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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636960/mechanisms-and-therapeutic-relevance-of-neuro-immune-communication
#1
REVIEW
Sangeeta S Chavan, Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey
Active research at the frontiers of immunology and neuroscience has identified multiple points of interaction and communication between the immune system and the nervous system. Immune cell activation stimulates neuronal circuits that regulate innate and adaptive immunity. Molecular mechanistic insights into the inflammatory reflex and other neuro-immune interactions have greatly advanced our understanding of immunity and identified new therapeutic possibilities in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recent successful clinical trials using bioelectronic devices that modulate the inflammatory reflex to significantly ameliorate rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease provide a path for using electrons as a therapeutic modality for targeting molecular mechanisms of immunity...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636958/protective-and-pathological-immunity-during-central-nervous-system-infections
#2
REVIEW
Robyn S Klein, Christopher A Hunter
The concept of immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has dominated the study of inflammatory processes in the brain. However, clinically relevant models have highlighted that innate pathways limit pathogen invasion of the CNS and adaptive immunity mediates control of many neural infections. As protective responses can result in bystander damage, there are regulatory mechanisms that balance protective and pathological inflammation, but these mechanisms might also allow microbial persistence. The focus of this review is to consider the host-pathogen interactions that influence neurotropic infections and to highlight advances in our understanding of innate and adaptive mechanisms of resistance as key determinants of the outcome of CNS infection...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636955/inflammatory-ly6c-high-monocytes-protect-against-candidiasis-through-il-15-driven-nk-cell-neutrophil-activation
#3
Jorge Domínguez-Andrés, Lidia Feo-Lucas, María Minguito de la Escalera, Leticia González, María López-Bravo, Carlos Ardavín
Neutrophils play a crucial role in defense against systemic candidiasis, a disease associated with a high mortality rate in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, although the early immune mechanisms that boost the candidacidal activity of neutrophils remain to be defined in depth. Here, we used a murine model of systemic candidiasis to explore the role of inflammatory Ly6C(high) monocytes in NK cell-mediated neutrophil activation during the innate immune response against C. albicans. We found that efficient anti-Candida immunity required a collaborative response between the spleen and kidney, which relied on type I interferon-dependent IL-15 production by spleen inflammatory Ly6C(high) monocytes to drive efficient activation and GM-CSF release by spleen NK cells; this in turn was necessary to boost the Candida killing potential of kidney neutrophils...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636613/in-vivo-immune-signatures-of-healthy-human-pregnancy-inherently-inflammatory-or-anti-inflammatory
#4
Caroline Graham, Rishma Chooniedass, William P Stefura, Allan B Becker, Malcolm R Sears, Stuart E Turvey, Piush J Mandhane, Padmaja Subbarao, Kent T HayGlass
Changes in maternal innate immunity during healthy human pregnancy are not well understood. Whether basal immune status in vivo is largely unaffected by pregnancy, is constitutively biased towards an inflammatory phenotype (transiently enhancing host defense) or exhibits anti-inflammatory bias (reducing potential responsiveness to the fetus) is unclear. Here, in a longitudinal study of healthy women who gave birth to healthy infants following uncomplicated pregnancies within the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) cohort, we test the hypothesis that a progressively altered bias in resting innate immune status develops...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635590/imbalance-between-innate-antiviral-and-pro-inflammatory-immune-responses-may-contribute-to-different-outcomes-involving-low-and-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n3-infections-in-chickens
#5
John Pasick, Sandra Diederich, Yohannes Berhane, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, Wanhong Xu
In order to gain further insight into the early virus-host interactions associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infections in chickens, genome-wide expression profiling of chicken lung and brain was carried out at 24 and 72 h post-inoculation (h p.i.). For this purpose two recombinant H5N3 viruses were utilized, each possessing a polybasic HA0 cleavage site but differing in pathogenicity. The original rH5N3 P0 virus, which has a low-pathogenic phenotype, was passaged six times through chickens to give rise to the derivative rH5N3 P6 virus, which is highly pathogenic (Diederich S, Berhane Y, Embury-Hyatt C, Hisanaga T, Handel K et al...
June 21, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635519/the-elicitor-protein-ases-induces-a-sar-response-accompanied-by-systemic-microbursts-and-micro-hrs-in-fragaria-ananassa
#6
Verónica Hael Conrad, Silvia Marisa Perato, Marta Elena Arias, Martín Gustavo Martínez Zamora, Pía de Los Ángeles Di Peto, Gustavo Gabriel Martos, Atilio Pedro Castagnaro, Juan Carlos Diaz-Ricci, Nadia Regina Chalfoun
The elicitor AsES (Acremonium strictum Elicitor Subtilisin) is a 34 KDa subtilisin-like protein secreted by the opportunistic fungus Acremonium strictum. AsES activates the innate immunity and confers resistance against anthracnose and grey mold diseases in strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) and the last disease also in Arabidopsis. In the present work, we show that upon AsES recognition, a cascade of defense responses is activated, including: calcium influx, biphasic oxidative burst (O2(.-) and H2O2), HR response, accumulation of autofluorescent compounds, cell wall reinforcement with callose and lignin deposition, salicylic acid accumulation, and expression of defense-related genes such as FaPR1, FaPG1, FaMYB30, FaRBOH-D, FaRBOH-F, FaCHI23 and FaFLS...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634370/microbial-antigens-stimulate-metalloprotease-7-secretion-in-human-b-lymphocytes-using-mtor-dependent-and-independent-pathways
#7
Mohamed F Ali, Harika Dasari, Virginia P Van Keulen, Divi Cornec, George Vasmatzis, Tobias Peikert, Eva M Carmona
Metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to tissue remodeling and acute inflammation not only by degrading extracellular matrix proteins but also by controlling the influx of chemokines through the regulation and shedding of syndecans. B-lymphocytes, in addition to their well-known function as antibody producing cells, participate in the innate immune response by secreting inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. However, there is little information about the role of B-lymphocytes in the regulation of MMPs; consequently, herein we investigated whether activated human circulating B-lymphocytes contributed to the secretion of MMPs...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634115/delineating-the-roles-of-cellular-and-innate-antiviral-immune-parameters-mediating-ranavirus-susceptibility-using-rainbow-trout-cell-lines
#8
Graeme J Lisser, Nguyen T K Vo, Stephanie J DeWitte-Orr
Frog virus 3 is the type species of the Ranavirus genus and the causative agent of massive mortalities of aquatic species worldwide. A critical step in limiting virus replication, particularly early in infection, is the innate immune response. Presently, little is known regarding what innate immune strategies limit FV3 at the cellular level. To this end, the present study uses two rainbow trout cell lines, RTG-2 and RTgutGC, which demonstrate susceptible and relatively resistant phenotypes to FV3 infection, to elucidate susceptibility factors to FV3...
June 17, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634103/undetectable-mannose-binding-lectin-and-corticosteroids-increase-serious-infection-risk-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Graeme J Carroll, Krista Makin, Maxine Garnsey, Max Bulsara, Bronwyn V Carroll, Shona M Curtin, Erin M Allan, Andrew McLean-Tooke, Christine Bundell, Monica L Kemp, Pooja Deshpande, Dana Ihdayhid, Sophie Coleman, Tracie Easter, James Triplett, Timothy Disteldorf, C Helen Marsden, Michaela Lucas
BACKGROUND: Infection is the leading cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Corticosteroid (CS) use is a known and important risk factor for serious infections (SIs). Mannose binding lectin (MBL) is a genetically determined component of the innate immune system implicated in neonatal infections. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine whether MBL deficiency is a risk factor for SIs in RA and to compare it with CS use and also synthetic and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632714/the-multiple-pathways-to-autoimmunity
#10
REVIEW
Argyrios N Theofilopoulos, Dwight H Kono, Roberto Baccala
Efforts to understand autoimmunity have been pursued relentlessly for several decades. It has become apparent that the immune system evolved multiple mechanisms for controlling self-reactivity, and defects in one or more of these mechanisms can lead to a breakdown of tolerance. Among the multitude of lesions associated with disease, the most common seem to affect peripheral tolerance rather than central tolerance. The initial trigger for both systemic autoimmune disorders and organ-specific autoimmune disorders probably involves the recognition of self or foreign molecules, especially nucleic acids, by innate sensors...
June 20, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632181/spirulina-protects-against-hepatic-inflammation-in-aging-an-effect-related-to-the-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota
#11
Audrey M Neyrinck, Bernard Taminiau, Hannah Walgrave, Georges Daube, Patrice D Cani, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne
Aging predisposes to hepatic dysfunction and inflammation that can contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a cyanobacterium used as a food additive or food supplement, has been shown to impact immune function. We have tested the potential hepatoprotective effect of a Spirulina in aged mice and to determine whether these effects can be related to a modulation of the gut microbiota. Old mice have been fed a standard diet supplemented with or without 5% Spirulina for six weeks...
June 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631855/a-photocrosslinkable-biotin-derivative-of-the-phosphoantigen-e-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl-diphosphate-hmbpp-activates-v%C3%AE-9v%C3%AE-2-t-cells-and-binds-to-the-hmbpp-site-of-btn3a1
#12
Andrea Mattarei, Monika Enzinger, Siyi Gu, Mohindar Murugesh Karunakaran, Brigitte Kimmel, Nicole Berner, Erin J Adams, Thomas Herrmann, Sabine Amslinger
Vγ9Vδ2 T cells play an important role in the cross talk of the innate and adaptive immune system. For their activation by phosphoantigens (PAgs) both cell surface receptors the eponymous Vγ9Vδ2 T cell antigen receptors (Vγ9Vδ2 TCRs) on Vγ9Vδ2 T cells and butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1) on the phosphoantigen-"presenting" cell are mandatory. To find yet undetected further contributing proteins a biotinylated, photocrosslinkable benzophenone probe BioBP-HMBPP (2) was synthesized from a known allyl alcohol in nine steps and overall 16% yield...
June 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631608/one-year-in-review-2017-pathogenesis-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
Francesca Angelotti, Alice Parma, Giacomo Cafaro, Riccardo Capecchi, Alessia Alunno, Ilaria Puxeddu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. It has been postulated that a high-risk genetic background, in combination with epigenetic marks and environmental exposures, leads to a cascade of events inducing synovitis and consequent destructive arthritis. The clinical picture of joint involvement in RA is the result of chronic inflammation of the synovium, characterised by interactions of resident cells such as fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) with cells of the innate (e...
May 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630328/toll-like-receptor-pathway-evolution-in-deuterostomes
#14
Michael G Tassia, Nathan V Whelan, Kenneth M Halanych
Animals have evolved an array of pattern-recognition receptor families essential for recognizing conserved molecular motifs characteristic of pathogenic microbes. One such family is the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). On pathogen binding, TLRs initiate specialized cytokine signaling catered to the class of invading pathogen. This signaling is pivotal for activating adaptive immunity in vertebrates, suggesting a close evolutionary relationship between innate and adaptive immune systems. Despite significant advances toward understanding TLR-facilitated immunity in vertebrates, knowledge of TLR pathway evolution in other deuterostomes is limited...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630159/the-mystery-behind-membrane-insertion-a-review-of-the-complement-membrane-attack-complex
#15
REVIEW
Charles Bayly-Jones, Doryen Bubeck, Michelle A Dunstone
The membrane attack complex (MAC) is an important innate immune effector of the complement terminal pathway that forms cytotoxic pores on the surface of microbes. Despite many years of research, MAC structure and mechanism of action have remained elusive, relying heavily on modelling and inference from biochemical experiments. Recent advances in structural biology, specifically cryo-electron microscopy, have provided new insights into the molecular mechanism of MAC assembly. Its unique 'split-washer' shape, coupled with an irregular giant β-barrel architecture, enable an atypical mechanism of hole punching and represent a novel system for which to study pore formation...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630091/b-1a-cells-protect-mice-from-sepsis-critical-role-of-creb
#16
Monowar Aziz, Nichol E Holodick, Thomas L Rothstein, Ping Wang
Bacterial sepsis is a serious life-threatening condition caused by an excessive immune response to infection. B-1 cells differ from conventional B-2 cells by their distinct phenotype and function. A subset of B-1 cells expressing CD5, known as B-1a cells, exhibits innate immune activity. Here we report that B-1a cells play a beneficial role in sepsis by mitigating exaggerated inflammation through a novel mechanism. Using a mouse model of bacterial sepsis, we found that the numbers of B-1a cells in various anatomical locations were significantly decreased...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630087/paucimannose-rich-n-glycosylation-of-spatiotemporally-regulated-human-neutrophil-elastase-modulates-its-immune-functions
#17
Ian Loke, Ole Østergaard, Niels H H Heegaard, Nicolle H Packer, Morten Thaysen-Andersen
Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is an important N-glycosylated serine protease in the innate immune system, but the structure and immune-modulating functions of HNE N-glycosylation remain undescribed. Herein, LC-MS/MS-based glycan, glycopeptide and glycoprotein profiling were utilised to first determine the heterogeneous N-glycosylation of HNE purified from neutrophil lysates and then from isolated neutrophil granules of healthy individuals. The spatiotemporal expression of HNE during neutrophil activation and the biological importance of its N-glycosylation were also investigated using immunoblotting, cell surface capture, native MS, receptor interaction, protease inhibition, and bacteria growth assays...
June 19, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630073/new-insights-into-the-roles-of-lpf-and-stg-fimbriae-in-salmonella-interactions-with-enterocytes-and-m-cells
#18
Amanda M Gonzales, Shyra Wilde, Kenneth L Roland
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes the systemic disease typhoid fever. After ingestion, it adheres to and invades the host epithelium while evading the host innate immune response, causing little if any inflammation. Conversely, S Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis in humans and thrives in the inflamed gut. Upon entering the host, S Typhimurium preferentially colonizes Peyer's patches, a lymphoid organ in which microfold cells (M cells) overlay an arrangement of B cells, T cells, and antigen presenting cells...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630015/characterization-of-japanese-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus-caspase1-involved-in-extracellular-atp-mediated-immune-signaling-in-fish
#19
Shuo Li, Weijiao Peng, Jiafang Li, Gaixiang Hao, Xuyun Geng, Jinsheng Sun
Caspase1 is a member of inflammatory Caspases that play important roles in the innate immune system. Although several teleost caspase1 genes have been identified, their partner proteins and implication in extracellular ATP-mediated immune signaling in fish are still very limited. Here we identified and characterized a caspase1 gene, named JfCaspase1, from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. JfCaspase1 mRNA was constitutively expressed in all examined normal tissues with high expression in skin and gills and moderate expression in the enriched Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages (HKMs) and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs)...
June 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629465/natural-igm-antibodies-that-bind-neoepitopes-exposed-as-a-result-of-spinal-cord-injury-drive-secondary-injury-by-activating-complement
#20
Aarti Narang, Fei Qiao, Carl Atkinson, Hong Zhu, Xiaofeng Yang, Liudmila Kulik, V Michael Holers, Stephen Tomlinson
BACKGROUND: Natural IgM antibodies (Abs) function as innate immune sensors of injury via recognition of neoepitopes expressed on damaged cells, although how this recognition systems function following spinal cord injury (SCI) exposes various neoepitopes and their precise nature remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of two natural IgM monoclonal Abs (mAbs), B4 and C2, that recognize post-ischemic neoepitopes following ischemia and reperfusion in other tissues. METHODS: Identification of post-SCI expressed neoepitopes was examined using previously characterized monoclonal Abs (B4 and C2 mAbs)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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