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Alopecia totalis

A Jabbari, F Sansaricq, J Cerise, J C Chen, A Bitterman, G Ulerio, J Borbon, R Clynes, A M Christiano, J Mackay-Wiggan
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disease, with a lifetime risk of ∼2%. In AA, the immune systems targets the hair follicle, resulting in clinical hair loss. AA prognosis is unpredictable, and currently there is no definitive treatment. Our previous whole genome expression studies identified active immune circuits in AA lesions, including common γ-chain cytokine and IFN pathways. Since these pathways are mediated through JAK kinases, we prioritized clinical exploration of small molecule JAK inhibitors...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Ali A Ghazi, Azita Zadeh-Vakili, Marjan Zarif Yeganeh, Shahram Alamdari, Atieh Amouzegar, Ali Akbar Khorsandi, Alireza Amirbaigloo, Fereidoun Azizi
Purpose and Methods: Hereditary vitamin D resistant rickets (HVDRR) is a rare disease that presents with signs and symptoms of rickets, alopecia, and growth retardation during the early years of life. The disease is caused by mutations in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, which leads to unresponsiveness of the mutant receptor to 1-25(OH) 2 D3. The disease is transmitted as an autosomal recessive disorder and is found with equal frequency in males and females. The disease is rarely encountered and only about 100 cases are reported so far...
July 2017: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Joong-Woon Choi, Dong-Woo Suh, Bark-Lynn Lew, Woo-Young Sim
Background: Simvastatin belongs to the statin family, whose members have immunomodulatory activities. Ezetimibe have synergetic effects when co-administered with simvastatin. In several case reports, alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis were successfully treated with simvastatin/ezetimibe, suggesting that this combination could be a new efficient therapy for recalcitrant alopecia areata (AA). Objective: To verify the efficacy of the simvastatin/ezetimibe combination therapy for recalcitrant AA and investigate the relationship between various treatment responses and prognostic factors...
December 2017: Annals of Dermatology
Jennifer Karmouch, Qiong Q Zhou, Christina Y Miyake, Raffaella Lombardi, Kai Kretzschmar, Marie Bannier-Hélaouët, Hans Clevers, Xander H T Wehrens, James T Willerson, Ali J Marian
RATIONALE: Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy is caused primarily by mutations in genes encoding desmosome proteins. Ventricular arrhythmias are the cardinal and typically early manifestations, whereas myocardial fibroadiposis is the pathological hallmark. Homozygous DSP (desmoplakin) and JUP (junction protein plakoglobin) mutations are responsible for a subset of patients with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy who exhibit cardiac arrhythmias and dysfunction, palmoplanter keratosis, and hair abnormalities (cardiocutaneous syndromes)...
December 8, 2017: Circulation Research
Deepa Patel, Ping Li, Andrew J Bauer, Leslie Castelo-Soccio
Importance: The incidence of thyroid disease in children with alopecia areata (AA) has been widely studied with no consensus on whether a true association with AA exists. In addition, screening practices for thyroid dysfunction in children with AA vary widely among clinicians. Objective: To reduce health care costs, eliminate unnecessary testing, and standardize clinical practices, we sought to characterize thyroid function in children with AA to establish guidelines for screening...
December 1, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
Mabe Freitas Gouveia, Ralph M Trüeb
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alopecia areata is a common immune-mediated hair condition with limited treatment options and success rates. There is evidence that statins, which are used for reducing atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease, have immunomodulatory activities and therefore may also be used for treatment of selected dermatologic conditions, including alopecia areata. Among treatments evaluated for alopecia areata, oral simvastatin/ezetimibe therapy is currently under the scrutiny of expert opinion...
August 2017: Skin Appendage Disorders
Yong Hyun Jang, Nam-Soo Hong, Sun Young Moon, Dong Hyuk Eun, Won Kee Lee, Seong Geun Chi, Jun Young Kim, Weon Ju Lee, Seok-Jong Lee, Do Won Kim
BACKGROUND: In alopecia totalis (AT) and alopecia universalis (AU), the chance of full hair regrowth is known to be less than 10%. However, this information is based on a few older studies conducted in the 1950s and 1960s. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the current long-term prognosis of individuals with AT/AU. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed in patients with AT/AU between 1994 and 2005. Outcome data were collected by reviewing outpatient clinical files or by phone interviews...
2017: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
Akella Radha Rama Devi, Nagesh Narayan Panday, Shaik Mohammad Naushad
The Forkhead box N1 (FOXN1) is a transcriptional factor regulating the development, differentiation and function of thymic epithelial cells; maintaining T-lineage progenitors in bone marrow; promoting terminal differentiation of epithelial cells of hair follicles. Mutation in FOXN1 was reported to cause a rare disorder characterized by rudimentary thymus gland, T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia and nail dystrophy within an Italian community. This is the first report of FOXN1 p.R255X mutation from India, outside this endogamous Italian community...
September 5, 2017: Gene
Maya Deeb, Renée A Beach
Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune-mediated, nonscarring form of hair loss. Despite its prevalence, current management options are limited, especially when the disease has progressed to alopecia totalis (AT) or alopecia universalis (AU). Recent evidence that janus kinase (JAK) signaling contributes to AA pathogenesis prompted the investigation of JAK inhibitors such as tofacitinib and ruxolitinib as possible oral treatments. However, the potential for significant adverse effects with systemic JAK inhibition makes local administration a more attractive option...
November 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Erin T Landis, Rita O Pichardo-Geisinger
PURPOSE: Alopecia areata is a form of nonscarring hair loss that occurs in pediatric and adult patients, with presentation varying from round or ovoid patches of alopecia to alopecia totalis or universalis. While frustrating for patients, it can also be frustrating for clinicians to treat, as there is no definitive treatment. Dermatologists are very familiar with the use of methotrexate for psoriasis and other inflammatory skin diseases, and this medication is generally well tolerated in children...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Sama Kassira, Dorota Z Korta, Lance W Chapman, Francis Dann
Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease directed at the hair follicle. Although usually limited to patchy hair loss over the scalp (focalis), AA can present as total loss of scalp hair (totalis; AT) or as total loss of both scalp and body hair (universalis; AU). Management of AT and AU can be challenging, and although multiple treatment modalities have been explored, no therapy is currently FDA-approved. This review focuses on the evidence for current treatment options for AT and AU. The PubMed database was searched from January 1, 2000, to September 1, 2016, for clinical trials, retrospective studies, and case reports of treatments for AT and AU...
August 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
D Bresters, D C M Wanders, M Louwerens, L M Ball, M Fiocco, R van Doorn
Permanent alopecia after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is distressing and few studies have investigated this late effect. The aim of the study was to assess the percentage of patients with alopecia and investigate risk factors for alopecia. Patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT before age 19 years, from January 1990 to January 2013, who were at least 2 years after transplant and in follow-up in our clinic were included. Alopecia was defined as clinically apparent decreased hair density. Possible risk factors considered for alopecia after HSCT included: gender, age, diagnosis, donor type, conditioning regimen: cranial irradiation (TBI/cranial radiotherapy) and/or chemotherapy, which chemotherapeutic agents were used and acute/chronic GvHD...
July 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Karin Jahn-Bassler, Wolfgang Michael Bauer, Franz Karlhofer, Matthias G Vossen, Georg Stingl
BACKGROUND: Given the limited number of therapeutic options, severe childhood alopecia areata (AA) poses a clinical challenge. The best and most rapid response rates can be achieved with high-dose systemic corticosteroids, however, relapse following treatment discontinuation is inevitable. Due to systemic side effects, long-term high-dose corticosteroid regimens are not feasible. Following initial pulse therapy, continuation of corticosteroid therapy at a dose below the Cushing threshold might be able to suppress disease activity without causing severe side effects...
January 2017: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Karin Jahn-Bassler, Wolfgang Michael Bauer, Franz Karlhofer, Matthias G Vossen, Georg Stingl
HINTERGRUND: Schwere Verlaufsformen der Alopecia areata (AA) im Kindesalter sind aufgrund limitierter Optionen therapeutisch herausfordernd. Systemische, hochdosierte Glukokortikoide weisen die schnellste Ansprechrate auf, nach dem Absetzen kommt es allerdings zu Rezidiven. Eine längerfristige Hochdosis-Anwendung ist aufgrund der zu erwartenden Nebenwirkungen nicht empfehlenswert. Eine dauerhafte Steroiderhaltungstherapie unterhalb der Cushing-Schwellen-Dosis nach Bolustherapie könnte die Krankheitsaktivität ohne Nebenwirkungen längerfristig unterdrücken...
January 2017: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
E Verga, C Hayes, A Liakopoulou, R Verdolini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Lucy Y Liu, Brittany G Craiglow, Feng Dai, Brett A King
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disorder. There are no reliably effective therapies for AA. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Janus kinase 1/3 inhibitor, tofacitinib, in a series of patients over an extended period of time. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients age 18 years or older with AA with at least 40% scalp hair loss treated with tofacitinib. The primary end point was the percent change in Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) score during treatment...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Ola Ahmed Bakry, Shawky M El Farargy, Maathir K El Shafiee, Amira Soliman
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, recurrent, autoimmune hair disorder. It has been found that vitamin D deficiency is associated with many autoimmune diseases. AIMS: The current study aimed to estimate serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in patients with AA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This case-control study included 60 patients with AA and 60 age, gender, skin phototype, and body mass index-matched healthy subjects as a control group...
September 2016: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Milène Kennedy Crispin, Justin M Ko, Brittany G Craiglow, Shufeng Li, Gautam Shankar, Jennifer R Urban, James C Chen, Jane E Cerise, Ali Jabbari, Mårten C G Winge, M Peter Marinkovich, Angela M Christiano, Anthony E Oro, Brett A King
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by hair loss mediated by CD8+ T cells. There are no reliably effective therapies for AA. Based on recent developments in the understanding of the pathomechanism of AA, JAK inhibitors appear to be a therapeutic option; however, their efficacy for the treatment of AA has not been systematically examined. METHODS: This was a 2-center, open-label, single-arm trial using the pan-JAK inhibitor, tofacitinib citrate, for AA with >50% scalp hair loss, alopecia totalis (AT), and alopecia universalis (AU)...
September 22, 2016: JCI Insight
S Vañó-Galván, P Fernández-Crehuet, R Grimalt, M J Garcia-Hernandez, R Rodrigues-Barata, S Arias-Santiago, A Molina-Ruiz, E Garcia-Lora, J Dominguez-Cruz, A Brugues, J Ferrando, C Serrano-Falcón, S Serrano, J Paoli, F Camacho
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata totalis (AAT) and universalis (AAU) pose a therapeutic challenge. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and epidemiological features, therapeutic response and prognostic factors in a large series of patients diagnosed with AAT and AAU. METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study included patients diagnosed with AAT/AAU with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Response was assessed based on the regrowth of scalp hair...
March 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
D Saceda-Corralo, R Grimalt, P Fernández-Crehuet, A Clemente, C Bernárdez, M J García-Hernandez, S Arias-Santiago, A R Rodrigues-Barata, A Rodríguez-Pichardo, E García-Lora, P Jaén, F M Camacho, S Vañó-Galván
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata on the beard area (BAA) is a common clinical manifestation, but there are no studies about its characteristics. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology, comorbidities, clinical presentation, evolution, diagnostic findings and therapeutic choices in a series of patients with BAA. METHODS: This retrospective multicentre review included patients diagnosed with BAA as the first and unique clinical manifestation with at least 12 months of follow-up...
January 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
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