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highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

A S Sandhya, Brijesh Prajapat
Thrombocytopenia is one of the most common hematological manifestations seen in HIV patients with approximately 40% of the patients developing thrombocytopenia during their course of illness. Opportunistic infection like tuberculosis is a rare but curative cause of thrombocytopenia in these patients. Clinically, it is a challenge to determine the exact cause and decide the treatment of thrombocytopenia in these patients as both infections can lead to significant thrombocytopenia by varied mechanisms. The treatment options are limited by drug antitubercular treatment highly active antiretroviral therapy (ATT and HAART)-induced thrombocytopenia...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Stevenson K Chea, Tabitha W Mwangi, Kennedy K Ndirangu, Osman A Abdullahi, Patrick K Munywoki, Amina Abubakar, Amin S Hassan
BACKGROUND: Home delivery, referring to pregnant women giving birth in the absence of a skilled birth attendant, is a significant contributor to maternal mortality, and is encouragingly reported to be on a decline in the general population in resource limited settings. However, much less is known about home delivery amongst HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). We described the prevalence and correlates of home delivery among HIV-infected women attending care at a rural public health facility in Kilifi, Coastal Kenya...
2018: PloS One
Mark N Belkin, Nir Uriel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advancements in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has led to increased survival, approaching that of the general population. These patients are at an increased risk for heart disease, specifically HIV-associated cardiomyopathy. RECENT FINDINGS: Initially, HIV-associated cardiomyopathy was predominantly noted as systolic dysfunction, but diastolic dysfunction has become more common with increased use of HAART...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Xavier Tchetnya, Calypse Asangbe Ngwasiri, Tiayah Munge, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde
BACKGROUND: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare life threatening dermatological disorder characterized by extensive epidermal detachment and erosion of mucous membranes. It is typically a side effect of some medications. Nevirapine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) is one of the frequently used components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Skin rash is its common adverse reaction, usually mild and rarely progressing to TEN. Ophthalmic involvement is common as well but rarely progresses to blindness especially in the pediatric population...
March 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Sonia de Castro, María-José Camarasa
HIV infection still has a serious health and socio-economical impact and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. HIV infection and the AIDS pandemic are still matters of great concern, especially in less developed countries where the access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is limited. Patient compliance is another serious drawback. Nowadays, HAART is the treatment of choice although it is not the panacea. Despite the fact that it suppresses viral replication at undetectable viral loads and prevents progression of HIV infection into AIDS HAART has several pitfalls, namely, long-term side-effects, drug resistance development, emergence of drug-resistant viruses, low compliance and the intolerance of some patients to these drugs...
March 5, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Mio Nakamura, Michael Abrouk, Benjamin Farahnik, Tian H Zhu, Tina Bhutani
The management of psoriatic disease in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population is challenging. The clinical course often is progressive and refractory; therefore, first- and second-line therapies including topical agents, phototherapy, and oral retinoids often are inadequate. Most other currently available systemic therapies for psoriatic disease are immunosuppressive, which poses a distinct clinical challenge. A comprehensive systematic review of the literature via a PubMed search of articles indexed for MEDLINE using the terms psoriasis and HIV and psoriatic arthritis and HIV combined with several systemic immunosuppressive agents yielded a total of 25 reported cases of systemic immunosuppressive therapies used to treat psoriatic disease in HIV-positive patients including methotrexate, cyclosporine, etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, and ustekinumab...
January 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
V T Valuev-Elliston, S N Kochetkov
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is one of the most effective means for fighting against HIV-infection. HAART primarily targets HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), and 14 of 28 compounds approved by the FDA as anti-HIV drugs act on this enzyme. HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) hold a special place among HIV RT inhibitors owing to their high specificity and unique mode of action. Nonetheless, these drugs show a tendency to decrease their efficacy due to high HIV-1 variability and formation of resistant virus strains tolerant to clinically applied HIV NNRTIs...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Jeffy George, Joseph J Mattapallil
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) establishes life-long latency in infected individuals. Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a significant impact on the course of HIV infection leading to a better long-term outcome, the pool of latent reservoir remains substantial even under HAART. Numerous approaches have been under development with the goal of eradicating the latent HIV reservoir though with limited success. Approaches that combine immune-mediated control of HIV to activate both the innate and the adaptive immune system under suppressive therapy along with "shock and kill" drugs may lead to a better control of the reactivated virus...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Vikas Kapoor, Azka Latif, Faiza Hassan Warraich, Aneela Majeed
Restoration of immune response by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) effectively improved the overall prognosis of HIV infection. However, 25%-31.7% of patients experience paradoxical worsening of pre-existing infections or unmasking of subclinical infections after starting HAART therapy, which is termed as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Acute granulomatous interstitial nephritis as a consequence of IRIS has never been reported with Mycobacteriumkansasii coinfection. Here, we describe an HIV/AIDS patient coinfected with disseminated M...
February 23, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Prachi Dua, Roman Shinder, Derek B Laskar, Douglas R Lazzaro, Allison E Rizzuti
Purpose: To report a case of hypertrophic herpes simplex virus (HSV) of the eyelid and cornea masquerading as IgG4-related disease. Observations: A 37-year old African American female with a past medical history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and a recent history of treated genital herpes, presented with an ulcerative lesion of the left upper and lower eyelids, and severe ocular inflammation with symblepharon...
March 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Tassapol Singalavanija, Somsanguan Ausayakhun, Chulaluck Tangmonkongvoragul
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes impairment to the human immune system which leads to immunocompromised conditions, including ocular complications. Several important HIV-associated disorders may involve the anterior segment, ocular surface, and adnexae organ such as dry eye, blepharitis which reduce quality of life of patients. In present, potent antiretroviral therapies HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) has improved the length and quality of life which may lead to an increased prevalence of anterior segment ocular disorders...
2018: PloS One
L Ottria, D Lauritano, L Oberti, V Candotto, F Cura, A Tagliabue, L Tettamanti
HIV infection is one of the major health problem of the last decades. This disease causes a chronic infection that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). According to the Global AIDS update, released in 2016 by HIV department of World Health Organization (WHO) and by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), at the end of 2015, 36.7 million people were infected by HIV: 34.9 million of these were adults and 1.8 million were children under 15 years of age. The same report shows that during 2015, 2...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Awoke Seyoum Tegegne, Principal Ndlovu, Temesgen Zewotir
BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is one of the factors for treatment failure in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients in developing countries. The main objective of this study was to identify factors for treatment failure among adult HIV patients based on the assessment of first month adherence in the study area. METHODS: The study was conducted using secondary data from antiretroviral unit at Felege Hiwot Teaching and Specialized Hospital...
February 20, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Tomokazu Tanaka, Harumasa Nakazawa, Naohide Kuriyama, Masao Kaneki
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has successfully reduced the mortality rate of patients with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and HIV protease inhibitors (HIV PIs) are key components of HAART. Complications of HAART, particularly those associated with HIV PIs including lipodystrophy and metabolic disturbance, have emerged as an important public health issue. No specific treatment is available to prevent and/or treat HIV PI-associated lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome. The present study demonstrated that a relatively low-dose of farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI), tipifarnib (3 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous injection) and lonafarnib (5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous injection), prevented the onset of lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome induced by the combination of two HIV PIs, lopinavir (50 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal injection) and ritonavir (12...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Subo Yuan, Yuqiang Shi, Kaiwen Guo, Shao-Jun Tang
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has significantly contributed to the increase of HIV-infected survivors over 50 years of age. Unfortunately, patients are required to stay on long-term HAART, which may be causally related to the development of neurological problems such as chronic pain. Little is known about the contribution of HAART or its therapeutic agents to the pathogenesis of pain during aging. In this study, we determined the effect of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) on the development of mechanical allodynia and the potential underlying mechanism in aging mice (15...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Rosângela Dos Santos Ferreira, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury Pontes, Lígia Aurélio Bezerra Maranhão Mendonça, Karine de Cássia Freitas, Priscila Aiko Hiane
BACKGROUND: Highly Active Antiretroviral therapy (HAART) promotes anthropometric changes in lipid metabolism and glucose in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Functional foods play an important role on metabolism. Bioactive Food Compound (BFC) has shown effective results in changes arising from decompensated lipid metabolism due to the effects of HAART on HIV patients. From this perspective, the objective of this study is to evaluate anthropometric indicators and the body composition of patients undergoing HAART before and after consumption of BFC...
2018: PloS One
Muhamad Alif Che Nordin, Sin-Yeang Teow
The discovery of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996 has significantly reduced the global mortality and morbidity caused by the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, the therapeutic strategy of HAART that targets multiple viral proteins may render off-target toxicity and more importantly results in drug-resistant escape mutants. These have been the main challenges for HAART and refinement of this therapeutic strategy is urgently needed. Antibody-mediated treatments are emerging therapeutic modalities for various diseases...
February 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Vincent P Hall
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS into a manageable chronic illness. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) can experience multiple physical symptoms or problems related to HIV infection and treatment. A common problem for PLWHA continues to be diarrhea and nausea and vomiting (NV). Diarrhea and NV can negatively impact the quality of life and adherence to medication therapy among PLWHA and are common reasons to change or discontinue HAART regimens...
March 2018: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
Youlian Zhou, Zhitao Ou, Xiaoping Tang, Yongjian Zhou, Haoming Xu, Xianfei Wang, Kang Li, Jie He, Yanlei Du, Hong Wang, Ye Chen, Yuqiang Nie
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with gastrointestinal disease, systemic immune activation and changes in the gut microbiota. Here, we aim to investigate the gut microbiota patterns of HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected individuals in populations from South China. We enrolled 33 patients with HIV (14 participants treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART] for more than 3 months; the remaining 19 individuals had not received treatment) and 35 healthy controls (HC) for a cross-sectional comparison of gut microbiota using stool samples...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Deba Prasad Dhibar, Kamal Kant Sahu, Surjit Singh, Amanjit Bal, Abhijit Chougale, Varun Dhir
Pseudotumour is a benign inflammatory lesion. Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumour (MSP) is a rare pseudotumour. It is a benign proliferation of spindle-shaped histiocytes containing acid-fast mycobacterium, commonly reported in immunocompromised patients. MSP is usually associated with mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Here, we present the case of a 38-year-old gentleman with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) who presented with low-grade fever for 1-month duration. Clinically, he had generalised lymphadenopathy...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
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