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highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351333/simultaneous-quantification-of-four-antiretroviral-drugs-in-breast-milk-samples-from-hiv-positive-women-by-an-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-uplc-ms-ms-method
#1
Alicia Ramírez-Ramírez, Elías Sánchez-Serrano, Giselle Loaiza-Flores, Noemí Plazola-Camacho, Rosa Georgina Rodríguez-Delgado, Ricardo Figueroa-Damián, Mauricio Domínguez-Castro, Margarita López-Martínez, Zayra Flores-García, Jessica Hernández-Pineda
The primary strategy to avoid mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through breastfeeding is administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to HIV-positive pregnant women. Because significant changes in the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs occur during pregnancy, quantifying HAART and the viral load in breast milk in this population is essential. Here, we developed an analytical assay for the simultaneous quantification of four ARV drugs in breast milk using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304123/infection-and-depletion-of-cd4-group-1-innate-lymphoid-cells-by-hiv-1-via-type-i-interferon-pathway
#2
Juanjuan Zhao, Liang Cheng, Hongbo Wang, Haisheng Yu, Bo Tu, Qiang Fu, Guangming Li, Qi Wang, Yanling Sun, Xin Zhang, Zhenwen Liu, Weiwei Chen, Liguo Zhang, Lishan Su, Zheng Zhang
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are severely depleted during chronic HIV-1 infection by unclear mechanisms. We report here that human ILC1s comprising of CD4+ and CD4- subpopulations were present in various human lymphoid organs but with different transcription programs and functions. Importantly, CD4+ ILC1s expressed HIV-1 co-receptors and were productively infected by HIV-1 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, chronic HIV-1 infection activated and depleted both CD4+ and CD4- ILC1s, and impaired their cytokine production activity...
January 5, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302644/vestibular-function-in-a-group-of-adults-with-hiv-aids-on-haart
#3
Katijah Khoza-Shangase
Background: The high prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the established otological manifestations of the disease have important implications for research into vestibular function in this population. Materials and Methods: The main aim of the current study was to investigate and monitor the vestibular status in a group of adult patients with AIDS receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and other therapies in a hospital outpatient clinic in Gauteng, South Africa...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281889/discovery-of-a-semi-synthesized-cyclolignan-as-a-potent-hiv-1-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor
#4
Jia-Mei Guo, Ming-Yu Ba, Ying Yang, Chun-Suo Yao, Miao Yu, Jian-Gong Shi, Ying Guo
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are essential components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In this study, we identified (+)-(7'S,8S,8'S)-3',4,4',5,5'-pentamethoxy-2,7'-cyclolignan (SG-1), a cyclolignan semi-synthesized from Machilus robusta and M. wangchiana extracts, as a potent NNRTI. SG-1 displayed anti-HIV-1 activity with an IC50 of 0.77 μmol/L by inhibiting reverse transcriptase (RT) RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity through a direct binding...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279368/from-in-silico-hit-to-long-acting-late-stage-preclinical-candidate-to-combat-hiv-1-infection
#5
Shalley N Kudalkar, Jagadish Beloor, Elias Quijano, Krasimir A Spasov, Won-Gil Lee, José A Cisneros, W Mark Saltzman, Priti Kumar, William L Jorgensen, Karen S Anderson
The HIV-1 pandemic affecting over 37 million people worldwide continues, with nearly one-half of the infected population on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Major therapeutic challenges remain because of the emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1 strains, limitations because of safety and toxicity with current HIV-1 drugs, and patient compliance for lifelong, daily treatment regimens. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) that target the viral polymerase have been a key component of the current HIV-1 combination drug regimens; however, these issues hamper them...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278971/prevention-strategies-against-hiv-transmission-a-proactive-approach
#6
Antonio J Carrion, Jovan D Miles, Juan F Mosley, Lillian L Smith, April S Prather, Marcus M Gurley, Linh D Phan, Emily C Everton
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has now transformed into a manageable chronic condition. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has proven efficacious at controlling the disease progression. Based on compelling evidence, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) developed guidelines for the management of persons infected with HIV. However, there are approximately 50 000 new cases of HIV in the United States each year. In this article, we review proactive methods to reduce the transmission of HIV, which include reinforcing patient education, gel-coated condoms that destroy HIV, HIV vaccinations, and adequately utilizing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258350/linkage-to-hiv-care-and-its-determinants-in-the-late-haart-era-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Julian Perelman, Ricardo Rosado, Adriana Ferro, Pedro Aguiar
Poor engagement into HIV care limits the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) to improve survival and reduce transmission. The design of effective interventions to enhance linkage to care is dependent on evidence about rates of entry into HIV care. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis on linkage measurement and its determinants in the late era of HAART (post-2003), in high-income countries. We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases, restricting our sample to the late HAART era (post-2003) until February 2016, and to high-income countries...
December 19, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249478/mortality-and-causes-of-death-in-people-diagnosed-with-hiv-in-the-era-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-compared-with-the-general-population-an-analysis-of-a-national-observational-cohort
#8
Sara Croxford, Aileen Kitching, Sarika Desai, Meaghan Kall, Michael Edelstein, Andrew Skingsley, Fiona Burns, Andrew Copas, Alison E Brown, Ann K Sullivan, Valerie Delpech
BACKGROUND: Deaths in HIV-positive people have decreased since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996. Fewer AIDS-related deaths and an ageing cohort have resulted in an increase in the proportion of HIV patients dying from non-AIDS-related disorders. Here we describe mortality and causes of death in people diagnosed with HIV in the HAART era compared with the general population. METHODS: In this observational analysis, we linked cohort data collected by Public Health England (PHE) for individuals aged 15 years and older, diagnosed with HIV in England and Wales from 1997 to 2012, to the Office for National Statistics (ONS) national mortality register...
January 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246970/compounds-producing-an-effective-combinatorial-regimen-for-disruption-of-hiv-1-latency
#9
Pargol Hashemi, Kris Barreto, Wendy Bernhard, Adam Lomness, Nicolette Honson, Tom A Pfeifer, P Richard Harrigan, Ivan Sadowski
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the outlook for the HIV epidemic, but does not provide a cure. The proposed "shock-and-kill" strategy is directed at inducing latent HIV reservoirs, which may then be purged via boosted immune response or targeting infected cells. We describe five novel compounds that are capable of reversing HIV latency without affecting the general T-cell activation state. The new compounds exhibit synergy for reactivation of latent provirus with other latency-reversing agents (LRAs), in particular ingenol-3-angelate/PEP005...
December 15, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241911/a-comparison-of-mean-corpuscular-volume-mcv-between-thalassemia-carrier-and-non-thalassemia-carrier-pregnant-women-receiving-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-haart
#10
Yada Thongyou, Fuanglada Tongprasert
OBJECTIVE: HIV-infected treatment with antiretroviral drugs is one of the common causes of macrocytosis. In patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) can be shifted from microcytic to normocytic or macrocytic after treatment and significantly affected the thalassemia screening. This study aimed to compare MCV between thalassemia-carrier and non-thalassemia-carrier antiretroviral drug-naïve, HIV-infected, pregnant women receiving HAART...
December 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230854/adjuvant-potential-of-virgin-coconut-oil-extract-on-antiretroviral-therapy-induced-testicular-toxicity-an-ultrastructural-study
#11
O O Ogedengbe, A I Jegede, I O Onanuga, U Offor, A I Peter, E N Akang, E C S Naidu, O O Azu
The effects of Virgin coconut oil as an adjuvant to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were investigated on the testicular ultrastructure and biochemical markers in rats. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153-169 g were divided into four groups and treated as follows: control A (distilled water), B (HAART), C (HAART+Virgin coconut oil 10 ml/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil [VCO] 10 ml/kg). Testicular segments were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Serum was assayed for testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testicular tissue for malondialdehyde and glutathione...
December 12, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207194/quercetin-synergistically-reactivates-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-latency-by-activating-nuclear-factor%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#12
Xinyi Yang, Xiaoli Zhu, Haiyan Ji, Junxiao Deng, Panpan Lu, Zhengtao Jiang, Xian Li, Yibo Wang, Chuqiao Wang, Jingya Zhao, Yanan Wang, Yangcheng Zhong, He Yang, Huanzhang Zhu
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is very effective in suppressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV‑1) replication. However, the treatment is required to be administered for the remainder of an individual's lifetime due to latent HIV‑1 reservoirs. The 'shock‑and‑kill' strategy, which involves using agents to reactivate latent HIV‑1 and subsequently killing latently infected cells in the presence of HAART, was recently proposed. Unfortunately, no agents have currently demonstrated an ability to reactivate latent HIV‑1 in vivo in the absence of toxicity...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181032/overt-lower-gastrointestinal-bleeding-and-pseudotumor-a-rare-presentation-of-cytomegalovirus-infection
#13
Akanksha Agrawal, Deepanshu Jain, Sameer Siddique
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous organism which can infect multiple organs of the body. In an immunocompromised patient, it can have a myriad of gastrointestinal manifestations. We report a case of recurrent hematochezia and concomitant pseudotumor in an AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) patient attributable to CMV infection. A 62-year-old man with a history of AIDS, noncompliant with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), presented with bright red blood per rectum. Index colonoscopy showed presence of multiple ulcers, colonic stenosis, and mass-like appearing lesion...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177382/-high-frequency-of-dyslipidemia-in-vih-infected-patients-in-aa-peruvian-public-hospital
#14
Paola L Rondan, Oscar Flores-Flores, Nicole A Doria, Gustavo Valencia-Mesias, Víctor Chávez-Pérez, Jaime Soria
The objective of the study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of dyslipidemia in patients with HIV in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a Peruvian public hospital. A cross-sectional study was carried out in patients with complete lipid profile after receiving at least six months of HAART. Dyslipidemia was defined according to the criteria of the NCEP-ATP III. We reviewed 2 975 clinical histories, and included 538 (18.1%) in the analysis. The frequency of dyslipidemia was 74.7%...
April 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165511/-cystoisospora-belli-infection-in-hiv-patients-analysis-of-cases-with-different-clinical-evolution
#15
Heber Silva-Díaz, Darwin Fernández-Valverde, Gustavo Hernández-Córdova, Virgilio E Failoc-Rojas
INTRODUCTION: Cystoisospora belli infection is one of the most important causes of watery diarrhea in patients with HIV and causes high rates of morbidity and mortality. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in patients with HIV and diarrhea by C. belli. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were collected by analyzing clinical records. RESULTS: Four had recurrent diarrhea despite receiving secondary prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole and specific treatment, two of which had a good viral and immunological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at the time of diagnosis and antiparasitic treatment...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160443/body-fat-redistribution-and-changes-in-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#16
Rebeca Antunes Beraldo, André Pereira Dos Santos, Mariana Palma Guimarães, Helena Siqueira Vassimon, Francisco José Albuquerque de Paula, Dalmo Roberto Lopes Machado, Maria Cristina Foss-Freitas, Anderson Marliere Navarro
INTRODUCTION: The HIV lipodystrophy syndrome is characterized by changes in metabolism, and body composition that increase cardiovascular risk of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of lipodystrophy and changes in lipid and glucose metabolism in PLWHA in use of HAART. METHODS: For the anthropometric evaluation we measured weight, height and abdominal circumference (AC)...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135386/timing-of-diagnosis-understanding-resilience-narratives-of-hiv-positive-older-adults-diagnosed-pre-and-post-haart
#17
Lesley M Harris, Charles A Emlet, Christina Pierpaoli Parker, Charles Furlotte
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing population of older adults living with HIV/AIDS, few studies have examined this population in terms of timing of HIV diagnosis. This study explores resilience and protective factors among HIV-positive older adults, 17 of whom were diagnosed prior to the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 13 of whom were diagnosed after the development HAART. METHODS: We explored the concepts of resilience and protective factors in 30 older adults living with HIV in Ontario, Canada...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097650/leiomyosarcoma-of-the-inferior-vena-cava-in-an-hiv-positive-adult-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Jing Xu, Arash Velayati, Barbara J Berger, Ming Liu, Naga K Sucharita Cheedella, Vladimir Gotlieb
BACKGROUND Leiomyosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of the inferior vena cava (IVC), and represents approximately 10% of primary retroperitoneal sarcomas. Leiomyosarcoma presents with non-specific symptoms, including abdominal pain or back pain. There is an increased incidence in immunosuppressed individuals. CASE REPORT An unusual presentation of IVC leiomyosarcoma is reported in a 46-year-old female patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who was on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and who had a normal CD4 count of 934, who presented with back pain...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095018/nutritional-status-and-quality-of-life-in-hiv-infected-patients
#19
Barbara Fernandes De Carvalho, Sara Policarpo, Ana Catarina Moreira
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status and the progression of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are interlinked; though some studies have looked at the impact nutritional status has on quality of life (QoL) in patients with chronic diseases, few have studied this in HIV-infected individuals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between nutritional status and QoL in adults with a recent HIV diagnosis. METHODS: Individuals with an HIV diagnosis performed in the fourteen months prior to a medical visit to one of Lisbon's central hospitals were eligible...
July 28, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091911/il-23-signaling-in-th17-cells-is-inhibited-by-hiv-infection-and-is-not-restored-by-haart-implications-for-persistent-immune-activation
#20
Jason R Fernandes, Tamara K Berthoud, Ashok Kumar, Jonathan B Angel
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection causes a profound depletion of gut derived Th17 cells, contributing to loss of mucosal barrier function and an increase in microbial translocation, thus driving systemic immune activation. Despite normalization of circulating CD4+ T cell counts with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), Th17 frequency and function often remain impaired. Given the importance of interleukin (IL)-23 in the generation and stabilization of Th17 cells we hypothesized that impaired IL-23 signaling causes persistent Th17 dysfunction in HIV infection...
2017: PloS One
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