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highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220718/the-big-imitator-strikes-again-a-case-report-of-neurosyphilis-in-a-patient-with-newly-diagnosed-hiv
#1
Sévérine de Bruijn, Chris Kenyon, Nicolas Léonard, Erika Vlieghe
BACKGROUND: Neurosyphilis is the result of an infection of the central nervous system caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Its clinical presentation includes meningovascular syphilis, tabes dorsalis, and dementia paralytica, resulting in a wide range of symptoms such as psychosis, Parkinsonism, and depression. CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old male was admitted to a psychiatric hospital because of social withdrawal and self-neglect, indicative of a major depression...
February 21, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216610/pulmonary-kaposi-sarcoma-with-osseous-metastases-in-an-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-patient-a-remarkable-response-to-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#2
Ahmed Dirweesh, Muhammad Yasir Khan, Shaikh Fawad Hamiz, Nigahus Karabulut
BACKGROUND Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is known to involve the mucocutaneous tissues and the aero-digestive tracts. In acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, KS has an aggressive course and carries poor prognosis. We present a case of pulmonary KS with osseous metastases as the first presentation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a young male. The lesions impressively decreased in size and numbers following initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). CASE REPORT A 34-year-old heterosexual male presented with a one month history of cough and 15-20 pound weight loss within six months...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212619/brain-and-liver-pathology-amyloid-deposition-and-interferon-responses-among-older-hiv-positive-patients-in-the-late-haart-era
#3
Isaac H Solomon, Umberto De Girolami, Sukrutha Chettimada, Vikas Misra, Elyse J Singer, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: HIV+ patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with suppressed viral loads have a low incidence of HIV-associated dementia, but increased prevalence of milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). These milder forms of HAND are often associated with minimal histological abnormalities, and their pathophysiology is unclear. Comorbidities, altered amyloid metabolism, accelerated brain aging, and activated interferon responses are suspected to play a role in HAND pathogenesis in HAART-treated persons...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209492/reproductive-considerations-in-the-setting-of-chronic-viral-illness
#4
REVIEW
Brent M Hanson, Jessie A Dorais
Special considerations must be taken when patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B, or Hepatitis C desire to achieve pregnancy. Patients with chronic viral illnesses desire children at rates similar to the general population, and options are available to decrease both vertical transmission and viral transmission between partners. Preconception counseling or consultation with fertility specialists is imperative in patients with HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C so that reproductive goals can be addressed and optimized...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196510/partial-hiv-c2v3-envelope-sequence-analysis-reveals-association-of-coreceptor-tropism-envelope-glycosylation-and-viral-genotypic-variability-among-kenyan-patients-on-haart
#5
Rose C Kitawi, Carol W Hunja, Rashid Aman, Bernhards R Ogutu, Anne W T Muigai, Gilbert O Kokwaro, Washingtone Ochieng
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 is highly variable genetically and at protein level, a property it uses to subvert antiviral immunity and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess if HIV subtype differences were associated with variations in glycosylation patterns and co-receptor tropism among HAART patients experiencing different virologic treatment outcomes. METHODS: A total of 118 HIV env C2V3 sequence isolates generated previously from 59 Kenyan patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were examined for tropism and glycosylation patterns...
February 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178892/trends-in-the-incidence-of-aids-defining-and-non-aids-defining-cancers-in-people-living-with-aids-a-population-based-study-from-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#6
Luana F Tanaka, Maria do Rosário DO Latorre, Eliana B Gutierrez, Christian Heumann, Karl-Heinz Herbinger, Guenter Froeschl
People living with AIDS are at increased risk of developing certain cancers. Since the introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) has decreased in high-income countries. The objective of this study was to analyse trends in ADCs and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) in HIV-positive people with a diagnosis of AIDS, in comparison to the general population, in São Paulo, Brazil. A probabilistic record linkage between the 'Population-based Cancer Registry of São Paulo' and the AIDS notification database (SINAN) was conducted...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164754/prevalence-of-adverse-drug-reactions-to-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-haart-among-hiv-positive-patients-in-imam-khomeini-hospital-of-tehran-iran
#7
Raheleh Golrokhy, Hamid Emadi Koochak, Azita Babaii, Alia Pourdast, Mehrnaz Rasoolinejad, Saeed Reza Jamali Moghadam, Reza Rezaei Taheri, Seyed Ahmad SeyedAlinaghi
OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among HIV positive patients referred to Imam Khomeini hospital in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study regarding side effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in HIV positive patients referred to Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center in Imam Khomeini Hospital of Tehran, Iran during a period of the year 2009 to 2010. Two hundred patients under antiretroviral treatment evaluated for the side effects of drug based on available records, face to face interviews and written lab data...
January 17, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158991/peritonitis-outcomes-in-patients-with-hiv-and-end-stage-renal-failure-on-peritoneal-dialysis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Kwazi C Z Ndlovu, Wilbert Sibanda, Alain Assounga
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated end-stage renal failure particularly in low-resource settings with limited access to renal replacement therapy. We aimed to evaluate the effects of HIV infection on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)-associated peritonitis outcomes and technique failure in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated HIV-positive CAPD populations. METHODS: We conducted a single-center prospective cohort study of consecutive incident CAPD patients recruited from two hospitals in Durban, South Africa from September 2012-February 2015...
February 3, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147228/association-of-intraocular-pressure-iop-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv
#9
Matthew T Young, Rakhi T Melvani, Faraaz A Khan, Puneet S Braich, Surbhi Bansal
PURPOSE: Prior studies have shown an association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and reduced intraocular pressures (IOP). The purpose of this study was to determine if patients with HIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) had any difference in their IOP compared to patients without HIV or with HIV who are not on HAART. DESIGN: Retrospective cross sectional study. METHODS: We included 400 patients from our academic eye center between 2000 and 2016...
January 29, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129756/a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol-of-an-adapted-intervention-for-alcohol-use-disorders-in-people-living-with-hiv-and-aids-impact-on-alcohol-use-general-functional-ability-quality-of-life-and-adherence-to-haart
#10
Munyaradzi Madhombiro, Bazondlile Dube-Marimbe, Michelle Dube, Dixon Chibanda, Moleen Zunza, Simbarashe Rusakaniko, David Stewart, Soraya Seedat
BACKGROUND: Interventions for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in HIV infected individuals have been primarily targeted at HIV risk reduction and improved antiretroviral treatment adherence. However, reduction in alcohol use is an important goal. Alcohol use affects other key factors that may influence treatment course and outcome. In this study the authors aim to administer an adapted intervention for AUDs to reduce alcohol use in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). METHODS: This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial at 16 HIV care clinics...
January 28, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129254/regionally-specific-brain-volumetric-and-cortical-thickness-changes-in-hiv-infected-patients-in-the-haart-era
#11
Ryan Sanford, Ana Lucia Fernandez Cruz, Susan C Scott, Nancy E Mayo, Lesley K Fellows, BeauM Ances, D Louis Collins
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment still occurs in a substantial subset of HIV-infected patients, despite effective viral suppression with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Structural brain changes may provide clues about the underlying pathophysiology. This study provides a detailed spatial characterization of the pattern and extent of brain volume changes associated with HIV, and relates these brain measures to cognitive ability and clinical variables. METHODS: Multiple novel neuroimaging techniques (deformation-based morphometry, voxel-based morphometry and cortical modeling) were used to assess regional brain volumes in 125 HIV-infected patients and 62 HIV-uninfected individuals...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128530/the-effects-of-low-level-laser-therapy-on-both-hiv-1-infected-and-uninfected-tzm-bl-cells
#12
Masixole Yvonne Lugongolo, Sello Lebohang Manoto, Saturnin Ombinda-Lemboumba, Malik Maaza, Patience Mthunzi-Kufa
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection remains a major health problem despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which has greatly reduced mortality rates. Due to the unavailability of an effective vaccine and treatment that would completely eradicate the virus in infected individuals, the quest for new therapies continues. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) involves the exposure of cells to low levels of red or infrared light. LLLT has been widely used in different medical conditions, but not in HIV-1 infection...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121939/multiple-preinvasive-and-invasive-hpv-related-lesions-of-the-anogenital-tract-in-a-female-patient-with-hiv-infection-a-case-report
#13
Nicolò Clemente, Lara Alessandrini, Emanuela Vaccher, Antonino De Paoli, Monica Buttignol, Vincenzo Canzonieri, Francesco Sopracordevole
RATIONALE: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been shown to be at increased risk for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection of the anogenital tract. Furthermore, in the last decades, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has increased the longevity of these patients who now live long enough to develop HPV-related cancers; hence, the impact of HPV infection on HIV-positive patients is of increasing concern. PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported the case of an HIV-positive female patient on HAART with a good virological and immunological response and with a long history of HPV-related intraepithelial and invasive lesions of the anogenital tract...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104604/hiv-infection-model-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-mice
#14
Patrick Geraghty, Eran Hadas, Boe-Hyun Kim, Abdoulaye J Dabo, David J Volsky, Robert Foronjy
Cigarette smoke usage is prevalent in HIV+ patients and, despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), these individuals develop an accelerated form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Studies investigating the mechanisms of COPD development in HIV have been limited by the lack of suitable mouse models. Here we describe a model of HIV induced COPD in wild type mice using EcoHIV, a chimeric HIV capable of establishing chronic infection in immunocompetent mice. A/J mice were infected with EcoHIV and subjected to whole body cigarette smoke exposure...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094666/stage-iv-advanced-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-with-achieving-cure-by-using-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-alone-a-case-report
#15
Do Hyoung Lim, Ji-Young Rhee, Keon Woo Park
After the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), there has been a decrease in the incidence of lymphoma among the HIV-infected population and also significantly improved survival rates. We describe a remarkable case of an HIV-infected patient with advanced stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), completely regressed with the use of HAART alone. He remained disease-free for 6 years and he achieved cure without chemotherapy. Although several cases of low-grade lymphoma with complete regression were reported, we could not find any case of stage IV high-grade malignant lymphoma with HAART alone in complete remission for over 5 years from our review of the literature...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093460/a-double-edged-sword-does-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-contribute-to-syphilis-incidence-by-impairing-immunity-to-treponema-pallidum
#16
REVIEW
Michael L Rekart, Wilfred Ndifon, Robert C Brunham, Jonathan Dushoff, Sang Woo Park, Sanjana Rawat, Caroline E Cameron
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS: Recently, the world has experienced a rapidly escalating outbreak of infectious syphilis primarily affecting men who have sex with men (MSM); many are taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-1 infection. The prevailing hypothesis is that HAART availability and effectiveness have led to the perception among both individuals who are HIV-1 infected and those who are uninfected that HIV-1 transmission has become much less likely, and the effects of HIV-1 infection less deadly...
January 16, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090819/toxoplasmic-encephalitis-relapse-rates-with-pyrimethamine-based-therapy-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Mark P Connolly, Elizabeth Goodwin, Carina Schey, Jacqueline Zummo
Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection and can be a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. This study evaluated the rate of relapse associated with pyrimethamine-based maintenance therapy (i.e. secondary prophylaxis) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or AIDs treated prior to and after the common use (i.e. 1996) of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (pre-HAART and post-HAART, respectively). PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were searched to 6 June 2016 using search terms: pyrimethamine, Daraprim, Fansidar, Metakelfin, Fansimef, 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-ethyl-2,4-pyrimidinediamine, encephalitis, cerebral, toxoplasmosis, toxoplasmic, and gondii...
February 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086758/toxoplasmosis-associated-iris-involving-the-cns-a-case-report-with-longitudinal-analysis-of-t-cell-subsets
#18
Rita Rb-Silva, Claudia Nobrega, Eugénia Reiriz, Soraia Almeida, Rui Sarmento-Castro, Margarida Correia-Neves, Ana Horta
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients may present an unforeseen clinical worsening after initiating antiretroviral therapy known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This syndrome is characterized by a heightened inflammatory response toward infectious or non-infectious triggers, and it may affect different organs. Diagnosis of IRIS involving the central nervous system (CNS-IRIS) is challenging due to heterogeneous manifestations, absence of biomarkers to identify this condition, risk of long-term sequelae and high mortality...
January 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065185/predictors-of-immunodeficiency-related-death-in-a-cohort-of-low-income-people-living-with-hiv-a-competing-risks-survival-analysis
#19
M F P M Albuquerque, D N Alves, C C Bresani Salvi, J D L Batista, R A A Ximenes, D B Miranda-Filho, H R L Melo, M Maruza, U R Montarroyos
We conducted a survival analysis with competing risks to estimate the mortality rate and predictive factors for immunodeficiency-related death in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) in northeast Brazil. A cohort with 2372 PLWH was enrolled between July 2007 and June 2010 and monitored until 31 December 2012 at two healthcare centres. The event of interest was immunodeficiency-related death, which was defined based on the Coding Causes of Death in HIV Protocol (CoDe). The predictor variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, illicit drugs, tobacco, alcohol, nutritional status, antiretroviral therapy, anaemia and CD4 cell count at baseline; and treatment or chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis (TB) during follow-up...
January 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064418/novel-antiretroviral-drugs-in-patients-with-renal-impairment-clinical-and-pharmacokinetic-considerations
#20
Dario Cattaneo, Cristina Gervasoni
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically increased the survival of HIV-infected patients from Western countries reducing the incidence of opportunistic infections and AIDS-related malignancies, and improving the patients' quality of life compared with the pre-HAART era. HIV is thus now considered in the West as a chronic disease, with the majority of HIV-infected patients successfully reaching an optimal immune and virological outcome a few months after starting HAART. However, this switch from acute to chronic disease has been accompanied by an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), reported in up to 60% of HIV-infected patients...
January 7, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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