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highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086758/toxoplasmosis-associated-iris-involving-the-cns-a-case-report-with-longitudinal-analysis-of-t-cell-subsets
#1
Rita Rb-Silva, Claudia Nobrega, Eugénia Reiriz, Soraia Almeida, Rui Sarmento-Castro, Margarida Correia-Neves, Ana Horta
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients may present an unforeseen clinical worsening after initiating antiretroviral therapy known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This syndrome is characterized by a heightened inflammatory response toward infectious or non-infectious triggers, and it may affect different organs. Diagnosis of IRIS involving the central nervous system (CNS-IRIS) is challenging due to heterogeneous manifestations, absence of biomarkers to identify this condition, risk of long-term sequelae and high mortality...
January 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065185/predictors-of-immunodeficiency-related-death-in-a-cohort-of-low-income-people-living-with-hiv-a-competing-risks-survival-analysis
#2
M F P M Albuquerque, D N Alves, C C Bresani Salvi, J D L Batista, R A A Ximenes, D B Miranda-Filho, H R L Melo, M Maruza, U R Montarroyos
We conducted a survival analysis with competing risks to estimate the mortality rate and predictive factors for immunodeficiency-related death in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) in northeast Brazil. A cohort with 2372 PLWH was enrolled between July 2007 and June 2010 and monitored until 31 December 2012 at two healthcare centres. The event of interest was immunodeficiency-related death, which was defined based on the Coding Causes of Death in HIV Protocol (CoDe). The predictor variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, illicit drugs, tobacco, alcohol, nutritional status, antiretroviral therapy, anaemia and CD4 cell count at baseline; and treatment or chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis (TB) during follow-up...
January 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064418/novel-antiretroviral-drugs-in-patients-with-renal-impairment-clinical-and-pharmacokinetic-considerations
#3
Dario Cattaneo, Cristina Gervasoni
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically increased the survival of HIV-infected patients from Western countries reducing the incidence of opportunistic infections and AIDS-related malignancies, and improving the patients' quality of life compared with the pre-HAART era. HIV is thus now considered in the West as a chronic disease, with the majority of HIV-infected patients successfully reaching an optimal immune and virological outcome a few months after starting HAART. However, this switch from acute to chronic disease has been accompanied by an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), reported in up to 60% of HIV-infected patients...
January 7, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053556/assessment-of-the-effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-renal-and-liver-functions-among-hiv-infected-patients-a-retrospective-study
#4
Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Birhanemeskel Tegene, Mikiyas Gebremichael, Gebrehawaria Birhane, Wabe Kedir, Belete Biadgo
BACKGROUND: The emergence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically improved quality of life in prolonging survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on treatment in developed as well as developing countries. However, the main shortcoming of HAART in long-term use is its potential to cause liver and kidney derangements that may be life threatening. The drugs are actively accumulated in the proximal renal tubule resulting in functional disturbance with mitochondrial injury being one of the most important targets recognized...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043197/zidovudine-versus-tenofovir-based-antiretroviral-therapy-for-the-initial-treatment-of-hiv-infection-in-the-ethnic-minority-region-of-liangshan-prefecture-sichuan-province-china
#5
Cedric P Cheung, Wen Hong Lai, Jonathan Shuter
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir (TDF)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), as recommended by the World Health Organization guidelines for HIV-naive patients, has been limited in resource-constrained settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of zidovudine-(ZDV) versus TDF-based HAART in the Yi minority region of Sichuan Province, China at a single HIV treatment center. METHODS: The primary end point was the attainment of an HIV viral load <50 copies/mL...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042354/simplification-of-haart-therapy-on-ambulatory-hiv-patients-in-malaysia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Tineshwaran Velvanathan, Farida Islahudin, Benedict L Sim, Nur A Taha
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the impact of fixed-dose combination (FDC) containing emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir (TDF), and efavirenz (EFV) versus a free-dose combination (FRC) of the same three drugs on clinical outcomes, adherence and quality of life in Malaysian outpatients with HIV. METHODS: HIV patients (n=120) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the infectious disease clinic of Hospital Sungai Buloh were randomized to either FDC (n=60) or FRC (n=60)...
October 2016: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013100/the-impact-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-on-obstetric-conditions-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Hannah M Sebitloane, Dhayendre Moodley
HIV is the leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in resource constrained countries. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) initiated in pregnancy has now almost eliminated mother to child transmission of the virus, and is beginning to show the desired effect of reducing HIV related maternal mortality. By modulating host immunological responses HAART has the potential to alter infections during pregnancy, in addition to modifying clinical conditions such as preeclampsia. There is increasing evidence of the benefits of HAART given to pregnant women, however there is paucity of data that distinguishes HIV or HAART as the cause or exacerbation of pre-existing medical conditions or conditions specific to pregnancy...
December 9, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012378/systemic-inflammation-before-and-after-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-as-a-predictor-of-immune-response-among-hiv-infected-individuals-in-manitoba
#8
Quinlan Richert, Adriana Trajtman, Luisa Arroyave, Julia Toews, Marissa Becker, Ken Kasper, Paul McLaren, Zulma Rueda, Yoav Keynan
INTRODUCTION: Despite the life-prolonging effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), persons with HIV are still prone to higher rates of non-AIDS related morbidity (such as heart, kidney, and liver disease) than the general public. This is likely due to chronic immune activation and inflammation that persists in HIV-positive persons despite virological suppression. What remains undetermined, however, is whether a link exists between chronic inflammation/immune activation and suboptimal immune recovery on HAART...
December 21, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001474/effects-of-resistance-training-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#9
Roberto Poton, Marcos Polito, Paulo Farinatti
The relative effects of resistance training (RT) upon muscle fitness and immune function among HIV-infected patients are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to determine the effects of RT upon muscle strength, muscle mass and CD4 cells count and to identify potential moderators of those outcomes in HIV-infected patients. Meta-analyses use random or fixed-effects model depending on the heterogeneity of effect sizes, complemented with Hedge's g correction factor. Thirteen trials were meta-analysed...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993121/trimethyl-chitosan-improves-anti-hiv-effects-of-atripla-as-a-new-nano-formulated-drug
#10
Sepideh Shohani, Asghar Abdoli, Behzad Khansarinejad, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Mohammad Salimi-Asl, Maryam Ghanbari, Mehrdad Sadeghi Haj, Rezvan Zabihollahi, Mahdieh Mondanizadeh
Background; highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been commonly used for HIV treatment. Its main drawbacks like drug resistance and side effects raised researcher's interest to find new approaches for its treatment. Trimethyl chitosan is one of the drug carriers which was introduced recently. Materials and Methods; the conjugated atripla-trimethyl chitosan was designed and characterized by zetasizer, AFM and FTIR techniques. The drug conjugation with trimethyl chitosan and cellular uptake of nano-conjugate were determined by spectrophotometry...
December 16, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981723/microrna-155-is-a-biomarker-of-t-cell-activation-and-immune-dysfunction-in-hiv-1-infected-patients
#11
C Jin, L Cheng, S Höxtermann, T Xie, X Lu, H Wu, A Skaletz-Rorowski, N H Brockmeyer, N Wu
OBJECTIVES: MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) regulates T-cell differentiation and activation. It has also been associated with HIV infection. However, it remains unclear whether miR-155 is related to the T-cell response in HIV-infected individuals (e.g. T-cell activation and exhaustion). METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study involving 121 HIV-1-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 43 HAART-naïve patients. MiR-155 levels in the peripheral blood were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
December 16, 2016: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966518/impact-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-in-the-development-and-remission-of-oral-plasmablastic-lymphoma
#12
Vivian Petersen Wagner, Lisley Ortiz, Helena Pereira Rodrigues da Silva, Luise Meurer, João Julio da Cunha Filho, Marco Antonio Trevizani Martins, Manoela Domingues Martins
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) represents a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in this tumor is poorly known due to its small incidence. This study reports a case of a 33-year-old HIV-positive woman who was referred to the Stomatology Department complaining about a painful gingival growth and cervical nodule both with 20 days of evolution. The lesions appeared 7 months after the patient stopped HAART...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940963/lipid-peroxidation-and-altered-antioxidant-profiles-with-pediatric-hiv-infection-and-antiretroviral-therapy-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#13
Yiglet Mebrat, Wondwossen Amogne, Amha Mekasha, Rudolph L Gleason, Daniel Seifu
HIV- and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-associated elevations in oxidative stress likely play a role in incomplete immune reconstitution, opportunistic infections and non-AIDS co-morbidities. We aimed to test the hypothesis that children living with HIV exhibit elevated markers of oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant profiles and that HAART-therapy will exacerbate these differences. HIV-positive HAART-naïve (n = 50) and HAART-treated (n = 50) and HIV-negative control (n = 50) participants, 3-15 years of age, were recruited from Black Lion Hospital in Ethiopia...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912071/classical-and-alternative-macrophages-have-impaired-function-during-acute-and-chronic-hiv-1-infection
#14
Leonardo J Galvão-Lima, Milena S Espíndola, Luana S Soares, Fabiana A Zambuzi, Maira Cacemiro, Caroline Fontanari, Valdes R Bollela, Fabiani G Frantz
OBJECTIVES: Three decades after HIV recognition and its association with AIDS development, many advances have emerged - especially related to prevention and treatment. Undoubtedly, the development of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) dramatically changed the future of the syndrome that we know today. In the present study, we evaluate the impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on macrophage function and its relevance to HIV pathogenesis. METHODS: PBMCs were isolated from blood samples and monocytes (CD14+ cells) were purified...
November 29, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907136/immune-activation-and-bacterial-translocation-a-link-between-impaired-immune-recovery-and-frequent-visceral-leishmaniasis-relapses-in-hiv-infected-patients
#15
Maria Luciana Silva-Freitas, Glaucia Fernandes Cota, Talia S Machado-de-Assis, Carmem Giacoia-Gripp, Ana Rabello, Alda M Da-Cruz, Joanna R Santos-Oliveira
The maintenance of chronic immune activation due to leishmaniasis or even due to microbial translocation is associated with immunosenescence and may contribute to frequent relapses. Our aim was to investigate whether patients with HIV-associated visceral leishmaniasis (VL/HIV) who experience a single episode of VL have different immunological behaviors in comparison to those who experience frequent relapses. VL/HIV patients were allocated to non-relapsing (NR, n = 6) and relapsing (R, n = 11) groups and were followed from the active phase of VL up to 12 months post-treatment (mpt)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890944/role-of-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-measurements-in-hiv-patients
#16
REVIEW
Arun Vishwanath, Saif Quaiser, Ruhi Khan
As we herald into the 21(st) century, the quality of life and the repertoire of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have considerably improved. However, considerable work is still needed to educate the population about primary and secondary prevention modalities. Moreover, regular monitoring of immune response with patients on HAART with conventional biomarkers is still a problem in low resource settings which needs to be addressed. We aim to review high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a potential biomarker in this regard...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881659/glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-gpi-anchored-anti-hiv-scfv-efficiently-protect-cd4-t-cells-from-hiv-1-infection-and-deletion-in-hu-pbl-mice
#17
Chaobaihui Ye, Weiming Wang, Liang Cheng, Guangming Li, Michael Wen, Qi Wang, Qing Zhang, Dan Li, Paul Zhou, Lishan Su
: Despite the success in viral inhibition and CD4 T cell recovery by highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), HIV-1 is still not curable due to the persistence of HIV-1 reservoir during treatment. One patient with acute myeloid leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from homozygous CCR5 Δ32 donor has had no detectable viremia for 9 years after HAART cessation. This case has inspired a field of HIV-1 cure research focusing on engineering HIV-1 resistance of permissive cells...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878102/antiretroviral-naive-and-treated-patients-discrepancies-of-b-cell-subsets-during-the-natural-course-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection
#18
Olga Tsachouridou, Lemonia Skoura, Pantelis Zebekakis, Apostolia Margariti, Adamantini Georgiou, Dimitrios Bougiouklis, Dimitrios Pilalas, Antonios Galanos, Michael Daniilidis, Symeon Metallidis
AIM: To evaluate alterations of memory B cell subpopulations during a 48-wk period in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) patients. METHODS: Forty-one antiretroviral naïve and 41 treated HIV-1 patients matched for age and duration of HIV infection were recruited. All clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data were recorded or measured. The different B cell subsets were characterized according to their surface markers: Total B cells (CD19(+)), memory B cells (CD19(+)CD27(+), BMCs), resting BMCs (CD19(+)CD27(+)CD21(high), RM), exhausted BMCs (CD19(+)CD21(low)CD27(-), EM), IgM memory B (CD19(+)CD27(+)IgM(high)), isotype-switched BMCs (CD19(+)CD27(+)IgM(-), ITS) and activated BMCs (CD19(+)CD21(low+)CD27(+), AM) at baseline on week 4 and week 48...
November 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873361/effect-of-hiv-infection-in-the-micronuclei-frequency-on-the-oral-mucosa
#19
Celina Faig Lima, Monica Ghislaine Oliveira Alves, Juvencio Jose Duailibe Furtado, Marcelo Marcucci, Ivan Balducci, Janete Dias Almeida
BACKGROUND: The genotoxic impact of HIV infection on the oral cavity malignancies is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of HIV infection in micronucleus (MN) frequency on the oral mucosa of HIV+ patients and establish a relationship with early cytogenetic changes in oral carcinogenesis. METHODS: Thirty HIV+ individuals who are under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 30 non-HIV patients were evaluated. Two smears were taken from the lateral border of the tongue and mouth floor and stained by Feulgen...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872774/pulmonary-kaposi-sarcoma-an-uncommon-cause-of-respiratory-failure-in-the-era-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Stanley M Nwabudike, Stefan Hemmings, Yonette Paul, Yordanis Habtegebriel, Octavius Polk, Alem Mehari
Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) is the most common malignancy associated with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and is caused by Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV 8) or Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV). In about 90% of cases Kaposi Sarcoma is associated with cutaneous lesions; however visceral disease can occur in the absence of cutaneous involvement. In the era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), the incidence of KS has declined. Clinical features of pulmonary KS might be difficult to distinguish from pneumonia in the immunocompromised patients and could lead to diagnostic challenges...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
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