401 amino acid residue protein. We expressed the recombinant Apserpin-14 protein in Escherichia coli and then purified protein was used to prepare rabbit anti-Apserpin-14 polyclonal antibodies...
May 22, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545241/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-hn001-and-lactobacillus-acidophilus-la-14-attenuate-gardnerella-vaginalis-infected-bacterial-vaginosis-in-mice
#6
Se-Eun Jang, Jin-Ju Jeong, Su-Young Choi, Hyunji Kim, Myung Joo Han, Dong-Hyun Kim
Oral administration of a probiotic mixture (PM; Respecta(®)) consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (L1), Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 (L2), and lactoferrin RCXTM results in colonization of these probiotics in the vagina of healthy women. Therefore, we examined whether vaginal colonization of the PM ingredients L1 and L2 could attenuate bacterial vaginosis (BV). BV was induced in mice via β-estradiol-3-benzoate-induced immunosuppression and intravaginal inoculation with Gardnerella vaginalis (GV)...
May 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544846/genomic-dna-interactions-mechanize-peptidotoxin-mediated-anti-cancer-nanotherapy
#7
Santosh K Misra, Aaron S Schwartz-Duval, Dipanjan Pan
Host defense peptides (HDPs) are a class of evolutionarily conserved substances of the innate immune response that has been identified as major players in the defense system in many living organisms. Some of the HDPs are also referred as peptidotoxins which offer immense potential for anti-cancer therapy. However, their therapeutic potential is yet to be fully translated mainly due to their off-target toxicity. Here we show that their nano-enabled delivery may become beneficial in controlling their delivery in intra-cellular space...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544689/class-ii-obese-and-healthy-pregnant-controls-exhibit-indistinguishable-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-immune-responses-to-caesarian-section
#8
Caroline Graham, Mullein Thorleifson, William P Stefura, Duane J Funk, Kent T HayGlass
INTRODUCTION: Obesity during pregnancy is associated with meta-inflammation and an increased likelihood of clinical complications. Surgery results in intense, acute inflammatory responses in any individual. Because obese individuals exhibit constitutive inflammatory responses and high rates of Caesarian section, it is important to understand the impact of surgery in such populations. Whether more pronounced pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and/or counterbalancing changes in anti-inflammatory immune modulators occurs is unknown...
May 25, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543817/influence-of-diabetes%C3%A2-mellitus-on-the-immunity-to-human-tuberculosis
#9
REVIEW
Nathella Pavan Kumar, Subash Babu
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for the development of active pulmonary tuberculosis, with development of DM pandemic in countries where tuberculosis (TB) is also endemic. Understanding the impact of DM on TB and the determinants of co-morbidity is essential in responding to this growing public health problem with improved therapeutic approaches. Despite the clinical and public health significance posed by the dual burden of TB and DM, little is known about the immunological and biochemical mechanisms of susceptibility...
May 22, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542591/molecular-characterization-of-mudskipper-boleophthalmus-pectinirostris-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-hif-1%C3%AE-and-analysis-of-its-function-in-monocytes-macrophages
#10
Feng Guan, Xin-Jiang Lu, Chang-Hong Li, Jiong Chen
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays a critical role in immune and inflammatory responses and is important in controlling a variety of processes in monocytes and macrophages. However, very little information is available about the functions of HIF-1α in fish monocytes/macrophages (MO/MФ). In this study, the cDNA sequence of the mudskipper (Boleophthalmus pectinirostris) HIF-1α gene (BpHIF-1α) was determined. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that BpHIF-1α is clustered in the fish HIF-1α tree...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542528/adaptation-of-candida-albicans-to-environmental-ph-induces-cell-wall-remodelling-and-enhances-innate-immune-recognition
#11
Sarah L Sherrington, Eleanor Sorsby, Nabeel Mahtey, Pizga Kumwenda, Megan D Lenardon, Ian Brown, Elizabeth R Ballou, Donna M MacCallum, Rebecca A Hall
Candida albicans is able to proliferate in environments that vary dramatically in ambient pH, a trait required for colonising niches such as the stomach, vaginal mucosal and the GI tract. Here we show that growth in acidic environments involves cell wall remodelling which results in enhanced chitin and β-glucan exposure at the cell wall periphery. Unmasking of the underlying immuno-stimulatory β-glucan in acidic environments enhanced innate immune recognition of C. albicans by macrophages and neutrophils, and induced a stronger proinflammatory cytokine response, driven through the C-type lectin-like receptor, Dectin-1...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542521/regeneration-of-myelin-sheaths-of-normal-length-and-thickness-in-the-zebrafish-cns-correlates-with-growth-of-axons-in-caliber
#12
Marja J Karttunen, Tim Czopka, Marieke Goedhart, Jason J Early, David A Lyons
Demyelination is observed in numerous diseases of the central nervous system, including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the endogenous regenerative process of remyelination can replace myelin lost in disease, and in various animal models. Unfortunately, the process of remyelination often fails, particularly with ageing. Even when remyelination occurs, it is characterised by the regeneration of myelin sheaths that are abnormally thin and short. This imperfect remyelination is likely to have implications for the restoration of normal circuit function and possibly the optimal metabolic support of axons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542462/a-human-monocytic-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-fluorescent-reporter-cell-line-for-detection-of-microbial-contaminants-in-biological-samples
#13
Claire Battin, Annika Hennig, Patrick Mayrhofer, Renate Kunert, Gerhard J Zlabinger, Peter Steinberger, Wolfgang Paster
Sensing of pathogens by innate immune cells is essential for the initiation of appropriate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are highly sensitive for various structurally and evolutionary conserved molecules derived from microbes have a prominent role in this process. TLR engagement results in the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, which induces the expression of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. The exquisite sensitivity of TLR signalling can be exploited for the detection of bacteria and microbial contaminants in tissue cultures and in protein preparations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542410/gla-rich-protein-function-as-an-anti-inflammatory-agent-in-monocytes-macrophages-implications-for-calcification-related-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#14
Carla S B Viegas, Rúben M Costa, Lúcia Santos, Paula A Videira, Zélia Silva, Nuna Araújo, Anjos L Macedo, António P Matos, Cees Vermeer, Dina C Simes
Calcification-related chronic inflammatory diseases are multifactorial pathological processes, involving a complex interplay between inflammation and calcification events in a positive feed-back loop driving disease progression. Gla-rich protein (GRP) is a vitamin K dependent protein (VKDP) shown to function as a calcification inhibitor in cardiovascular and articular tissues, and proposed as an anti-inflammatory agent in chondrocytes and synoviocytes, acting as a new crosstalk factor between these two interconnected events in osteoarthritis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542284/haemocytes-collected-from-experimentally-infected-pacific-oysters-crassostrea-gigas-detection-of-ostreid-herpesvirus-1-dna-rna-and-proteins-in-relation-with-inhibition-of-apoptosis
#15
Claire Martenot, Ophélie Gervais, Bruno Chollet, Maryline Houssin, Tristan Renault
Recent transcriptomic approaches focused on anti-viral immunity in molluscs lead to the assumption that the innate immune system, such as apoptosis, plays a crucial role against ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1), infecting Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Apoptosis constitutes a major mechanism of anti-viral response by limiting viral spread and eliminating infected cells. In this way, an OsHV-1 challenge was performed and oysters were monitored at three times post injection to investigate viral infection and host response: 2h (early after viral injection in the adductor muscle), 24h (intermediate time), and 48h (just before first oyster mortality record)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541681/platelet-microcapsule-hybrids-leverage-contractile-force-for-targeted-delivery-of-hemostatic-agents
#16
Caroline E Hansen, David R Myers, Wallace Hunter Baldwin, Yumiko Sakurai, Shannon L Meeks, L Andrew Lyon, Wilbur A Lam
We report a cell-mediated, targeted drug delivery system utilizing polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules that hybridize with the patient's own platelets upon intravenous administration. The hybridized platelets function as the sensor and actuator for targeted drug delivery and controlled release in our system. These capsules are biochemically and mechanically tuned to enable platelet adhesion and capsule rupture upon platelet activation and contraction, enabling the targeted and controlled "burst" release of an encapsulated biotherapeutic...
May 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541182/chemotactic-network-responses-to-live-bacteria-show-independence-of-phagocytosis-from-chemo-receptor-sensing
#17
Netra Pal Meena, Alan R Kimmel
Aspects of innate immunity derive from characteristics inherent to phagocytes, including chemotaxis toward and engulfment of unicellular organisms or cell debris. Ligand chemotaxis has been biochemically investigated using mammalian and model systems, but precision of chemotaxis towards ligands being actively secreted by live bacteria is not well studied, nor has there been systematic analyses of interrelationships between chemotaxis and phagocytosis. The genetic/molecular model Dictyostelium and mammalian phagocytes share mechanistic pathways for chemotaxis and phagocytosis; Dictyostelium chemotax toward bacteria and phagocytose them as food sources...
May 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540936/antigen-presenting-cell-targeted-lentiviral-vectors-do-not-support-the-development-of-productive-t-cell-effector-responses-implications-for-in-vivo-targeted-vaccine-delivery
#18
C Goyvaerts, Y De Vlaeminck, D Escors, S Lienenklaus, M Keyaerts, G Raes, K Breckpot
Targeting transgene expression specifically to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) has been put forward as a promising strategy to direct the immune system towards immunity. We developed the nanobody-display technology to restrict the tropism of lentiviral vectors (LVs) to APCs. However, we observed that immunization with APC-targeted LVs (DC2.1-LVs) did not evoke strong antigen-specific T-cell immunity when compared to immunization with broad tropism LVs (VSV.G-LVs). In this study, we report that VSV.G-LVs are more immunogenic than DC2...
May 25, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540834/the-cryo-thermal-therapy-induced-il-6-rich-acute-pro-inflammatory-response-promoted-dcs-phenotypic-maturation-as-the-prerequisite-to-cd4-t-cell-differentiation
#19
Kun Liu, Kun He, Ting Xue, Ping Liu, Lisa X Xu
In our previous studies, a novel tumor therapeutic modality of the cryo-thermal therapy has been developed leading to long-term survival in 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model. The cryo-thermal therapy induced the strong acute inflammatory response and IL-6 was identified in an acute profile. In this study, we found that the cryo-thermal therapy triggered robust acute inflammatory response with high expression of IL-6 locally and systemically. The phenotypic maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) was induced by acute IL-6 following the treatment...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540600/microglial-interferon-signaling-and-white-matter
#20
Ashley McDonough, Richard V Lee, Jonathan R Weinstein
Microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, are primary regulators of the neuroimmune response to injury. Type I interferons (IFNs), including the IFNαs and IFNβ, are key cytokines in the innate immune system. Their activity is implicated in the regulation of microglial function both during development and in response to neuroinflammation, ischemia, and neurodegeneration. Data from numerous studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke suggest that type I IFNs can modulate the microglial phenotype, influence the overall neuroimmune milieu, regulate phagocytosis, and affect blood-brain barrier integrity...
May 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
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