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Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Elodie Lespagnol, Constantino Balestra, Amandine Descat, Marie Jose Drittij-Reijnders, Jamie R Blackwell, Wilhelm Stahl, Andrew M Jones, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman
INTRODUCTION: During exercise in hypoxia, O2 delivery to brain and muscle is compromised and oxidative stress is elicited. Cocoa flavanols (CF) have antioxidant capacities and can increase blood flow by stimulating endothelial function. We aimed to examine the effects of 7-day CF intake on oxidative stress, nitric oxide production and tissue oxygenation in response to exercise in hypoxia (14.3% O2 ). METHODS: In a randomized, double blind, cross-over study, 14 well-trained male cyclists completed 4 trials: exercise in normoxia or hypoxia, after 7-day CF or placebo intake...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Nelly Siller, Jens Kuhle, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Christian Barro, Timo Uphaus, Sergiu Groppa, Ludwig Kappos, Frauke Zipp, Stefan Bittner
BACKGROUND: Monitoring neuronal injury remains one key challenge in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Upon axonal damage, neurofilament - a major component of the neuro-axonal cytoskeleton - is released into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and subsequently peripheral blood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relevance of serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) for acute and chronic axonal damage in early RRMS. METHODS: sNfL levels were determined in 74 patients (63 therapy-naive) with recently diagnosed clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or RRMS using Single Molecule Array technology...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
B M Fitzgibbon, K E Hoy, L A Knox, E K Guymer, G Littlejohn, D Elliot, L E Wambeek, S McQueen, K A Elford, S J Lee, P G Enticott, P B Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a complex chronic disorder with few effective treatments currently available. One promising treatment option is repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that has shown promise in disorders effecting the central nervous system. METHODS: We assessed the efficacy of a course of high-frequency (10Hz) left-hemisphere dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) rTMS in 26 patients (14 active; 12 sham) with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Afrina Mustari, Naoki Nakamura, Satoko Kawauchi, Shunichi Sato, Manabu Sato, Izumi Nishidate
To evaluate cerebral hemodynamics and spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (SLFOs) of cerebral blood flow in rat brain, we investigated an imaging method using a digital RGB camera. In this method, the RGB values were converted into tristimulus values in the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) XYZ color space, which is compatible with the common RGB working spaces. Monte Carlo simulation for light transport in tissue was then used to specify the relationship among the tristimulus XYZ values and the concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin ( C HbO ), deoxygenated hemoglobin ( C HbR ), and total hemoglobin ( C HbT ) and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation ( StO 2 )...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Philip W Cameron, Noelle C Soltero, Justin Byers
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are common in contact sports. There is an association between mTBIs and altered motor function. BioSway technology measures individuals' balance using the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Prior to incorporating BESS testing in concussion protocol, other variables that influence the BESS test require review. The objective of this study is to determine if game fatigue in hockey players also influences the BESS score. 23 male (21.08 ± 1.09) National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes were tested using the BioSway™ (Biodex, USA)...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Hei Ming Lai, Alan King Lun Liu, Harry Ho Man Ng, Marc H Goldfinger, Tsz Wing Chau, John DeFelice, Bension S Tilley, Wai Man Wong, Wutian Wu, Steve M Gentleman
Modern clearing techniques for the three-dimensional (3D) visualisation of neural tissue microstructure have been very effective when used on rodent brain but very few studies have utilised them on human brain material, mainly due to the inherent difficulties in processing post-mortem tissue. Here we develop a tissue clearing solution, OPTIClear, optimised for fresh and archival human brain tissue, including formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material. In light of practical challenges with immunostaining in tissue clearing, we adapt the use of cresyl violet for visualisation of neurons in cleared tissue, with the potential for 3D quantification in regions of interest...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Charlotte Zerna, Amy Y X Yu, Jayesh Modi, Shiel K Patel, Jonathan I Coulter, Eric E Smith, Shelagh B Coutts
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesions (WML) are associated with cognitive decline, increased stroke risk, and disability in old age. We hypothesized that superimposed acute cerebrovascular occlusion on chronic preexisting injury (leukoaraiosis) leads to worse outcome after minor cerebrovascular event, both using quantitative (volumetric) and qualitative (Fazekas scale) assessment, as well as relative total brain volume. METHODS: WML volume assessment was performed in 425 patients with high-risk transient ischemic attack (TIA; motor/speech deficits >5 minutes) or minor strokes from the CATCH study (CT and MRI in the Triage of TIA and Minor Cerebrovascular Events to Identify High Risk Patients)...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Laura Gaetano, Dieter A Häring, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue, Nicole Mueller-Lenke, Avinash Thakur, Davorka Tomic, Ludwig Kappos, Till Sprenger
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of fingolimod on deep gray matter (dGM), thalamus, cortical GM (cGM), white matter (WM), and ventricular volume (VV) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: Data were pooled from 2 phase III studies. A total of 2,064 of 2,355 (88%) contributed to the analysis: fingolimod 0.5 mg n = 783, fingolimod 1.25 mg n = 799, or placebo n = 773. Percentage change from baseline in dGM and thalamic volumes was evaluated with FMRIB's Integrated Registration & Segmentation Tool; WM, cGM, and VV were evaluated with structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy cross-sectional version (SIENAX) at months 12 and 24...
March 14, 2018: Neurology
Clifford R Jack, Heather J Wiste, Christopher G Schwarz, Val J Lowe, Matthew L Senjem, Prashanthi Vemuri, Stephen D Weigand, Terry M Therneau, Dave S Knopman, Jeffrey L Gunter, David T Jones, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Kejal Kantarci, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen
Our objective was to compare different whole-brain and region-specific measurements of within-person change on serial tau PET and evaluate its utility for clinical trials. We studied 126 individuals: 59 cognitively unimpaired with normal amyloid, 37 cognitively unimpaired with abnormal amyloid, and 30 cognitively impaired with an amnestic phenotype and abnormal amyloid. All had baseline amyloid PET and two tau PET, MRI, and clinical assessments. We compared the topography across all cortical regions of interest of tau PET accumulation rates and the rates of four different whole-brain or region-specific meta-regions of interest among the three clinical groups...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Dailson Paulucio, Augusto Terra, Caleb G Santos, Mauricio Cagy, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Bruno M da Costa, Mariana Gongora, Renato Alvarenga, Luciano Alonso, Fernando A M S Pompeu
Ethanol (ET) is a substance that modulates the Central Nervous System (CNS). Frequently, ET intake occurs combined with energy drinks, which contain taurine (TA), an important amino acid found in the body (i.e brain and muscles). Although TA administration has been used in the improvement of physical performance, the impact of TA, ET and exercise remains unknown. This study aimed to analyze the acute effect of 6g of Taurine (TA), 0.6 mL∙kg-1 of Ethanol (ET), and Taurine combined with Ethanol (TA+ET) ingestion on the electrocortical activity before and after a moderate intensity exercise in 9 subjects, 5 women (counterbalanced experimental design)...
2018: PloS One
Jessica Schultz, Ranjit John, Cindy Martin, Forum Kamdar, Thenappan Thenappan, Rebecca Cogswell
Myocardial fibrosis identified by apical core pathology at the time of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation may add information regarding myocardial recovery potential. In this analysis, we report the prevalence of myocardial fibrosis by cardiomyopathy type and its association with other known markers of left ventricular recovery. Left ventricular assist device core pathology was reviewed on 332 patients who underwent LVAD implantation at a single institution between 2005 and 2016. Baseline clinical and echocardiographic characteristics were compared among patients with and without myocardial fibrosis by cardiomyopathy type...
March 10, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Martin Pienkowski
Hearing loss changes the auditory brain, sometimes maladaptively. When deprived of cochlear input, central auditory neurons become more active spontaneously and begin to respond more strongly and synchronously to better preserved sound frequencies. This spontaneous and sound-evoked central hyperactivity has been postulated to trigger tinnitus and hyperacusis, respectively. Localized hyperactivity has also been observed after long-term exposure to noise levels that do not damage the cochlea. Adult animals exposed to bands of nondamaging noise exhibited suppressed spontaneous and sound-evoked activity in the area of primary auditory cortex (A1) stimulated by the exposure band but had increased spontaneous and evoked activity in neighboring A1 areas...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
K Francis, A Dougali, K Sideri, C Kroupis, V Vasdekis, K Dima, A Douzenis
OBJECTIVE: Several lines of evidence point to a probable relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but studies have yielded inconsistent findings on the BDNF serum level in ASD. The study aimed to assess those levels in children with ASD and their families. METHOD: BDNF serum levels were measured in 45 ASD children without intellectual disability (ID) and allergies, age 30-42 months and age-matched normal controls...
March 13, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Siqi Du, Yadi Wang, Choyce A Weatherly, Kylie Holden, Daniel W Armstrong
D-amino acids are now recognized to be widely present in organisms and play essential roles in biological processes. Some D-amino acids are metabolized by D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), while D-Asp and D-Glu are metabolized by D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). In this study, levels of 22 amino acids and the enantiomeric compositions of the 19 chiral proteogenic entities have been determined in the whole brain of wild-type ddY mice (ddY/DAO+/+ ), mutant mice lacking DAO activity (ddY/DAO-/- ), and the heterozygous mice (ddY/DAO+/- ) using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS)...
March 12, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Yuchi Han, Paul R Forfia, Anjali Vaidya, Jeremy A Mazurek, Myung H Park, Gautam Ramani, Stephen Y Chan, Aaron B Waxman
Introduction: A major determining factor on outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is right ventricular (RV) function. Ranolazine, which is currently approved for chronic stable angina, has been shown to improve RV function in an animal model and has been shown to be safe in small human studies with PAH. We aim to study the effect of ranolazine on RV function using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with pulmonary hypertension (non-group 2 patients) and monitor the effect of ranolazine on metabolism using metabolic profiling and changes of microRNA...
2018: Open Heart
T Michael De Silva, Mary L Modrick, Fabrice Dabertrand, Frank M Faraci
Vascular aging fundamentally contributes to large and small vessel disease. Despite the importance of such changes for brain function, mechanisms that mediate such changes are poorly defined. We explored mechanisms that underlie changes with age, testing the hypothesis that ROCK (Rho kinase) plays an important role. In C57BL/6 mice, baseline diameters of isolated pressurized parenchymal arterioles were similar in adult (4-5 month) and old mice (22±1 month; ≈15±1 µm). Endothelium-dependent dilation was impaired in old mice compared with adults in a pathway-specific manner...
March 12, 2018: Hypertension
Ken Kazumata, Haruto Uchino, Kikutaro Tokairin, Masaki Ito, Tohru Shiga, Toshiya Osanai, Masahito Kawabori
BACKGROUND: Cerebral hyperperfusion complicates the postoperative course of patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) following direct revascularization surgery. There is no clear distinction between cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome and benign postoperative increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to determine clinically relevant changes in rCBF, anatomical correlations, and factors associated with transient neurological symptoms following revascularization surgery in MMD...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Julie A Morgan, Andrew T Olagunju, Frances Corrigan, Bernhard T Baune
BACKGROUND: Regular exercise in adults improves depressive symptoms (DS) and major depressive disorder (MDD), however the clinical effects of ceasing exercise are largely unknown. METHODS: Seven databases were searched from inception to December 2017. Eligibility criteria included English language studies investigating the effects of ceasing exercise on DS or MDD in regularly active adults with or without prior DS or MDD. Blood based markers related to exercise cessation (EC) were assessed, if recorded...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Arkadiusz Szarmach, Mariusz Kaszubowski, Agnieszka Sabisz, Andrzej F Frydrychowski, Grzegorz Halena, Maciej Piskunowicz, Jarosław Dzierzanowski, Michał Studniarek, Edyta Szurowska, Pawel J Winklewski
The aim of this study was to assess regional perfusion at baseline and regional cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) to delayed acetazolamide challenge in subjects with chronic carotid artery stenosis. Sixteen patients (ten males) aged 70.94±7.71 with carotid artery stenosis ≥ 90% on the ipsilateral side and ≤ 50% on the contralateral side were enrolled into the study. In all patients, two computed tomography perfusion examinations were carried out; the first was performed before acetazolamide administration and the second 60 minutes after injection...
March 12, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Jesse T Fischer, H Julia Hannay, Candice A Alfano, Paul R Swank, Linda Ewing-Cobbs
OBJECTIVE: This prospective longitudinal study investigated sleep disturbance (SD) and internalizing problems after traumatic injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI) or extracranial/bodily injury (EI) in children and adolescents, relative to typically developing (TD) children. We also examined longitudinal relations between SD and internalizing problems postinjury. METHOD: Participants (N = 87) ages 8-15 included youth with TBI, EI, and TD children. Injury groups were recruited from a Level 1 trauma center after sustaining vehicle-related injuries...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
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