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highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343818/comparative-performances-of-serologic-and-molecular-assays-for-detecting-htlv-1-and-htlv-2-in-patients-infected-with-hiv-1
#1
Karoline Rodrigues Campos, Maria Gisele Gonçalves, Nadia Aparecida Costa, Adele Caterino-de-Araujo
The present study evaluated several techniques currently available (commercial kits and in-house assays) for diagnosing human T lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/-2) in two groups of patients enrolled at HIV/AIDS specialized care services in São Paulo: Group 1 (G1), n=1608, 1237 male/371 female, median age 44.3 years old, majority using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); G2, n=1383, 930 male/453 female, median age of 35.6 years old, majority HAART naïve. Enzyme immunoassays [(EIA) Murex and Gold ELISA] were employed for HTLV-1/-2 screening; Western blotting (WB), INNO-LIA (LIA), real-time PCR pol (qPCR), and nested-PCR-RFLP (tax) were used to confirm infection...
March 23, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339647/detection-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-ribonucleic-acid-in-the-peritoneal-effluent-of-renal-failure-patients-on-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#2
Kwazi C Z Ndlovu, Wilbert Sibanda, Alain Assounga
Background.: We evaluated the shedding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 particles into continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) effluents of HIV-positive patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods.: A total of 58 HIV-positive patients with ESRD on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) who had Tenckhoff catheters inserted between September 2012 and February 2015 were prospectively reviewed and followed for 18 months. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) effluent samples from functioning CAPD catheters and plasma samples were obtained at three points during regular clinic visits on days 45 ± 37, 200 ± 19 and 377 ± 13 after catheter insertion...
February 20, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323489/incidence-rates-and-risk-factors-for-vision-loss-among-aids-related-cytomegalovirus-retinitis-patients-in-southern-thailand
#3
Wantanee Sittivarakul, Usanee Seepongphun
PURPOSE: To describe the incidence of and risk factors for visual acuity (VA) loss in patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. METHODS: A total of 132 patients were included. The main outcome measurements were the incidences of VA loss to ≤20/50 and ≤20/200. RESULTS: The incidences of VA loss to ≤20/50 and ≤20/200 were 0.22/eye-year (EY) and 0.12/EY, respectively. Risk factors for the incidence of VA loss to ≤20/50 were low nadir CD4(+) T-cell count (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 3...
March 21, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321326/first-canadian-case-report-of-kidney-transplantation-from-an-hiv-positive-donor-to-an-hiv-positive-recipient
#4
Georges Ambaraghassi, Héloïse Cardinal, Daniel Corsilli, Claude Fortin, Marie-Chantal Fortin, Valérie Martel-Laferrière, Jacques Malaise, Michel R Pâquet, Danielle Rouleau
RATIONALE: Kidney transplantation has become standard of care for carefully selected patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. American and European prospective cohort studies have reported similar patient and graft survival compared with HIV-negative kidney transplant recipients. Despite an increased rate of acute rejection, partially due to drug interactions, HIV immunovirologic parameter generally remains under control during immunosuppression...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317290/the-effect-of-engagement-in-an-hiv-aids-integrated-health-programme-on-plasma-hiv-1-rna-suppression-among-hiv-positive-people-who-use-illicit-drugs-a-marginal-structural-modelling-analysis
#5
L Ti, H Dong, T Kerr, R B Turje, S Parashar, J E Min, J Montaner, E Wood, M-J Milloy
OBJECTIVES: HIV treatment-as-prevention campaigns emphasize early diagnosis and immediate access to care and antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive individuals in order to increase levels of plasma HIV RNA viral load (VL) suppression. However, the possible role of harm reduction-based programmes in this objective has not yet been well evaluated. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between being a client of the Dr. Peter Centre (DPC; an HIV/AIDS-focused adult integrated health programme) and VL suppression among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-exposed HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) in Vancouver, Canada...
March 19, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316373/nuclear-factor-of-activated-t-cells-and-cytokines-gene-expression-of-the-t-cells-in-aids-patients-with-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-during-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
Jia Sun, Heling Chen, Yirui Xie, Junwei Su, Ying Huang, Lijun Xu, Michael Yin, Qihui Zhou, Biao Zhu
Background. The etiology of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in AIDS patients after the initiation of HAART remains unknown. Several researches indicated that the development of IRIS is associated with the production and variation of cytokines, whose gene expression are closely related to the Ca2(+)/CN-nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway. Methods. We studied the expression of NFAT isoforms and their major target cytokines genes in peripheral blood CD3(+) T cells of subjects through fluorescence quantitative PCR and explored the expression changes of these genes before and after HAART...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316064/depression-among-hiv-aids-patients-on-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-in-the-southwest-regional-hospitals-of-cameroon-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Pleasure Atoh Ngum, Peter Nde Fon, Roland Cheofor Ngu, Vincent Siysi Verla, Henri Namme Luma
INTRODUCTION: HIV patients are now having longer life expectancies with the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the issue of mental illness has surfaced with depression being the most common in these patients, which has markedly reduced patient adherence to ART. In Cameroon, the management of HIV/AIDS does not incorporate psychiatric manifestations and depression is therefore underdiagnosed. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of depressive symptoms and their association with adherence to ART among HIV/AIDS patients on HAART in the Southwest Regional Hospitals of Cameroon...
March 18, 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302125/joint-longitudinal-data-analysis-in-detecting-determinants-of-cd4-cell-count-change-and-adherence-to-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-at-felege-hiwot-teaching-and-specialized-hospital-north-west-ethiopia-amhara-region
#8
Awoke Seyoum, Principal Ndlovu, Zewotir Temesgen
BACKGROUND: Adherence and CD4 cell count change measure the progression of the disease in HIV patients after the commencement of HAART. Lack of information about associated factors on adherence to HAART and CD4 cell count reduction is a challenge for the improvement of cells in HIV positive adults. The main objective of adopting joint modeling was to compare separate and joint models of longitudinal repeated measures in identifying long-term predictors of the two longitudinal outcomes: CD4 cell count and adherence to HAART...
March 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279997/association-between-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-and-selected-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#9
Christian Akem Dimala, Hannah Blencowe
INTRODUCTION: The increasing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) coverage in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been associated with increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. However, the epidemiology of the association between HAART and CVD risk factors in SSA is sparse. We aim to assess the extent to which HAART is associated with selected cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome) in SSA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the association between HAART and CVD risk factors retrieved from Medline, Embase, Popline, Africa-Wide Information, African Index Medicus and the Cochrane library databases...
March 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276994/immunosenescence-and-hurdles-in-the-clinical-management-of-older-hiv-patients
#10
Marco Ripa, Stefania Chiappetta, Giuseppe Tambussi
People living with HIV (PLWH) who are treated with effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have a similar life expectancy to the general population. Moreover, an increasing proportion of new HIV diagnoses are made in people older than 50 y. The number of older HIV-infected patients is thus constantly growing and it is expected that by 2030 around 70% of PLWH will be more than 50 y old. On the other hand, HIV infection itself is responsible for accelerated immunosenescence, a progressive decline of immune system function in both the adaptive and the innate arm, which impairs the ability of an individual to respond to infections and to give rise to long-term immunity; furthermore, older patients tend to have a worse immunological response to HAART...
February 21, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272216/nonorgan-specific-autoantibodies-in-hiv-infected-patients-in-the-haart-era
#11
Laura Iordache, Djaouida Bengoufa, Olivier Taulera, Agathe Rami, Caroline Lascoux-Combe, Nesrine Day, Maguy Parrinello, Pierre-Olivier Sellier, Jean-Michel Molina, Alfred Mahr
Nonorgan-specific autoantibodies (AAbs) are used for diagnosing autoimmune diseases but can also be detected in other conditions. We carried out a cross-sectional study with the aim to screen HIV1-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for AAbs and to analyze the association of their presence with hypergammaglobulinemia and immunovirological status.Blood samples from HIV1-infected patients without major concomitant illnesses followed in 2 hospitals in Paris, France were tested for immunovirological status, serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) level, antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), anti-extractable nuclear antigens (anti-ENAs), anticardiolipin (aCL), anti-β2glycoprotein1 (anti-β2GP1), and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261507/endoscopic-appearance-of-oropharyngeal-and-upper-gi-kaposi-s-sarcoma-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#12
Umar Darr, Anas Renno, Zubair Khan, Turki Alkully, Maitham A Moslim, Sehrish Kamal, Ali Nawras
Introduction. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) usually manifests as a cutaneous disease but GI manifestation is often rare. It is associated with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) and seen in immunocompromised patients. In the USA, use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has drastically reduced incidence of KS in HIV patients. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old male with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with cardiopulmonary arrest secondary to hyperkalemia of 7.5 meq/L...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260948/magnitude-of-cytopenias-among-hiv-infected-children-in-bahir-dar-northwest-ethiopia-a-comparison-of-haart-na%C3%A3-ve-and-haart-experienced-children
#13
Yakob Gebregziabher Tsegay, Agerie Tadele, Zelalem Addis, Agersew Alemu, Mulugeta Melku
BACKGROUND: AIDS, caused by HIV, is a multisystem disease that affects hematopoiesis. The aim of this study was to assess cytopenias among HIV-infected children who had a follow-up at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted between April and May 2013. Systematic random sampling method was used to select the study participants. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test as well as chi-square and logistic regression were used for analysis...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248679/cryptosporidium-species-and-subtypes-in-diarrheal-children-and-hiv-infected-persons-in-ebonyi-and-nsukka-nigeria
#14
Boniface Nwofoke Ukwah, Ifeoma Maureen Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla Ezeonu, Dawn Roellig, Lihua Xiao
INTRODUCTION: Cryptosporidiosis is a common disease of children and immune-compromised persons. This study evaluated the diversity and distribution of Cryptosporidium species in diarrheal children and HIV-infected persons on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and those not on HAART. METHODOLOGY: A total of 394 fecal specimens were collected from patients attending clinics in Nsukka and Ebonyi, Nigeria. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species were conducted by PCR-RFLP of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, whereas subtyping was done by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246360/multiple-histone-lysine-methyltransferases-are-required-for-the-establishment-and-maintenance-of-hiv-1-latency
#15
Kien Nguyen, Biswajit Das, Curtis Dobrowolski, Jonathan Karn
We showed previously that the histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMT) H3K27me3 (EZH2) is the catalytic subunit of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and is required for the maintenance of HIV-1 latency in Jurkat T cells. Here we show, by using chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, that both PRC2 and euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2), the G9a H3K9me2-3 methyltransferase, are highly enriched at the proviral 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) and rapidly displaced upon proviral reactivation...
February 28, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243150/predictors-of-hypertension-in-an-urban-hiv-infected-population-at-the-university-of-calabar-teaching-hospital-calabar-nigeria
#16
Henry Ohem Okpa, Elvis Mbu Bisong, Ofem Egbe Enang, Emmanuel Monjok, Ekere James Essien
BACKGROUND: The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has remarkably improved the prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, at the expense of the development of long-term complications such as cardiovascular and renal diseases. Hypertension (HTN) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and its associated mortality. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of HTN and to identify possible predictors among HIV-infected patients attending the HIV Special Treatment Clinic at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239647/enhanced-fcgr2a-and-fcgr3a-signaling-by-hiv-viremic-controller-igg
#17
Raymond A Alvarez, Ana M Maestre, Kenneth Law, Natasha D Durham, Maria Ines Barria, Akiko Ishii-Watabe, Minoru Tada, Manav Kapoor, Mathew T Hotta, Gabriela Rodriguez-Caprio, Daniel S Fierer, Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Viviana Simon, Benjamin K Chen
HIV-1 viremic controllers (VC) spontaneously control infection without antiretroviral treatment. Several studies indicate that IgG Abs from VCs induce enhanced responses from immune effector cells. Since signaling through Fc-γ receptors (FCGRs) modulate these Ab-driven responses, here we examine if enhanced FCGR activation is a common feature of IgG from VCs. Using an infected cell-based system, we observed that VC IgG stimulated greater FCGR2A and FCGR3A activation as compared with noncontrollers, independent of the magnitude of HIV-specific Ab binding or virus neutralization activities...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231661/-a-retrospective-cohort-study-on-survival-status-of-aids-patients-among-15-or-above-year-olds-in-henan-province-from-2008-to-2015
#18
W J Yang, N Li, Y Liang, J Li, P Y Fan, D Y Sun, Q Zhu, Z Wang
Objective: To explore the survival status and affecting factors among patients diagnosed as AIDS, in Henan province. Methods: Database of AIDS patients were downloaded from the China information system for disease prevention and control-AIDS with a retrospective study conducted. Inclusion criteria on patients would involve those diagnosed between 2008 and 2015, aged 15 years or above. Results: A total number of 25 525 HIV/AIDS patients were enrolled in this study. During the follow-up period, the overall mortality among all the patients was 24...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220718/the-big-imitator-strikes-again-a-case-report-of-neurosyphilis-in-a-patient-with-newly-diagnosed-hiv
#19
Sévérine de Bruijn, Chris Kenyon, Nicolas Léonard, Erika Vlieghe
BACKGROUND: Neurosyphilis is the result of an infection of the central nervous system caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Its clinical presentation includes meningovascular syphilis, tabes dorsalis, and dementia paralytica, resulting in a wide range of symptoms such as psychosis, Parkinsonism, and depression. CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old male was admitted to a psychiatric hospital because of social withdrawal and self-neglect, indicative of a major depression...
February 21, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216610/pulmonary-kaposi-sarcoma-with-osseous-metastases-in-an-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-patient-a-remarkable-response-to-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#20
Ahmed Dirweesh, Muhammad Yasir Khan, Shaikh Fawad Hamiz, Nigahus Karabulut
BACKGROUND Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is known to involve the mucocutaneous tissues and the aero-digestive tracts. In acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, KS has an aggressive course and carries poor prognosis. We present a case of pulmonary KS with osseous metastases as the first presentation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a young male. The lesions impressively decreased in size and numbers following initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). CASE REPORT A 34-year-old heterosexual male presented with a one month history of cough and 15-20 pound weight loss within six months...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
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