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Minor neurological disorder

Jo Frost, Fiona Robinson, Judi Hibberd
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysphagia in adults arises from a range of causes including acquired neurological disorders and some cancers. Previous research has suggested that treatment using neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) when used in conjunction with conventional therapy is effective. This review describes the recent literature and a small prospective case series carried out in the United Kingdom. This study contributed to support National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance for clinicians who wish to include NMES in a rehabilitation programme for dysphagic patients, specifically with reference to safety and the impact on swallowing function of this intervention...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
Luminita Ene
Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters the brain early, where it can persist, evolve, and become compartmentalized. Central nervous system (CNS) disease can be attributed to HIV alone or to the complex interplay between the virus and other neurotropic pathogens. Aim: The current review aims to describe the direct impact of HIV on the brain as well as its relationship with other pathogens from a practitioner's perspective, to provide a general clinical overview, brief workup, and, whenever possible, treatment guidance...
2018: Infectious Diseases
Joost M Costerus, Matthijs C Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek
Technological advances have changed the indications for and the way in which lumbar puncture is done. Suspected CNS infection remains the most common indication for lumbar puncture, but new molecular techniques have broadened CSF analysis indications, such as the determination of neuronal autoantibodies in autoimmune encephalitis. New screening techniques have increased sensitvity for pathogen detection and can be used to identify pathogens that were previously unknown to cause CNS infections. Evidence suggests that potential treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, will rely on early detection of the disease with the use of CSF biomarkers...
March 2018: Lancet Neurology
Frederik F Strobl, Beatrice Kuhlin, Robert Stahl, Bastian O Sabel, Andreas D Helck, Andreas Schindler, Matthias Witt, Fabian Bamberg, Maximilian F Reiser, Tobias Saam
BACKGROUND: Intracranial arterial calcifications (ICAC) are often detected on unenhanced CT of patients with an age > 60. However, association with the subsequent occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) has not yet been evaluated. PURPOSE: This study aimed at evaluating the association of ICAC with subsequent MACE and overall mortality. METHODS: In this retrospective, IRB approved study, we included 175 consecutive patients (89 males, mean age 78...
January 30, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
Steven A Rasmussen, Georg Norén, Benjamin D Greenberg, Richard Marsland, Nicole C McLaughlin, Paul J Malloy, Stephen P Salloway, David R Strong, Jane L Eisen, Michael A Jenike, Scott L Rauch, Lee Baer, Christer Lindquist
BACKGROUND: Despite the development of effective pharmacologic and cognitive behavioral treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), some patients continue to be treatment-refractory and severely impaired. Fiber tracts connecting orbitofrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex with subcortical nuclei have been the target of neurosurgical lesions as well as deep brain stimulation in these patients. We report on the safety and efficacy of ventral gamma capsulotomy for patients with intractable OCD...
December 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
Helle Stangeland, Vasiliki Orgeta, Vaughan Bell
A preregistered systematic review of poststroke psychosis examining clinical characteristics, prevalence, diagnostic procedures, lesion location, treatments, risk factors and outcome. Neuropsychiatric outcomes following stroke are common and severely impact quality of life. No previous reviews have focused on poststroke psychosis despite clear clinical need. CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsychINFO were searched for studies on poststroke psychosis published between 1975 and 2016. Reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and rated study quality...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
W W T Nyunt, R Remli, F A Abdul Muttlib, C F Leong, N Masir, N R Tumian, S F S Abdul Wahid
POEMS syndrome is the syndrome of Polyneuropathy, Organomegaly, Endocrinopathy, Monoclonal protein and typical Skin changes. A 65-year-old lady presented with the 2-day-history of inability to walk, 4-month-history of progressive worsening of muscle weakness of both lower limbs and 1-year-history of progressive worsening of bilateral numbness of lower limbs. Nerve conduction study revealed generalized sensorimotor demyelinating polyneuropathy. She was initially treated as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and high-dose prednisolone...
December 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
Galit Gincberg, Esther Shohami, Victoria Trembovler, Alexander G Alexandrovich, Philip Lazarovici, Uriel Elchalal
BACKGROUND AIMS: Human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) is an important source of stem cells for therapy of hematopoietic disorders and is a potential therapy for various neurological disorders, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). The expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptors TrkA, p75NTR and α9β1 integrin on an HUCB CD45+ pan-hematopoietic subpopulation was investigated in the context of its neurotherapeutic potential after TBI. METHODS: NGF and its receptors were detected on CD45+ cells by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry analysis and confocal microscopy...
February 2018: Cytotherapy
T A Sumonu, F Imarhiagbe, L F Owolabi, O A Ogunrin, M A Komolafe, O S Ilesanmi
Introduction: Neurocognitive dysfunction is a detrimental complication of HIV infection. In this study we attempt to characterize the pattern of cognitive dysfunction in a sample of Nigerian patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection. Methods: We conducted a prospective study in which 50 patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection were studied along with 50 normal control subjects. The participants were evaluated with the medical history, general, physical and neurological examination...
December 2017: ENeurologicalSci
Thomas M Woodcock, Tony Frugier, Tan Thanh Nguyen, Bridgette Deanne Semple, Nicole Bye, Matteo Massara, Benedetta Savino, Roberta Besio, Cristina Sobacchi, Massimo Locati, Maria Cristina Morganti-Kossmann
The atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2 promotes resolution of acute inflammation by operating as a scavenger receptor for inflammatory CC chemokines in several experimental models of inflammatory disorders, however its role in the brain remains unclear. Based on our previous reports of increased expression of inflammatory chemokines and their corresponding receptors following traumatic brain injury (TBI), we hypothesised that ACKR2 modulates neuroinflammation following brain trauma and that its deletion exacerbates cellular inflammation and chemokine production...
2017: PloS One
Alexandre Seidowsky, Emmanuel Dupuis, Tilman Drueke, Serge Dard, Ziad A Massy, Bernard Canaud
Aluminum intoxication in chronic hemodialysis patients has virtually vanished over the last decade. Therefore, the diagnosis is rarely advocated at present. Aluminum intoxication in dialysis patients associates to different degrees with dialysis encephalopathy, bone disorders and microcytic anemia. We report here the observation of a patient receiving intermittent hemodialysis therapy who presented with acute encephalopathy. It turned out to be caused by aluminum intoxication secondary to a defect in dialysis water treatment...
November 22, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Karl Bechter, Florian Deisenhammer
There is wide variability in how psychiatry guidelines and textbooks address the question of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diagnostics in the screening of psychiatric disorders. A United States-based textbook confirms that there is no consensus about which laboratory investigation should be routinely performed in psychiatric patients, but with respect to CSF diagnostics, the differences are even more striking. A survey among European experts showed a wide variety of opinions regarding clinical use and criteria in various countries of Europe and worldwide: some psychiatrists, mostly university hospital-based, recommended performing CSF diagnostics in every patient first experiencing severe mental illness (SMI), but especially in patients from the schizophrenia spectrum, whereas others almost never perform CSF examinations themselves and usually refer patients to neurology departments if necessary...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Sarah Berk, Brittany L Greco, Kevin Biglan, Catherine M Kopil, Robert G Holloway, Claire Meunier, Tanya Simuni
BACKGROUND: Challenges in clinical trial recruitment threaten the successful development of improved therapies. This is particularly true in Parkinson's disease (PD) studies of disease modification where the population of interest is difficult to find and study design is more complex. OBJECTIVE: This paper seeks to understand how STEADY PD III, a National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) funded phase 3 trial evaluating the efficacy of isradipine as a disease modifying agent for PD, was able to recruit their full target population 6 months ahead of schedule...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Peter E Davis, Rajna Filip-Dhima, Georgios Sideridis, Jurriaan M Peters, Kit Sing Au, Hope Northrup, E Martina Bebin, Joyce Y Wu, Darcy Krueger, Mustafa Sahin
OBJECTIVES: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neurocutaneous genetic disorder with a high prevalence of epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders. TSC can be challenging to diagnose in infants because they often do not show many clinical signs early in life. In this study, we describe the timing and pattern of presenting and diagnostic features in a prospective longitudinal study of infants with TSC. METHODS: Two multicenter, prospective studies enrolled 130 infants with definite TSC by clinical or genetic criteria and followed them longitudinally up to 36 months of age...
December 2017: Pediatrics
E-D Pfister
Wilson's disease (WD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormal copper accumulation. Presenting a broad variety of phenotypes and, thus, being a chameleon within the group of metabolic diseases, the manifold clinical symptoms of WD can include hepatologic, neurologic, and psychiatric manifestations. Early onset presentations in infancy and late-onset manifestations in adults older than 70 years of age have been described. If the typical laboratory blood test values are missing, the diagnosis of WD may be difficult and often involves a combination of different parameters...
December 2017: Der Internist
Neil A Harrison, Kate Johnston, Federica Corno, Sarah J Casey, Kimberley Friedner, Kate Humphreys, Eli J Jaldow, Mervi Pitkanen, Michael D Kopelman
There are very few case series of patients with acute psychogenic memory loss (also known as dissociative/functional amnesia), and still fewer studies of outcome, or comparisons with neurological memory-disordered patients. Consequently, the literature on psychogenic amnesia is somewhat fragmented and offers little prognostic value for individual patients. In the present study, we reviewed the case records and neuropsychological findings in 53 psychogenic amnesia cases (ratio of 3:1, males:females), in comparison with 21 consecutively recruited neurological memory-disordered patients and 14 healthy control subjects...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Kak Abilash, Qmq Mohd, Zah Ahmad, Basir Towil
Ankylosing spinal disorders (ASD) tend to result in fractures and/or dislocations after minor trauma because of the altered biomechanical properties. The relative risk of traumatic vertebral fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis has been estimated as three times higher than in the general population. These spine traumas, which are located at cervical level in 81% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, are complicated by neurological lesions in 65% of patients, due to the high inherent instability of these fractures...
July 2017: Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal
Nycole A Copping, Sarah G B Christian, Dylan J Ritter, M Saharul Islam, Nathalie Buscher, Dorota Zolkowska, Michael C Pride, Elizabeth L Berg, Janine M LaSalle, Jacob Ellegood, Jason P Lerch, Lawrence T Reiter, Jill L Silverman, Scott V Dindot
Maternally derived copy number gains of human chromosome 15q11.2-q13.3 (Dup15q syndrome or Dup15q) cause intellectual disability, epilepsy, developmental delay, hypotonia, speech impairments, and minor dysmorphic features. Dup15q syndrome is one of the most common and penetrant chromosomal abnormalities observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although ∼40 genes are located in the 15q11.2-q13.3 region, overexpression of the ubiquitin-protein E3A ligase (UBE3A) gene is thought to be the predominant molecular cause of the phenotypes observed in Dup15q syndrome...
October 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
Hsin-Yen Yen, Li-Jung Lin
BACKGROUND: Population aging is an increasing phenomenon in many countries around the world. It has been estimated that more than one quarter of all older adults experience a mental or neurological disorder or disease such as dementia, depression, anxiety, and substance abuse. Reminiscence is a popular treatment for enhancing well-being in older adults. Previous studies have shown that reminiscence therapy improves the cognitive functions, behaviors, and other psychosocial outcomes in older adult patients...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
Yuanyuan Li, Wenyan Kang, Linyuan Zhang, Liche Zhou, Mengyue Niu, Jun Liu
Objective: Hyposmia may occur simultaneously with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) as a specific phenotype in Parkinson's Diseases (PD), of which the disease progression is fast. In the study, we tried to identify whether the genotypic characteristics could participate in the co-occurrence of hyposmia and RBD in PD patients. Methods: 152 PD patients were recruited from the Department of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital affiliated to Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine from 2011 to 2016, with comprehensive clinical assessment performing...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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