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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730968/modulation-of-the-immune-system-for-the-treatment-of-glaucoma
#1
Katharina Bell, Nadine von Thun Und Hohenstein-Blaul, Julia Teister, Franz H Grus
At present intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering therapies are the only approach to treat glaucoma. Neuroprotective strategies to protect the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) from apoptosis are lacking to date. Results from clinical studies revealed altered immunoreactivities against retinal and optic nerve antigens in sera and aqueous humor of glaucoma patients and point toward an autoimmune involvement in glaucomatous neurodegeneration and RGC death. IgG accumulations along with plasma cells were found localised in human glaucomatous retinae in a pro-inflammatory environment possibly maintained by microglia...
July 19, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730433/computational-prediction-of-the-immunomodulatory-potential-of-rna-sequences
#2
Gandharva Nagpal, Kumardeep Chaudhary, Sandeep Kumar Dhanda, Gajendra Pal Singh Raghava
Advances in the knowledge of various roles played by non-coding RNAs have stimulated the application of RNA molecules as therapeutics. Among these molecules, miRNA, siRNA, and CRISPR-Cas9 associated gRNA have been identified as the most potent RNA molecule classes with diverse therapeutic applications. One of the major limitations of RNA-based therapeutics is immunotoxicity of RNA molecules as it may induce the innate immune system. In contrast, RNA molecules that are potent immunostimulators are strong candidates for use in vaccine adjuvants...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730407/venous-thromboembolism-thrombosis-inflammation-and-immunothrombosis-for-clinicians
#3
REVIEW
Eduardo Vazquez-Garza, Carlos Jerjes-Sanchez, Aline Navarrete, Jorge Joya-Harrison, David Rodriguez
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a worldwide disease related with mortality, cardiovascular disability, impaired quality of life and, cause major long-term complications. Clinicians related to the acute and long-term patients care must be involved in the molecular mechanisms of thrombosis. The vessel wall and its inner lining of the endothelium are critical to the maintenance of a patent vasculature. After endothelial disruption, collagen (first line of endothelial defense) and intravascular tissue factor (second line of endothelial defense) are exposed to blood flow, starting the formation of a thrombus...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729052/tedizolid-inhibits-muc5ac-production-induced-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#4
Kazuaki Takeda, Norihito Kaku, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Kosuke Kosai, Naoki Uno, Yoshifumi Imamura, Hiroo Hasegawa, Taiga Miyazaki, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Katsunori Yanagihara
The innate immune system plays an important role in early immunity against respiratory tract infection. Although airway epithelial cells produce mucus to eliminate pathogens and irritants, hypersecretion of mucus is harmful for the host as it may cause airway obstruction and inhibit influx of antimicrobial agents. It has been reported that several antimicrobial agents have an immunomodulatory effect in vitro and in vivo, but little is known about whether tedizolid, a novel oxazolidinone, can modulate immune responses...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728997/sepsis-reconsidered-identifying-novel-metrics-for-behavioral-landscape-characterization-with-a-high-performance-computing-implementation-of-an-agent-based-model
#5
Chase Cockrell, Gary An
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis affects nearly 1 million people in the United States per year, has a mortality rate of 28-50% and requires more than $20 billion a year in hospital costs. Over a quarter century of research has not yielded a single reliable diagnostic test or a directed therapeutic agent for sepsis. Central to this insufficiency is the fact that sepsis remains a clinical/physiological diagnosis representing a multitude of molecularly heterogeneous pathological trajectories. Advances in computational capabilities offered by High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms call for an evolution in the investigation of sepsis to attempt to define the boundaries of traditional research (bench, clinical and computational) through the use of computational proxy models...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728857/-rosacea-new-data-for-better-care
#6
B Cribier
In the last 10 years, numerous studies have been published that throw new light on rosacea, in all areas of the disease. This overview summarises all the key developments, based on the indexed bibliography appearing in Medline between 2007 and 2017. Recent epidemiological data show that the prevalence of the disease is doubtless greater than estimated hitherto (more than 10% of adults in some countries) and that we should not overlook rosacea in subjects with skin phototypes V or VI, a condition that exists on all continents...
July 17, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727907/novel-role-of-surfactant-protein-a-in-bacterial-sinusitis
#7
George T Noutsios, Amanda L Willis, Julie G Ledford, Eugene H Chang
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common inflammatory disorder of the upper airway characterized by chronic inflammation and significant sinonasal remodeling. CRS is comprised of 2 major subgroups, based on whether polyps are present or absent. In some cases, it is characterized by colonization with opportunistic pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), Staphylococcus aureus, and other bacteria. The innate immune system of the sinonasal epithelium is the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens...
July 20, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727728/an-integrative-genomics-approach-identifies-novel-pathways-that-influence-candidaemia-susceptibility
#8
Vasiliki Matzaraki, Mark S Gresnigt, Martin Jaeger, Isis Ricaño-Ponce, Melissa D Johnson, Marije Oosting, Lude Franke, Sebo Withoff, John R Perfect, Leo A B Joosten, Bart Jan Kullberg, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Iris Jonkers, Yang Li, Cisca Wijmenga, Mihai G Netea, Vinod Kumar
Candidaemia is a bloodstream infection caused by Candida species that primarily affects specific groups of at-risk patients. Because only small candidaemia patient cohorts are available, classical genome wide association cannot be used to identify Candida susceptibility genes. Therefore, we have applied an integrative genomics approach to identify novel susceptibility genes and pathways for candidaemia. Candida-induced transcriptome changes in human primary leukocytes were assessed by RNA sequencing. Genetic susceptibility to candidaemia was assessed using the Illumina immunochip platform for genotyping of a cohort of 217 patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727572/classical-swine-fever-virus-shimen-infection-increases-p53-signaling-to-promote-cell-cycle-arrest-in-porcine-alveolar-macrophages
#9
Pengbo Ning, Congxia Hu, Xuepeng Li, Yulu Zhou, Aoxue Hu, Ya Zhang, Lifang Gao, Cunmei Gong, Kangkang Guo, Xianghan Zhang, Yanming Zhang
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) replicates in macrophages and causes persistent infection. Despite its role in disastrous economic losses in swine industries, the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are poorly understood. The virus evades the neutralizing immune response, subverting the immune system to ensure its own survival and persistence.Our genome-wide analysis of porcine alveolar macrophage transcriptional responses to CSFV Shimen infection using the Solexa/Illumina digital gene expression system revealed that p53 pathway components and cell cycle molecules were differentially regulated during infection compared to controls...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726347/md2-blockage-protects-obesity-induced-vascular-remodeling-via-activating-ampk-nrf2
#10
Lintao Wang, Jibo Han, Peiren Shan, Shengban You, Xuemei Chen, Yiyi Jin, Jingying Wang, Weijian Huang, Yi Wang, Guang Liang
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and increased free fatty acid (FFA) levels are tightly linked with vascular oxidative stress and remodeling. Myeloid differentiation 2 (MD2), an important protein in innate immunity, is requisite for endotoxin lipopolysaccharide responsiveness. This study shows that palmitic acid (PA) also bonds to MD2, initiating cardiac inflammatory injury. However, it is not clear whether MD2 plays a role in noninflammatory systems such as obesity- and FFA-related oxidative stress involved in vascular remodeling and injury...
July 20, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726298/faah-but-not-magl-inhibition-modulates-acute-tlr3-induced-neuroimmune-signaling-in-the-rat-independent-of-sex
#11
Lisa E Flannery, Rebecca J Henry, Daniel M Kerr, David P Finn, Michelle Roche
Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 is a key component of the innate immune response to viral infection. The present study firstly examined whether sex differences exist in TLR3-induced inflammatory, endocrine, and sickness responses. The data revealed that TLR3-induced expression of interferon- or NFkB-inducible genes (IFN-α/β, IP-10, or TNF-α), either peripherally (spleen) or centrally (hypothalamus), did not differ between male and female rats, with the exception of TLR3-induced IFN-α expression in the spleen of female, but not male, rats 8 hr post TLR3 activation...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724741/body-height-and-immune-efficacy-testing-body-stature-as-a-signal-of-biological-quality
#12
Bogusław Pawłowski, Judyta Nowak, Barbara Borkowska, Daria Augustyniak, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
According to the good genes hypothesis and energy allocation theory, human adult body height may reflect biological quality. An important aspect of this quality is immune system functioning (ISF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ISF and body height in healthy people. The ISF was determined by several important innate (total complement and lysozyme activity, neutrophil function) and adaptive immune parameters (lymphocytes, IgA and IgG, and response to the flu vaccine). Overall, 96 males and 97 females were subjected to flu vaccination, and of these, 35 males and 34 females were subjected to tetanus...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724541/stim1-and-stim2-cooperatively-regulate-mouse-neutrophil-store-operated-calcium-entry-and-cytokine-production
#13
Regina A Clemens, Joshua Chong, Derayvia Grimes, Yongmei Hu, Clifford A Lowell
Neutrophils are key effector cells of the innate immune system. Calcium-dependent signaling pathways initiated by store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) are known to regulate neutrophil activation, however the precise mechanism of this process remains unclear. STIM1 and STIM2 are calcium sensing molecules that link calcium depletion of the endoplasmic reticulum with opening of plasma membrane calcium channels. While a role for STIM1 in neutrophil SOCE and activation has been established, the function of STIM2 is unknown...
July 19, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723556/peroxisome-mediated-metabolism-is-required-for-immune-response-to-microbial-infection
#14
Francesca Di Cara, Avinash Sheshachalam, Nancy E Braverman, Richard A Rachubinski, Andrew J Simmonds
The innate immune response is critical for animal homeostasis and is conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates. This response depends on specialized cells that recognize, internalize, and destroy microbial invaders through phagocytosis. This is coupled to autonomous or non-autonomous cellular signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokine production. Lipids are known signaling factors in this process, as the acute phase response of macrophages is accompanied by systemic lipid changes that help resolve inflammation...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722725/the-monogenic-autoinflammatory-diseases-define-new-pathways-in-human-innate-immunity-and-inflammation
#15
REVIEW
Kalpana Manthiram, Qing Zhou, Ivona Aksentijevich, Daniel L Kastner
Autoinflammatory diseases were first recognized nearly 20 years ago as distinct clinical and immunological entities caused by dysregulation in the innate immune system. Since then, advances in genomic techniques have led to the identification of new monogenic disorders and their corresponding signaling pathways. Here we review these monogenic autoinflammatory diseases, ranging from periodic fever syndromes caused by dysregulated inflammasome-mediated production of the cytokine IL-1β to disorders arising from perturbations in signaling by the transcription factor NF-κB, ubiquitination, cytokine signaling, protein folding, type I interferon production and complement activation, and we further examine their molecular mechanisms...
July 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722285/innate-allorecognition-by-monocytic-cells-and-its-role-in-graft-rejection
#16
Fadi G Lakkis, Xian C Li
Innate recognition of microbial products and danger molecules by monocytes and macrophages has been well established; this is mediated primarily by pattern recognition receptors and is central to activation of innate and adaptive immune cells required for productive immunity. Whether monocytes and macrophages are equipped with an allorecognition system that allows them to directly respond to allogeneic grafts is a topic of much debate. Recent studies provide compelling evidence that these cells are capable of recognizing allogeneic entities and mediate graft rejection via direct cytotoxicity and priming of alloreactive T cells...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722012/type-iii-crispr-cas-systems-produce-cyclic-oligoadenylate-second-messengers
#17
Ole Niewoehner, Carmela Garcia-Doval, Jakob T Rostøl, Christian Berk, Frank Schwede, Laurent Bigler, Jonathan Hall, Luciano A Marraffini, Martin Jinek
In many prokaryotes, type III CRISPR-Cas systems detect and degrade invasive genetic elements by an RNA-guided, RNA-targeting multisubunit interference complex. The CRISPR-associated protein Csm6 additionally contributes to interference by functioning as a standalone ribonuclease that degrades invader RNA transcripts, but the mechanism linking invader sensing to Csm6 activity is not understood. Here we show that Csm6 proteins are activated through a second messenger generated by the type III interference complex...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721853/us10-a-novel-npro-interacting-protein-inhibits-classical-swine-fever-virus-replication
#18
Huifang Lv, Wang Dong, Gui Qian, Jie Wang, Xiaomeng Li, Zhi Cao, Qizhuang Lv, Chengbao Wang, Kangkang Guo, Yanming Zhang
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a severe, febrile and highly contagious disease caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV) that has resulted in huge economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. CSFV Npro has been actively studied but remains incompletely understood. Few studies have investigated the cellular proteins that interact with Npro and their participation in viral replication. Here, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was employed to screen Npro-interacting proteins from a porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cDNA library, and a blast search of the NCBI database revealed that 15 cellular proteins interact with Npro...
July 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721573/exposure-to-silver-nanoparticles-affects-viability-and-function-of-natural-killer-cells-mostly-via-the-release-of-ions
#19
Loretta Müller, Selina K Steiner, Laura Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Philipp Latzin
Natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in linking innate and adaptive immune responses, especially during viral infections and tumor surveillance. They have two major effector functions: the killing of stressed/abnormal cells and the release of cytokines. Their activity is regulated via inhibitory and activating surface receptors. At the same time that the production and use of engineered nanoparticles is steadily increasing, the risk for exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from consumer products or biomedical applications is growing...
July 18, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721047/the-role-of-microglia-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Chun Luo, Chongdong Jian, Yuhan Liao, Qi Huang, Yuejuan Wu, Xixia Liu, Donghua Zou, Yuan Wu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia are the resident innate immune cells in the CNS; they play an important role in the processes of demyelination and remyelination in MS. Microglia can function as antigen-presenting cells and phagocytes. In the past, microglia were considered to be the same cell type as macrophages, and researchers have different opinions about the role of microglia in MS. This review focuses on the original classification of microglia and their role in the pathogenesis of MS...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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