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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852471/what-does-extinction-have-to-do-with-confabulation
#1
REVIEW
Armin Schnider, Louis Nahum, Radek Ptak
Behaviourally spontaneous confabulation denotes a distinct syndrome consisting of confabulations that patients act upon, disorientation, and amnesia. It corresponds to the stable form of the original Korsakoff syndrome. While the syndrome may also occur in confusional states and degenerative dementia, this article is about the syndrome as it occurs after acute and focal brain damage. The patients act according to ideas and obligations that can mostly be traced back to real experiences in their past, but which are not currently valid guides of thinking and behaviour...
November 1, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829317/personal-semantic-and-episodic-autobiographical-memories-in-korsakoff-syndrome-a-comparison-of-interview-methods
#2
Yvonne C M Rensen, Roy P C Kessels, Ellen M Migo, Arie J Wester, Paul A T M Eling, Michael D Kopelman
OBJECTIVE: The temporal gradient in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome has been of particular interest in the literature, as many studies have found evidence for a steep temporal gradient, but others have observed more uniform remote memory impairment across all past time periods. Inconsistencies might be the result of the nature of remote memory impairment under study (i.e., nonpersonal or autobiographical memory) and of methodological differences in the examination of remote memory loss...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818965/alcohol-related-dementia-and-neurocognitive-impairment-a-review-study
#3
REVIEW
Ankur Sachdeva, Mina Chandra, Mona Choudhary, Prabhoo Dayal, Kuljeet Singh Anand
CONTEXT: Alcohol consumption has escalated rapidly in many countries over the past decade. Evidence suggests a correlation between alcohol use and cognitive decline. We have systematically reviewed the concept and controversies, epidemiology, nosology, neuropathology and neurobiology, neuropsychology and management updates of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) in this paper. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We retrieved papers for this review by searching the PubMed database for terms "alcohol and dementia", "alcohol and cognitive impairment", and "alcohol and wernicke-korsakoff" mentioned in the title of the published papers...
September 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783220/the-importance-of-mammillary-body-efferents-for-recency-memory-towards-a-better-understanding-of-diencephalic-amnesia
#4
Andrew J D Nelson, Seralynne D Vann
Despite being historically one of the first brain regions linked to memory loss, there remains controversy over the core features of diencephalic amnesia as well as the critical site for amnesia to occur. The mammillary bodies and thalamus appear to be the primary locus of pathology in the cases of diencephalic amnesia, but the picture is complicated by the lack of patients with circumscribed damage. Impaired temporal memory is a consistent neuropsychological finding in Korsakoff syndrome patients, but again, it is unclear whether this deficit is attributable to pathology within the diencephalon or concomitant frontal lobe dysfunction...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772780/non-alcoholic-korsakoff-syndrome-in-psychiatric-patients-with-a-history-of-undiagnosed-wernicke-s-encephalopathy
#5
Georgios Nikolakaros, Tuula Ilonen, Timo Kurki, Janina Paju, Sokratis G Papageorgiou, Risto Vataja
Wernicke's encephalopathy is often undiagnosed, particularly in non-alcoholics. There are very few reports of non-alcoholic patients diagnosed with Korsakoff syndrome in the absence of a prior diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy and no studies of diffusion tensor imaging in non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. We report on three non-alcoholic psychiatric patients (all women) with long-term non-progressive memory impairment that developed after malnutrition accompanied by at least one of the three Wernicke's encephalopathy manifestations: ocular abnormalities, ataxia or unsteadiness, and an altered mental state or mild memory impairment...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595167/intrusions-and-provoked-and-spontaneous-confabulations-on-memory-tests-in-korsakoff-s-syndrome
#6
Yvonne C M Rensen, Joukje M Oosterman, Serge J W Walvoort, Paul A T M Eling, Roy P C Kessels
INTRODUCTION: Intrusions on verbal memory tests have been used as an index for clinical confabulation. Severe memory impairments in combination with executive dysfunction have been suggested to be the underlying mechanism of confabulation, but to date, this relation is unclear. The aim of this study was (a) to examine the relation between (different types of) intrusions and confabulations in a large sample of confabulating patients with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) and (b) to investigate whether different measures of executive functioning and memory performance are related to provoked and spontaneous confabulation...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576603/vitamin-b1-deficient-mice-show-impairment-of-hippocampus-dependent-memory-formation-and-loss-of-hippocampal-neurons-and-dendritic-spines-potential-microendophenotypes-of-wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome
#7
Hiroyoshi Inaba, Takuya Kishimoto, Satoru Oishi, Kan Nagata, Shunsuke Hasegawa, Tamae Watanabe, Satoshi Kida
Patients with severe Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) associated with vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency (TD) show enduring impairment of memory formation. The mechanisms of memory impairment induced by TD remain unknown. Here, we show that hippocampal degeneration is a potential microendophenotype (an endophenotype of brain disease at the cellular and synaptic levels) of WKS in pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) mice, a rodent model of WKS. PTD mice show deficits in the hippocampus-dependent memory formation, although they show normal hippocampus-independent memory...
December 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571012/characteristic-neuroimaging-abnormalities-of-korsakoff-syndrome
#8
J Bradley Segal, Marc A Bouffard, Gottfried Schlaug
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567191/self-awareness-of-cognitive-dysfunction-self-reported-complaints-and-cognitive-performance-in-patients-with-alcohol-induced-mild-or-major-neurocognitive-disorder
#9
Serge J W Walvoort, Paul T van der Heijden, Arie J Wester, Roy P C Kessels, Jos I M Egger
Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) typically have difficulties in recognizing the impact of their alcohol-related cognitive deficits on daily-life functioning. In this study, mean scores on self-reported complaints (measured with Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form; MMPI-2-RF) and cognitive performance (measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition; WAIS-III; and the California Verbal Learning Test; CVLT) are compared between two matched patient groups with severe (KS) and mild alcohol-related cognitive disorders or non KS (NKS)...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553920/psychiatric-emergencies-for-clinicians-emergency-department-management-of-wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome
#10
Christopher S Sharp, Michael P Wilson, Kimberly Nordstrom
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500869/-wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome
#11
S V Kotov, A I Lobakov, E V Isakova, G A Stashuk, T V Volchenkova
AIM: To study the diagnosis and treatment of non-alcoholic Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight patients (5 men and 3 women), mean age 38,9±1,4 years, with WKS developed due to acute gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disease (3 patients), the exacerbation of chronic GIT disease with malabsorption (2 patients) and after surgery on the upper GIT (3 patients) were included in the study. RESULTS: The disease manifested with consciousness disturbance, symptoms of ataxia, eye movement disorders and bulbar syndrome that developed after 24-48 h...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498674/severe-infections-are-common-in-thiamine-deficiency-and-may-be-related-to-cognitive-outcomes-a-cohort-study-of-68-patients-with-wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome
#12
Jan W Wijnia, Erik Oudman, Willem A van Gool, André I Wierdsma, Esmay L Bresser, Jan Bakker, Albert van de Wiel, Cornelis L Mulder
BACKGROUND: Wernicke encephalopathy can have different clinical outcomes. Although infections may precipitate the encephalopathy itself, it is unknown whether infections also modify the long-term outcome in patients developing Korsakoff syndrome. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether markers of infection, such as white blood cell (WBC) counts and absolute neutrophil counts in the Wernicke phase, are associated with cognitive outcomes in the end-stage Korsakoff syndrome...
June 18, 2016: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445476/measuring-illness-insight-in-patients-with-alcohol-related-cognitive-dysfunction-using-the-q8-questionnaire-a-validation-study
#13
Serge Jw Walvoort, Paul T van der Heijden, Roy Pc Kessels, Jos Im Egger
AIM: Impaired illness insight may hamper treatment outcome in patients with alcohol-related cognitive deficits. In this study, a short questionnaire for the assessment of illness insight (eg, the Q8) was investigated in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) and in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients with mild neurocognitive deficits. METHODS: First, reliability coefficients were computed and internal structure was investigated. Then, comparisons were made between patients with KS and patients with AUD...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395466/-alcohol-and-the-risk-of-dementia
#14
Sachio Matsushita, Susumu Higuchi
This article reviews studies examining the relationship between alcohol consumption and dementia. Several studies have found that light to moderate alcohol consumption might be associated with decreased dementia risk compared to alcohol abstention. However, not all studies drew the same conclusion and there is no consensus regarding decreased dementia risk related to light to moderate alcohol consumption. The methodological limitations of these studies also need to be considered. For example, definition of alcohol consumption varies with studies...
July 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300674/wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome-in-patients-with-cancer-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Elie Isenberg-Grzeda, Sudhanshu Rahane, Antonio P DeRosa, Janet Ellis, Stephen E Nicolson
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in patients with cancer is understudied. Much of what is known-that significant under-recognition and delays in treatment exist-comes from studies of alcohol misuse disorders or non-alcohol-related Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in patients. We investigated the frequency and associated features of cancer-related Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in the published literature. We included 90 articles reporting on 129 patients. Only 38 (30%) of 128 patients with data available exhibited the entire triad of classic features of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: confusion, ataxia, and ophthalmoplegia or nystagmus...
April 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129864/concomitants-of-alcoholism-differential-effects-of-thiamine-deficiency-liver-damage-and-food-deprivation-on-the-rat-brain-in-vivo
#16
Natalie M Zahr, Edith V Sullivan, Torsten Rohlfing, Dirk Mayer, Amy M Collins, Richard Luong, Adolf Pfefferbaum
RATIONALE: Serious neurological concomitants of alcoholism include Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted in animal models to determine neuroradiological signatures associated with liver damage caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), thiamine deficiency caused by pyrithiamine treatment, and nonspecific nutritional deficiency caused by food deprivation. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were used to evaluate brains of wild-type Wistar rats at baseline and following treatment...
July 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27088230/evolution-of-wechsler-s-memory-scales-content-and-structural-analysis
#17
Phillip L Kent
The Wechsler Memory Scale-1 was introduced to the professional community 70 years ago and has been the most widely used standardized memory battery for over 50 years. Since its introduction, the test has been revised three times, with the last revision occurring in 2009 . Few clinicians are aware that Wechsler developed a prior memory battery in 1917 , which was used to assess retention deficits in persons with Korsakoff psychosis. The purpose of the present article is to describe the development of Wechsler's memory scales from 1917 through 2009 ...
April 18, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087276/destination-memory-in-korsakoff-s-syndrome
#18
Mohamad El Haj, Roy P C Kessels, Christian Matton, Jean-Eudes Bacquet, Laurent Urso, Gaëlle Cool, Florence Guidez, Stéphanie Potier, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Pascal Antoine
BACKGROUND: Context memory, or the ability to remember the context in which an episodic event has occurred (e.g., where and when an event took place), has been found to be compromised in Korsakoff's syndrome. This study examined whether a similar deficit would be observed for destination memory, that is, the ability to remember to whom an information was previously transmitted. METHODS: Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and healthy controls were instructed to tell proverbs to pictures of celebrities...
June 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26928513/into-the-future-with-little-past-exploring-mental-time-travel-in-a-patient-with-damage-to-the-mammillary-bodies-fornix
#19
Jacqui Tedder, Laurie Miller, Sicong Tu, Michael Hornberger, Suncica Lah
OBJECTIVE: Remembering the past and imaging the future are both manifestations of 'mental time travel'. These processes have been found to be impaired in patients with bilateral hippocampal lesions. Here, we examined the question of whether future thinking is affected by other Papez circuit lesions, namely: damage to the mammillary bodies/fornix. METHOD: Case (SL) was a 43-year-old woman who developed dense anterograde and retrograde amnesia suddenly, as a result of Wernicke-Korsakoff's syndrome...
February 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26909060/new-perspectives-in-the-exploration-of-korsakoff-s-syndrome-the-usefulness-of-neurophysiological-markers
#20
Mélanie Brion, Anne-Lise Pitel, Fabien D'Hondt
This perspective aims at underlining the usefulness of event-related potentials (ERP) to better understand the brain correlates of Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), a neuropsychiatric disease characterized by severe memory impairment and most frequently resulting as a neurological complication of alcohol-dependence (AD). While ERP have been broadly used in AD, it has up to now been very little applied in KS or in the comparison of KS and AD. Within the framework of dual-process models, an influential theory postulating that addictive states result from an imbalance between under-activated reflective system and over-activated automatic-affective one, this paper proposes: (1) a brief synthesis of the main results of ERP studies in AD and KS, and (2) new research avenues using ERP to identify the electrophysiological correlates of cognitive and emotional dysfunction in KS...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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