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Umut Arslan, Emin Özmert, Sibel Demirel, Firdevs Örnek, Figen Şermet
PURPOSE: One of the main reasons for apoptosis and dormant cell phases in degenerative retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is growth factor withdrawal in the cellular microenvironment. Growth factors and neurotrophins can significantly slow down retinal degeneration and cell death in animal models. One possible source of autologous growth factors is platelet-rich plasma. The purpose of this study was to determine if subtenon injections of autologous platelet-rich plasma (aPRP) can have beneficial effects on visual function in RP patients by reactivating dormant photoreceptors...
March 15, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Jinny Robson, Parham Aram, Martyn P Nash, Chris P Bradley, Martin Hayward, David J Paterson, Peter Taggart, Richard H Clayton, Visakan Kadirkamanathan
In this paper, we present a novel approach to quantify the spatio-temporal organization of electrical activation during human ventricular fibrillation (VF). We propose three different methods based on correlation analysis, graph theoretical measures and hierarchical clustering. Using the proposed approach, we quantified the level of spatio-temporal organization during three episodes of VF in ten patients, recorded using multi-electrode epicardial recordings with 30 s coronary perfusion, 150 s global myocardial ischaemia and 30 s reflow...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Hossam Abubakar, Mohammed Osman, Emmanuel Akintoye, Ahmed Subahi, Khansa Osman, Aiden Abidov
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Advances of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) devices allow correlating changes in the intra-thoracic impedance (TI), an indicator of fluid overload, with the onset of arrhythmic events. In an attempt to attain a better understanding of this relationship, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that investigated the association between TI changes and the onset of AT/AF and/or VT/VF in patients with ICD devices. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of studies published through January 2017 that reported an association between a decrease in the TI measured by the OptiVol fluid index (OI) and occurrence of AT/AF and VT/VF...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Raquel B De Boni, Meridith B Peratikos, Bryan E Shepherd, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Claudia Cortés, Denis Padgett, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Peter F Rebeiro, Stephany N Duda, Catherine C McGowan
BACKGROUND: The HIV care cascade has improved in Latin America over the last decade. However, the influence of alcohol and noninjected drug use (NIDU) on cascade outcomes is mostly unknown. This study estimated the association of alcohol and NIDU with retention in care, loss to follow up (LTFU), and virologic failure (VF). METHODS: Individuals ≥18 years attending routine HIV clinic visits and completing the Rapid Screening Tool (RST; evaluating NIDU and ART adherence in 7-day recall period) during 2012-13 were followed up to 2015 in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology...
2018: PloS One
Mark Stewart
This review traces the examination of autonomic, cardiovascular, and respiratory derangements associated with seizure activity in the clinical and preclinical literature generally, and in the author's animal model specifically, and concludes with the author's views on the potential mechanisms for sudden death in epilepsy (SUDEP). An animal model that employs kainic acid-induced seizures on a background of urethane anesthesia has permitted unprecedented access to the behavior of autonomic, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems during seizure activity...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Christian Hassager, Ken Nagao, David Hildick-Smith
The prognosis after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has improved in the past few decades because of advances in interventions used outside and in hospital. About half of patients who have OHCA with initial ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and who are admitted to hospital in coma after return of spontaneous circulation will survive to discharge with a reasonable neurological status. In this Series paper we discuss in-hospital management of patients with post-cardiac-arrest syndrome. In most patients, the most important in-hospital interventions other than routine intensive care are continuous active treatment (in non-comatose and comatose patients and including circulatory support in selected patients), cooling of core temperature to 32-36°C by targeted temperature management for at least 24 h, immediate coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention, and delay of final prognosis until at least 72 h after OHCA...
March 10, 2018: Lancet
Thomas Uray, Andrew Lamade, Jonathan Elmer, Tomas Drabek, Jason P Stezoski, Amalea Missé, Keri Janesko-Feldman, Robert H Garman, Niel Chen, Patrick M Kochanek, Cameron Dezfulian
OBJECTIVES: Cardiac arrest etiology may be an important source of between-patient heterogeneity, but the impact of etiology on organ injury is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that asphyxial cardiac arrest results in greater neurologic injury than cardiac etiology cardiac arrest (ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest), whereas ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest results in greater cardiovascular dysfunction after return of spontaneous circulation. DESIGN: Prospective observational human and randomized animal study...
March 10, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Aimalohi A Ahonkhai, Bolanle Banigbe, Juliet Adeola, Ingrid V Bassett, Ifeoma Idigbe, Prosper Okonkwo, Kenneth A Freedberg, Susan Regan, Elena Losina
BACKGROUND: Medication possession ratio (MPR) is widely used as a measure of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many adolescents and young adults (AYA) experience ART adherence challenges. Our objective was to determine whether the relationship between MPR and virologic failure (VF) is consistent between AYA and older adults in Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of AYA (15-25 years) and adults (>25 years) who initiated ART between January 2009 and December 2012 at 10 university-affiliated HIV clinics in Nigeria...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
M Hulleman, M T Blom, A Bardai, H L Tan, R W Koster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
Junwen Chen, Jordan E McLean, Eva Kemps
This study investigated the effects of combined audience feedback with video feedback plus cognitive preparation, and cognitive review (enabling deeper processing of feedback) on state anxiety and self-perceptions including perception of performance and perceived probability of negative evaluation in socially anxious individuals during a speech performance. One hundred and forty socially anxious students were randomly assigned to four conditions: Cognitive Preparation + Video Feedback + Audience Feedback + Cognitive Review (CP+VF+AF+CR), Cognitive Preparation + Video Feedback + Cognitive Review (CP+VF+CR), Cognitive Preparation + Video Feedback only (CP+VF), and Control...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
Eli Muchtar, Morie A Gertz, Shaji K Kumar, Grace Lin, Barry Boilson, Alfredo Clavell, Martha Q Lacy, Francis K Buadi, Suzanne R Hayman, Prashant Kapoor, David Dingli, S Vincent Rajkumar, Angela Dispenzieri, Martha Grogan
AIM: Digoxin is considered contraindicated in light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, given reports of increased toxicity published 30-50 years ago. We sought to determine the frequency of digoxin toxicity in patients with AL. METHODS: We identified 107 patients with AL amyloidosis who received digoxin between 2000 and 2015. RESULTS: The median age was 65 and the median digoxin dose and estimated glomerular filtration rate were 0.125 mg/d and 55 ml/min/1...
March 12, 2018: Amyloid: the International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Investigation
R Skulec, D Astapenko, R Cerna Parizkova, B Furst, M Bilska, T Parizek, T Hovanec, N Pinterova, J Knor, J Dudakova, A Truhlar, V Radochova, Z Zadak, V Cerny
We conducted an experimental study to evaluate the presence of coordinated left ventricular mechanical myocardial activity (LVMA) in two types of experimentally induced cardiac arrest: ventricular fibrillation (VF) and pulseless electrical activity (PEA). Twenty anesthetized domestic pigs were randomized 1:1 either to induction of VF or PEA. They were left in nonresuscitated cardiac arrest until the cessation of LVMA and microcirculation. Surface ECG, presence of LVMA by transthoracic echocardiography and sublingual microcirculation were recorded...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Stephen A McCullough, Michael A Fifer, Pouya Mohajer, Patricia A Lowry, Caitlin O'Callaghan Reen, Aaron L Baggish, Gus J Vlahakes, Yuichi J Shimada
BACKGROUND: The clinical characteristics associated with elevated right atrial pressure (RAP) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are unknown. Few data exist as to whether elevated RAP has prognostic implications in patients with HCM. This study investigated the clinical correlates and prognostic value of elevated RAP in HCM.Methods and Results:This retrospective cohort study was performed on 180 patients with HCM who underwent right heart catheterization between 1997 and 2014. Elevated RAP was defined as >8 mmHg...
March 9, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Serdar Demir, Abdulkadir Uslu, Ahmet Guner, Sabahattin Gunduz, Muzaffer Kahyaoglu, Ayhan Kup, Mehmet Celik, Ozge Akgun, Munevver Sarı, Taylan Akgun
Malignant ventricular arrhythmias are challenging to manage, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. The mechanism, which triggers ventricular fibrillation (VF) associated with ventricular extrasystoles has not been clarified yet, however, abolishing ventricular extrasystoles may stop ventricular fibrillation in these patients. By this case presentation, we aimed to present a successful treatment of an electrical storm (ES), which developed after an acute myocardial infarction, by catheter ablation.
February 24, 2018: Journal of Electrocardiology
Amartya Kundu, Aditya Vaze, Partha Sardar, Ahmed Nagy, Wilbert S Aronow, Naomi F Botkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Variant angina, which is characterized by recurrent chest pain and transient ECG changes along with angiographic evidence of coronary artery spasm, generally has a favorable prognosis. However, episodes of ischemia caused by vasospasm may lead to potentially life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac arrest, even in patients with no history of prior cardiac disease. This review describes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and management of variant angina, as well as outcomes in patients who present with aborted sudden cardiac death (ASCD)...
March 8, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
M Graupp, B Rinner, M T Frisch, G Weiss, J Fuchs, M Sundl, A El-Heliebi, G Moser, L P Kamolz, M Karbiener, M Gugatschka
BACKGROUND: Vocal fold (VF) scarring remains a therapeutic dilemma and challenge in modern laryngology. To facilitate corresponding research, we aimed to establish an in vitro fibrogenesis model employing human VF fibroblasts (hVFF) and the principles of macromolecular crowding (MMC). METHODS: Fibrogenesis was promoted by addition of transforming growth factor-β1 to standard medium and medium containing inert macromolecules (MMC). Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and Botox type A were tested for their antifibrotic properties in various doses...
March 8, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Jack Phu, Bang V Bui, Michael Kalloniatis, Sieu K Khuu
Purpose: The number of subjects needed to establish the normative limits for visual field (VF) testing is not known. Using bootstrap resampling, we determined whether the ground truth mean, distribution limits, and standard deviation (SD) could be approximated using different set size ( x ) levels, in order to provide guidance for the number of healthy subjects required to obtain robust VF normative data. Methods: We analyzed the 500 Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) SITA-Standard results of 116 healthy subjects and 100 HFA full threshold results of 100 psychophysically experienced healthy subjects...
March 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Anna Lena Zogg, Katrin Zurfluh, Sarah Schmitt, Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen, Roger Stephan
Among 64 uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolated from 13 cats and 51 dogs, 35 were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, and 29 were non-ESBL producers. Forty-six (71.9%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). Among the ESBL producers, blaCTX-M-15 (n = 17/48.6% of the blaESBLs ), blaCTX-M-1 (n = 10/28.6%), blaCTX-M-55 (n = 4/11.4%), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 3/8.6%), and blaCTX-M-27 (n = 1/2.9%) were identified. The plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance genes aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrB and the azithromycin resistance gene mph(A) were detected in 17 (26...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
B B Li, Y Cai, Y Z Pan, M Li, Y Fang, T Tian, X M Yan
Objective: To evaluate the association between corneal biomechanical parameters and visual field (VF) progression in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) using the Corvis-ST device, and to evaluate the ability of corneal biomechanical parameters to predict the VF progression. Methods: Corneal biomechanical parameters of newly diagnosed NTG patients were obtained using Corvis-ST in the baseline follow-up visit. The VF progression was defined as a 4-point increase in the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) score compared to the baseline in three consecutive follow-up visits (per 3-6 months)...
March 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Guoliang Li, Ardan M Saguner, Deniz Akdis, Guy H Fontaine
Atrioventricular (AV) block has been extensively studied. However, conduction inside the myocardium in patients with AV block has not been reported. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the presence of intramyocardial block in patients with AV block. Five consecutive patients with spontaneous high-grade AV block and Torsades de pointes (TdP) were prospectively studied with standard United States Catheter Instruments (USCI) endocardial temporary catheter located at the right ventricle (RV) apex. The morphology of endocardial potentials observed in the basic QRS complexes as well as during episodes of TdP was studied...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
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