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highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in childrens

David C Ianacone, Alden F Smith, Margaretha L Casselbrant, Robbert J H Ensink, Farrel Buchinsky, Abebe Melaku, Glenn Isaacson
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of chronic ear disease in HIV+, highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-treated children and compare this to the prevalence in healthy children of similar age living in a similar setting. INTRODUCTION: From previous clinical work in Ethiopia, we suspected that chronic middle ear disease was common both in the general pediatric population and especially among children with HIV/AIDS. Few studies have examined the prevalence of chronic ear disease in HIV + children, particularly in those treated with HAART...
December 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Munda Elias, Elia John Mmbaga, Ahmed Abade Mohamed, Rogath Saika Kishimba
INTRODUCTION: Globally, there are 3.3 million children < 15 years of age living with HIV infection. About 95% of HIV infected children have acquired infection from their mothers. Although new pediatric HIV infection in Tanzania has declined by 48% and Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) coverage of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has increased to 77%, the MTCT rate remains high (15%). Poor male partner involvement in PMTCT services is one of the factors contributing to reduced effectiveness of the PMTCT and hence failure to achieve the elimination of maternal to child transmission of HIV...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
World Health Organization
This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of measles vaccines excerpted from the WHO position paper on Measles vaccines: WHO position paper - April 2017, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. This position paper replaces the 2009 WHO position paper on measles vaccines [2]. The position paper summarizes the most recent developments in the field of measles and includes removal of introduction criteria for the routine second dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2), guidance on when to vaccinate infants from 6months of age, and guidance on re-vaccination of HIV-infected children receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)...
July 28, 2017: Vaccine
Michael J Boivin, Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Itziar Familiar-Lopez
There is growing concern that although the more severe forms of HIV-associated neurologic deficits are reduced following highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), mild to moderate cognitive disorders may persist for years after HAART initiation and this may occur despite complete plasma viral suppression. According to the UNAIDS 2014 report, there were 3.2 million children living with HIV around the world at the end of 2013 and 91 % of these resided in sub-Saharan Africa. In the same year, only 24 % of children who needed antiretroviral treatment (ART) received it and 190,000 children died of AIDS-related illnesses...
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Nader Kim El-Mallawany, William Kamiyango, Jeremy S Slone, Jimmy Villiera, Carrie L Kovarik, Carrie M Cox, Dirk P Dittmer, Saeed Ahmed, Gordon E Schutze, Michael E Scheurer, Peter N Kazembe, Parth S Mehta
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most common HIV-associated malignancy in children and adolescents in Africa. Pediatric KS is distinct from adult disease. We evaluated the clinical characteristics associated with long-term outcomes. We performed a retrospective observational analysis of 70 HIV-infected children and adolescents with KS less than 18 years of age diagnosed between 8/2010 and 6/2013 in Lilongwe, Malawi. Local first-line treatment included bleomycin and vincristine plus nevirapine-based highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)...
2016: PloS One
Vincent Oladele Adeniyi, Elza Thomson, Daniel Ter Goon, Idowu Anthony Ajayi
BACKGROUND: Despite the overwhelming evidence confirming the morbidity and mortality benefits of early initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected infants, some children are still disadvantaged from gaining access to care. The understanding of the maternal perspective on early infant HIV diagnosis and prompt initiation of HAART has not been adequately explored, especially in the rural communities of South Africa. This study explores the perspectives of mothers of HIV-exposed infants with regard to early infant diagnosis (EID) through a lens of social and structural barriers to accessing primary healthcare in OR Tambo district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa...
2015: BMC Pediatrics
Elizabeth Gathoni Kibaru, Ruth Nduati, Dalton Wamalwa, Nyambura Kariuki
BACKGROUND: HIV infected children experience a range of hematological complications which show marked improvement within 6 months of initiating anti-retroviral therapy. The Objectives of the study was to describe the changes in hematological indices of HIV-1 infected children following 6 months of treatment with first line antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) regimen. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted between September and November 2008. During this period medical records of children attending Comprehensive Care Clinic at Kenyatta National hospital were reviewed daily...
2015: AIDS Research and Therapy
Nathalia Ferraz Oliscovicz, Luciana Pomarico, Gloria Fernanda Barbosa de Araújo Castro, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro Souza
AIMS: The aim was to assess the prevalence of oral lesions in HIV-infected children undergoing highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), and the association between the duration of HAART usage and oral lesions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Totally, 111 medical and dental records of HIV-infected children, aged from 2 to 16 years old were reviewed for medical data, presence of oral lesions, and caries prevalence. According to the type of medication, the children were grouped as follows: 51 were under HAART (G1), 46 were using anti-retroviral medication (G2), and 14 were using no medication (G3)...
March 2015: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Satyakumar Thongam, Sunibala Keithelakpam, Tomba Y Singh, Ranbir L Singh, Amuba M Singh, Salam Ranabir
CONTEXT: Thyroid dysfunction has been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals including children. Some studies have reported that thyroid dysfunction may be a marker of severity or progression of HIV. AIMS: The aim was to study thyroid function in HIV-infected children with and without highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Cross-sectional study carried out at a teaching hospital with Anti-Retroviral Therapy Centre (Centre of Excellence) of National AIDS Control Organization...
March 2015: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Euden Bhutia, Alok Hemal, Tribhuvan Pal Yadav, K L Ramesh
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that about 2.5 million people are living with HIV infection in India. Although antiretroviral drugs have been able to reduce the mortality, these drugs have serious side effects one of which is lipodystrophy syndrome. Most of the drugs used in HAART viz, protease inhibitors, stavudine and nevirapine are associated with lipodystrophy. Hence we conducted this study to assess the prevalence of lipodystrophy in HIV infected children on HAART and its associated risk factors...
June 2014: African Health Sciences
Dennis Odai Laryea, Yaw Ampem Amoako, Kathryn Spangenberg, Ebenezer Frimpong, Judith Kyei-Ansong
BACKGROUND: A key strategy for minimizing HIV infection rates especially via reduction of Mother- to-Child transmission is by reducing the unmet need for family planning. In Ghana, the integration of family planning services into Antiretroviral Therapy services for persons living with HIV/AIDS has largely been ignored. We set out to measure the prevalence of modern methods of contraception, the unmet need for family planning and to identify factors associated with the use of modern methods of contraception among HIV positive women on anti retroviral therapy...
2014: BMC Women's Health
Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Azar Kariminia, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Pagakrong Lumbiganon, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Fong Siew Moy, Matthew Law, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Kamarul Razali, Virat Sirisanthana, Annette H Sohn, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on opportunistic infections (OIs) and factors associated with their occurrence after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Asian children. The use of HAART in Asia started much later than in developed countries and therefore reported findings may not be fully applicable to the pediatric HIV epidemic in Asia. METHODS: Retrospective and prospectively collected data from the Therapeutic Research, Education and AIDS Training Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database cohort study from March 1993 to March 2009 were analyzed...
July 2014: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Alberto Cagigi, Stefano Rinaldi, Nicola Cotugno, Emma Concetta Manno, Veronica Santilli, Nadia Mora, Paola Zangari, Angela Aquilani, Kuekou Hyppolite Tchidjou, Carlo Giaquinto, Stefania Bernardi, Paolo Rossi, Paolo Palma
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that an early initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1 vertically infected children enhanced the function of memory B-cells gained during childhood routine vaccinations. On the other hand, a significant waning of immunity was observed for patients with a late treatment. In this follow-up study, we report data from a sample of patients in our cohort including late-treated patients being revaccinated with routine childhood vaccines...
May 2014: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Steven R Nesheim, Felicia Hardnett, John T Wheeling, George K Siberry, Mary E Paul, Patricia Emmanuel, Beverly Bohannon, Kenneth Dominguez
BACKGROUND: Little is known about immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in children in the United States. METHODS: LEGACY is a longitudinal cohort study of HIV-infected participants 0-24 years at enrollment during 2005 to 2007 from 22 US clinics. For this analysis, we included participants with complete medical record abstraction from birth or time of HIV diagnosis through 2006. Opportunistic illness (OI) included AIDS-defining conditions and selected HIV-related diagnoses...
October 2013: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Eva Grey, Maria Hardy, Veronika Sladeckova, Jana Adamcova, Ladislav Bucko, Juraj Blaskovic, Kristina Pauerova, Terezia Dudasova, Jaroslava Polonova, Lenka Rabarova, George J Benca
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychic manifestations of AIDS are still noticeable especially in developing countries. The aim of this short communication is to describe psychological, behavioral and neurologic disorders caused by either HIV-related disorders, or drug related toxicities in HIV-infected children from Cambodia (Phnom Penh, Sihanoukville) treated during 10 years with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: One hundred and thirty seven (137) HIV-positive children (age 2-19 years) treated with HAART since 2003 (6-10 years follow up) have been analyzed concerning opportunistic infections, other co-infections, renal parameters, hematologic parameters, chest X-ray, antiretroviral treatment, anti-tuberculotics and antibiotics treatment...
September 2013: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Rajendra Bhimma, Murli Udharam Purswani, Udai Kala
INTRODUCTION: Involvement of the kidney in children and adolescents with perinatal (HIV-1) infection can occur at any stage during the child's life with diverse diagnoses, ranging from acute kidney injury, childhood urinary tract infections (UTIs), electrolyte imbalances and drug-induced nephrotoxicity, to diseases of the glomerulus. The latter include various immune-mediated chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). DISCUSSION: The introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically reduced the incidence of HIVAN, once the commonest form of CKD in children of African descent living with HIV, and also altered its prognosis from eventual progression to end-stage kidney disease to one that is compatible with long-term survival...
2013: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Nosakhare J Iduoriyekemwen, Wilson E Sadoh, Ayebo E Sadoh
Access to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the prognosis of Nigerian children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); thus, more children are surviving. Long-term exposure to HAART is potentially nephrotoxic. We therefore aimed at assessing the prevalence of renal disease in Nigerian children infected with HIV, who are on HAART. In this cross-sectional study, we studied children, aged ten months to 17 years, infected with HIV, attending the pediatric HIV clinics of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital...
January 2013: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Emily S Prohaska, Allison R King
PURPOSE: Case reports and other published or manufacturer-provided data on the administration of antiretroviral agents through enteral feeding tubes are reviewed. SUMMARY: There is very limited published evidence to guide clinicians in the delivery of therapies for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by feeding tubes, especially crushed tablets and capsule contents. A search of the primary literature (through February 2012) identified a total of nine articles describing the delivery of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) agents via gastrostomy (G), jejunostomy, and other feeding tubes; correspondence with pharmaceutical manufacturers yielded additional information...
December 15, 2012: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Pierre De Beaudrap, Charlotte Boullé, Charlotte Lewden, Delphine Gabillard, Boubacar Nacro, Serge Diagbouga, Patricia Fassinou, Hervé Hien, Christian Laurent, Philippe Msellati
BACKGROUND: Although 90% of HIV-1-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa, morbidity data after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation in these settings are limited. The objective of this study was to document the incidence of AIDS-defining events and non-AIDS-defining diseases in African children receiving HAART. METHODS: Incidences rates (IRs) of AIDS-defining events and 10 other common diseases were estimated overall and by current CD4-strata (<15%, 15 - <25% and ≥25%) from 2 prospective cohorts of African children...
April 2013: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Grace D Kinabo, Mirte Sprengers, Levina J Msuya, Aisa M Shayo, Henri van Asten, Wil M V Dolmans, Andre J A M van der Ven, Adilia Warris
OBJECTIVE: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been associated with lipodystrophy (LD) in adults but data are more limited for children. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for LD in Tanzanian children receiving HAART by clinical assessment and to compare the results with anthropometric data. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in a cohort of HIV-infected children aged 1-18 years receiving HAART in a single center in Moshi, Tanzania...
January 2013: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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