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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087404/mood-and-anxiety-disorders-precede-development-of-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-patients-but-not-in-the-population
#1
Michael P Jones, Jan Tack, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Marjorie M Walker, Gerald Holtmann, Natasha A Koloski, Nicholas J Talley
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Understanding the interactions between brain and gastrointestinal disorders requires analysis of the order of disease onset. We analyzed data from 2 independent studies to determine the proportion of individuals with diagnoses of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) before diagnoses of mood or anxiety disorders (gut to brain), and vice versa (brain to gut). METHODS: We collected data from a retrospective study of 4966 patients diagnosed with a FGID (irritable bowel syndrome, dyspepsia, or constipation) and mood or anxiety disorder at general practices in the United Kingdom (health care seekers) over an average period of 13...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086807/detection-of-critical-cerebral-desaturation-thresholds-by-three-regional-oximeters-during-hypoxia-a-pilot-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#2
Kerry L Tomlin, Anna-Maria Neitenbach, Ulf Borg
BACKGROUND: Regional oximetry is increasingly used to monitor post-extraction oxygen status of the brain during surgical procedures where hemodynamic fluctuations are expected. Particularly in cardiac surgery, clinicians employ an interventional algorithm to restore baseline regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) when a patient reaches a critical desaturation threshold. Evidence suggests that monitoring cardiac surgery patients and intervening to maintain rSO2 can improve postoperative outcomes; however, evidence generated with one manufacturer's device may not be applicable to others...
January 13, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079681/internal-jugular-vein-compression-a-novel-approach-to-mitigate-blast-induced-hearing-injury
#3
Brian Sindelar, Michael Shinners, Sydney Sherman, Kevin Novak, Kristine Erickson, Vimal Patel, Paul Kubilis, David Smith, John Finan, Julian E Bailes
HYPOTHESIS: Internal jugular vein (IJV) compression before blast injury will lead to reduced risk of traumatic hearing injury following exposure to a blast injury. BACKGROUND: IJV compression and its effects on not only intracranial, but also intracochlear pressure may potentiate blast induced hearing injury, therefore, precluding its use as a prophylactic therapy for blast induced traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Twenty Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to a 17...
January 10, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079396/does-brain-creatine-content-rely-on-exogenous-creatine-in-healthy-youth-a-proof-of-principle-study
#4
Carlos Alberto Abujabra Merege-Filho, Maria Concepción Garcia Otaduy, Ana Lúcia de Sá-Pinto, Maira Okada de Oliveira, Lívia de Souza Gonçalves, Ana Paula Tanaka Hayashi, Hamilton Roschel, Rosa Maria Rodrigues Pereira, Clovis Artur Silva, Sonia Maria Dozzi Brucki, Claudia da Costa Leite, Bruno Gualano
It has been hypothesized that dietary creatine could influence cognitive performance by increasing brain creatine in developing individuals. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, proof-of-principle study aimed to investigate the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function and brain creatine content in healthy youth. The sample comprised 67 healthy participants aged 10 to 12 years. The participants were given creatine or placebo supplementation for 7 days. At baseline and after the intervention, participants undertook a battery of cognitive tests...
October 5, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079059/co-variation-of-peripheral-levels-of-mir-1202-and-brain-activity-and-connectivity-during-antidepressant-treatment
#5
Juan Pablo Lopez, Fabricio Pereira, Stéphane Richard-Devantoy, Marcelo Berlim, Eduardo Chachamovich, Laura M Fiori, Paola Niola, Gustavo Turecki, Fabrice Jollant
MicroRNAs are short non-coding molecules that play a major role in regulating gene expression. Peripheral levels of miR-1202 have been shown to predict and mediate antidepressant response. However, it is not clear to what extent these peripheral measures reflect central neural changes in vivo. We approached this problem with the combined use of peripheral miR-1202 measures and neuroimaging. At baseline and after 8 weeks of Desvenlafaxine (50-100 mg die), twenty patients were scanned with 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging, first at rest then during the Go/NoGo task, a classical test of response inhibition...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075038/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-on-cancer-associated-cognitive-impairment-a-proof-of-concept-rct
#6
K L Campbell, J W Y Kam, S E Neil-Sztramko, T Liu Ambrose, T C Handy, H Lim, S Hayden, L Hsu, A A Kirkham, C C Gotay, D C McKenzie, L A Boyd
BACKGROUND: Change in cognitive ability is a commonly reported side effect by breast cancer survivors (BCS). The underlying etiology of cognitive complaints is unclear and to date there is limited evidence for effective intervention strategies. Exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function in older adults and animal models treated with chemotherapy. This proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial (RCT) tested the effect of aerobic exercise versus usual lifestyle on cognitive function in postmenopausal BCS...
January 11, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070566/interleukin-37-expression-in-mice-alters-sleep-responses-to-inflammatory-agents-and-influenza-virus-infection
#7
Christopher J Davis, Mark R Zielinski, Danielle Dunbrasky, Ping Taishi, Charles A Dinarello, James M Krueger
Multiple interactions between the immune system and sleep are known, including the effects of microbial challenge on sleep or the effects of sleep loss on facets of the immune response. Cytokines regulate, in part, sleep and immune responses. Here we examine the role of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-37 (IL-37) on sleep in a mouse strain that expresses human IL-37b (IL37tg mice). Constitutive expression of the IL-37 gene in the brains of these mice under resting conditions is low; however, upon an inflammatory stimulus, expression increases dramatically...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068788/a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-lactobacillus-helveticus-and-bifidobacterium-longum-for-the-symptoms-of-depression
#8
Amy R Romijn, Julia J Rucklidge, Roeline G Kuijer, Chris Frampton
OBJECTIVES: This trial investigated whether probiotics improved mood, stress and anxiety in a sample selected for low mood. We also tested whether the presence or severity of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other blood markers, would predict or impact treatment response. METHOD: Seventy-nine participants (10 dropouts) not currently taking psychotropic medications with at least moderate scores on self-report mood measures were randomly allocated to receive either a probiotic preparation (containing Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum) or a matched placebo, in a double-blind trial for 8 weeks...
January 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068234/radiation-dose-dependent-hippocampal-atrophy-detected-with-longitudinal-volumetric-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#9
Tyler M Seibert, Roshan Karunamuni, Hauke Bartsch, Samar Kaifi, Anitha Priya Krishnan, Yoseph Dalia, Jeffrey Burkeen, Vyacheslav Murzin, Vitali Moiseenko, Joshua Kuperman, Nathan S White, James B Brewer, Nikdokht Farid, Carrie R McDonald, Jona A Hattangadi-Gluth
PURPOSE: After radiation therapy (RT) to the brain, patients often experience memory impairment, which may be partially mediated by damage to the hippocampus. Hippocampal sparing in RT planning is the subject of recent and ongoing clinical trials. Calculating appropriate hippocampal dose constraints would be improved by efficient in vivo measurements of hippocampal damage. In this study we sought to determine whether brain RT was associated with dose-dependent hippocampal atrophy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Hippocampal volume was measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 52 patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT for primary brain tumors...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067610/the-efficacy-of-a-computer-assisted-cognitive-rehabilitation-program-for-patients-with-mild-cognitive-deficits-a-pilot-study
#10
William E Mansbach, Ryan A Mace, Kristen M Clark
: Background/Study Context: Whereas computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation (CR) programs show promise as tools for improving cognition in certain populations, there is not a consensus regarding their efficacy. This study focuses on restorative CR, a treatment designed to improve cognitive functioning affected by progressive brain changes due to disease or aging, through computer-assisted cognitive exercises. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a computer-assisted restorative CR intervention for improving cognitive functioning in older rehabilitation patients with relatively mild cognitive deficits...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065487/the-effect-of-unilateral-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-on-depression-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Elizabeth L Birchall, Harrison C Walker, Gary Cutter, Stephanie Guthrie, Allen Joop, Raima A Memon, Ray L Watts, David G Standaert, Amy W Amara
BACKGROUND: Depression is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and adversely affects quality of life. Both unilateral and bilateral subthalamic (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) effectively treat the motor symptoms of PD, but questions remain regarding the impact of unilateral STN DBS on non-motor symptoms, such as depression. METHODS: We report changes in depression, as measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), in 50 consecutive PD patients who underwent unilateral STN DBS...
December 27, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065217/early-enteral-combined-with-parenteral-nutrition-treatment-for-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-effects-on-immune-function-nutritional-status-and-outcomes-%C3%A2
#12
Fan Ming-Chao, Wang Qiao-Ling, Fang Wei, Jiang Yun-Xia, Li Lian-di, Sun Peng, Wang Zhi-Hong
Objective To compare the conjoint effect of enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN) with single EN or PN on immune function, nutritional status, complications and clinical outcomes of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI). Methods A prospective randomized control trial was carried out from January 2009 to May 2012 in Neurological Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Patients of STBI who met the enrolment criteria (Glasgow Coma Scale score 6~8; Nutritional Risk Screening ≥3) were randomly divided into 3 groups and were admi- nistrated EN, PN or EN+PN treatments respectively...
November 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065166/the-predictive-capabilities-of-a-novel-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-derived-marker-of-cardiopulmonary-reserve-on-established-prognostic-surrogate-markers-in-patients-with-pulmonary-vascular-disease-results-of-a-longitudinal-pilot-study
#13
Timothy J Baillie, Samuel Sidharta, Peter M Steele, Stephen G Worthley, Scott Willoughby, Karen Teo, Prashanthan Sanders, Stephen J Nicholls, Matthew I Worthley
BACKGROUND: No unified method exists to effectively predict and monitor progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We assessed the longitudinal relationship between a novel marker of cardiopulmonary reserve and established prognostic surrogate markers in patients with pulmonary vascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty participants with confirmed (n = 14) or at high risk (n = 6) for PAH underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at baseline and after ~6 months of guideline-appropriate management...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064384/gut-microbiota-composition-associated-with-alterations-in-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-psychosocial-outcomes-among-breast-cancer-survivors
#14
Jesseca A Paulsen, Travis S Ptacek, Stephen J Carter, Nianjun Liu, Ranjit Kumar, LaKeshia Hyndman, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Casey D Morrow, Laura Q Rogers
PURPOSE: In this proof-of-concept pilot study, our purpose was to determine correlations between gut microbiota composition and alterations in cardiorespiratory fitness and psychosocial outcomes among post-primary treatment breast cancer survivors (BCS). METHODS: Composition of the gut microbiota in BCS (n = 12) was assessed at baseline (M0) and at the end of 3 months (M3) using Illumina MiSeq DNA Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Gut microbiota composition was analyzed using the QIIME bioinformatics software and represented through diversity metrics and taxa analyses...
January 7, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064170/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-brain-volumes-in-men-and-women-in-the-finger-study
#15
Heikki Pentikäinen, Tiia Ngandu, Yawu Liu, Kai Savonen, Pirjo Komulainen, Merja Hallikainen, Miia Kivipelto, Rainer Rauramaa, Hilkka Soininen
BACKGROUND: high cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with larger brain volumes but data on sex differences in the association of CRF with brain volumes are scarce. We investigated whether the association of CRF with total grey matter (GM) and white matter volumes as well as medial temporal lobe and striatum volumes is different between men and women at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: we used baseline data from The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) in which the inclusion criteria were set to select individuals with cognitive performance at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age according to Finnish population norms...
January 6, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063919/proteomic-analysis-of-the-protective-effects-of-aqueous-bark-extract-of-terminalia-arjuna-roxb-on-isoproterenol-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-rats
#16
Santosh Kumar, Md Jahangir Alam, Pankaj Prabhakar, Sayeed Ahmad, Subir K Maulik, Manish Sharma, Shyamal K Goswami
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) has been in use as an ethnomedicine for cardiovascular ailments in the Indian subcontinent for centuries. Studies using hemodynamic, ROS scavenging and anti-inflammatory parameters in animal models have shown its anti-atherogenic, hypotensive, inotropic, anti-inflammatory effects. However, details analysis on its effects on established molecular and cell biological markers are a prerequisite for its wider acceptance to the medical community...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063694/post-wbrt-cognitive-impairment-and-hippocampal-neuronal-depletion-measured-by-in-vivo-metabolic-mr-spectroscopy-results-of-prospective-investigational-study
#17
Petr Pospisil, Tomas Kazda, Ludmila Hynkova, Martin Bulik, Marie Dobiaskova, Petr Burkon, Nadia N Laack, Pavel Slampa, Radim Jancalek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate post-whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) changes in hippocampal concentration of N-acetylaspartate (h-tNAA) as a marker of neuronal loss and to correlate those changes to neurocognitive function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients with brain metastases underwent baseline single slice multi-voxel MR spectroscopy (MRS) examination for measurement of hippocampal h-tNAA together with baseline battery of neurocognitive tests focused on memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised) as well as quality of life questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 a EORTC QLQ-BN20)...
January 4, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063687/the-longitudinal-effects-of-persistent-apnea-on-cerebral-oxygenation-in-infants-born-preterm
#18
Rosemary S C Horne, Annie C H Fung, Scott NcNeil, Karinna L Fyfe, Alexsandria Odoi, Flora Y Wong
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and impact of persistent apnea on heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and brain tissue oxygenation index (TOI) over the first 6 months after term equivalent age in ex-preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-four preterm infants born between 27 and 36 weeks of gestational age were studied with daytime polysomnography at 2-4 weeks, 2-3 months, and 5-6 months post-term corrected age. Apneas lasting ≥3 seconds were included and maximal percentage changes (nadir) in HR, SpO2, and tissue oxygenation index (TOI, NIRO-200 Hamamatsu) from baseline were analyzed...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063201/relation-between-dynamic-change-of-red-cell-distribution-width-and-30-day-mortality-in-patients-with-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#19
Selçuk Yazıcı, Tuncay Kırış, Ufuk Sadık Ceylan, Sait Terzi, Ahmet Okan Uzun, Ayşe Emre, Kemal Yeşilçimen
Introduction and Objectives Recent studies suggest that an increase in red cell distribution width (RDW) levels have a better prognostic value than a single measurement. In the current study, we investigated the predictive value of increasing RDW levels for mortality in acute pulmonary emboli (APE) patients. Materials and Methods For the study, 199 APE patients who were hospitalized were enrolled. Patients were divided into three groups according to their admission and 24(th) hour RDW values. Patients for whom both RDW values normal were put in group 1 (normal); patients with admission RDW > 14...
January 7, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061418/memory-and-mood-outcomes-after-anterior-thalamic-stimulation-for-refractory-partial-epilepsy
#20
Alexander I Tröster, Kimford J Meador, Christopher P Irwin, Robert S Fisher
PURPOSE: Bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) reduces seizures and is relatively safe but may be accompanied by complaints of memory problems and depression. This study examined incidence of memory and depression adverse events (AE) in the SANTE study blinded phase and their relationship to objective neurobehavioral measures, baseline characteristics, quality of life and long-term neurobehavioral outcome. METHOD: The neurobehavioral AE and neuropsychological data from a previously reported prospective randomized trial (SANTE) were analyzed...
December 23, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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