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Alexis Ogdie, William J Taylor, Tuhina Neogi, Jaap Fransen, Tim L Jansen, H Ralph Schumacher, Worawit Louthrenoo, Janitzia Vazquez-Mellado, Maxim Eliseev, Geraldine McCarthy, Lisa K Stamp, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Francisca Sivera, Hang-Korng Ea, Martijn Gerritsen, Giovanni Cagnotto, Lorenzo Cavagna, Chingtsai Lin, Yin-Yi Chou, Anne-Kathrin Tausche, Manuella Lima Gomes Ochtrop, Matthijs Janssen, Jiunn-Horng Chen, Ole Slot, Juris Lazovskis, Douglas White, Marco A Cimmino, Till Uhlig, Nicola Dalbeth
OBJECTIVES: To examine the performance of ultrasound for the diagnosis of gout using presence of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals as the gold standard. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Study for Updated Gout Classification Criteria (SUGAR), a large, multi-center observational cross-sectional study of consecutive subjects with at least one swollen joint who conceivably may have gout. All subjects underwent arthrocentesis; cases were subjects with MSU crystal confirmation...
October 16, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Kelly L Klump, Shannon M O'Connor, Britny A Hildebrandt, Pamela K Keel, Michael Neale, Cheryl L Sisk, Steven Boker, S Alexandra Burt
Recent data show shifts in genetic and environmental influences on emotional eating across the menstrual cycle, with significant shared environmental influences during pre-ovulation, and primarily genetic effects during post-ovulation. Factors driving differential effects are unknown, although increased estradiol during pre-ovulation and increased progesterone during post-ovulation are thought to play a role. We indirectly investigated this possibility by examining whether overall levels of estradiol and progesterone differentially impact genetic and environmental risk for emotional eating in adult female twins (N = 571) drawn from the MSU Twin Registry...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Jhih-Jia Jhang, Jia-Wei Ong, Chi-Cheng Lu, Chin-Lin Hsu, Jia-Hong Lin, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Gow-Chin Yen
Uric acid is a metabolite obtained from purine by xanthine oxidase activity (XO) and high levels of serum uric acid leads to hyperuricemia and gout. Mesona procumbens Hemsl. has been used as a healthy beverage and a traditional remedy. In this study, the hypouricemic effects of M. procumbens extracts were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The 50% ethanol extract of M. procumbens (EE50) showed the strongest inhibitory effect on monosodium urate (MSU)-induced XO activity in THP-1 cells. However, the phenolics and flavonoids in EE50 may not serve as inhibitors of XO...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Isabelle Pagé, Martin Descarreaux, Stéphane Sobczak
Palpation methods (PMs) have been proposed to guide clinicians in locating the thoracic transverse processes (TTPs). However, no studies have assessed the validity of TTPs palpation or the added value of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSU). The objectives of the present study were (1) to explore the validity of TTPs location using palpation as commonly performed by clinicians, (2) to develop an accurate and valid PM, and (3) to assess the added value of MSU. A standardized procedure was used on six cadavers. It consisted in the insertion of markers through the T3, T5, T6 and T8 TTPs and spinous processes, which were identified using palpation and MSU...
September 20, 2016: Manual Therapy
Yeon-Ho Chung, Dong-Hyun Kim, Won-Woo Lee
IL-1β is a key mediator of sterile inflammation in response to endogenous particulates, a type of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs) molecule derived from damaged cells. Despite the well-known role of sterile particulates such as monosodium urate (MSU) crystals as inflammasome inducers in monocytes/macrophages, little is known regarding how pro-IL-1β synthesis is induced under sterile inflammatory conditions. We provide evidence that MSU crystals post-transcriptionally induce the rapid production of pro-IL-1β in human primary monocytes...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Virginie Poortmans, Jean-Michel Brismée, Bernard Poortmans, Omer C Matthijs, Pierre-Michel Dugailly, Stéphane Sobczak
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to correlate sitting height measured by stadiometry with lumbar spine height (LSH) modifications measured by musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSU). METHODS: Eighteen healthy young adults were recruited for this study (mean age: 21.5 ± 1.5 years). All subjects were tested in the following sequence: (1) lying supine for 10 minutes, (2) sitting under loaded (9.5 kg) and unloaded conditions for 5 minutes each, (3) lying supine for 15 minutes with passive lumbar extension, and (4) sitting unloaded for 5 minutes...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Patapong Towiwat, Anthony J Doyle, Gregory D Gamble, Paul Tan, Opetaia Aati, Anne Horne, Lisa K Stamp, Nicola Dalbeth
BACKGROUND: It is currently unknown whether bone erosion in gout occurs through an 'inside-out' mechanism due to direct intra-osseous crystal deposition or through an 'outside-in' mechanism from the surface of bone. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanism ('outside-in' vs. 'inside-out') of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposition in bone erosion in gout. Specifically, we used three-dimensional dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) to analyse the positional relationship between bone and MSU crystal deposition in tophaceous gout, and to determine whether intra-osseous crystal deposition occurs in the absence of erosion...
2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Nan Du, Yanni Sun
MOTIVATION: Single-molecule, real-time sequencing (SMRT) developed by Pacific BioSciences produces longer reads than secondary generation sequencing technologies such as Illumina. The long read length enables PacBio sequencing to close gaps in genome assembly, reveal structural variations, and identify gene isoforms with higher accuracy in transcriptomic sequencing. However, PacBio data has high sequencing error rate and most of the errors are insertion or deletion errors. During alignment-based homology search, insertion or deletion errors in genes will cause frameshifts and may only lead to marginal alignment scores and short alignments...
September 1, 2016: Bioinformatics
Jikai Lei, Yanni Sun
MOTIVATION: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas) allows more specific and efficient gene editing than all previous genetic engineering systems. These exciting discoveries stem from the finding of the CRISPR system being an adaptive immune system that protects the prokaryotes against exogenous genetic elements such as phages. Despite the exciting discoveries, almost all knowledge about CRISPRs is based only on microorganisms that can be isolated, cultured and sequenced in labs...
September 1, 2016: Bioinformatics
Qiao Han, Wang Bing, Yin Di, Li Hua, Li Shi-He, Zheng Yu-Hua, Han Xiu-Guo, Wang Yu-Gang, Fan Qi-Ming, Yang Shih-Mo, Tang Ting-Ting
Gouty arthritis is a rheumatic disease that is characterized by the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) in synovial joints cause by the increased serum hyperuricemia. This study used a three-dimensional (3D) flowing microfluidic chip to screen the effective candidate against MSU-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) damage, and found kinsenoside (Kin) to be the leading active component of Anoectochilus roxburghi, one of the Chinese medicinal plant widely used in the treatment of gouty arthritis clinically...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
Simone Palini, Mariangela Primiterra, Silvia De Stefani, Maria Federica Pedna, Monica Sparacino, Patrizia Farabegoli, Serena Benedetti, Carlo Bulletti, Vittorio Sambri
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the levels of microbial contamination in semen samples before and after the micro swim-up (MSU) procedure in intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The new method is an upgrade to the classic wash swim-up procedure. METHODS: Semen analysis and microbiological tests were carried out before and after the MSU procedure. A total of twenty semen samples were analyzed. RESULTS: Pathogens were observed in semen samples only before MSU and never after ICSI...
2016: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
Gary Ruoff, N Lawrence Edwards
Gout is a progressive, painful, debilitating form of inflammatory arthritis. It is caused by factors that elevate the concentration of serum uric acid (sUA), leading to hyperuricemia (sUA >6.8 mg/dL). Continued elevated sUA can result in monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposition in joints and soft tissues, and can cause acute and chronic inflammation. The prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout has increased over the last few decades, likely due to an aging population, changes in lifestyles and diet, and an increase in gout-associated comorbidities...
September 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Juhi Bagaitkar, Emilia A Barbu, Lizet J Perez-Zapata, Anthony Austin, Guangming Huang, Sabine Pallat, Mary C Dinauer
Mutations in the leukocyte NADPH oxidase that abrogate superoxide production result in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), an inherited immunodeficiency associated with recurrent infections and inflammatory complications. The cytosolic regulatory subunit p40(phox) plays a specialized role in stimulating NADPH oxidase activity on intracellular membranes via its phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P]-binding domain, as revealed by studies largely focused on neutrophils. Whether PI(3)P-p40(phox)-regulated superoxide production contributes to regulating inflammatory responses is not well understood...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Tzer-Min Kuo, Hui-Ting Hsu, Chia-Min Chung, Kun-Tu Yeh, Cheng-Tien Wu, Chi-Pin Lee, Shang-Lun Chiang, Chung-Ming Huang, Ying-Chin Ko
Alpha-kinase 1 (ALPK1) is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), type 2 diabetes mellitus and gout. Elevated ALPK1 levels have been observed in the kidneys of patients with diabetes and the white blood cells of patients with gout. As renal injury is a common outcome of CKD, diabetes and gout, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ALPK1 in the development of renal injury in a hyperglycemic condition. Hyperglycemia was induced in wild-type and ALPK1 transgenic mice by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ)...
August 16, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Roger C Haut, Feng Wei
This review was prepared for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers H.R. Lissner Medal. It specifically discusses research performed in Michigan State University (MSU) on pediatric cranial bone mechanics and patterns of fracture. Cranial fractures are often seen during the investigation of pediatric trauma cases litigated in courts. While forensic anthropologists and biomechanists are often called on to testify in these cases, there is little basic science developed in support of their testimony. The following is a review of studies conducted in MSU and supported by the National Institute of Justice to begin an understanding of the mechanics and patterns of pediatric cranial bone fracture...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Isabel Andia, Michele Abate
Hyperuricemia, particularly gout, and the immune inflammatory response are highly integrated. Both, long standing hyperuricemia and monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposition can challenge tendon homeostasis because of their potential to cause inflammation to the host. Knowledge is emerging from clinical imaging research depicting where MSU crystals deposit, including patellar tendon, triceps and quadriceps tendons. Remarkably, subclinical tendon inflammation and damage are also present in asymptomatic hyperuricemia...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Angélica T Vieira, Izabela Galvão, Laurence M Macia, Érica M Sernaglia, Marco Aurélio R Vinolo, Cristiana C Garcia, Luciana P Tavares, Flávio A Amaral, Lirlândia P Sousa, Flaviano S Martins, Charles R Mackay, Mauro M Teixeira
: Gout is a disease characterized by the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in the joints. Continuous gout episodes may lead to unresolved inflammatory responses and tissue damage. We investigated the effects of a high-fiber diet and acetate, a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) resulting from the metabolism of fiber by gut microbiota, on the inflammatory response in an experimental model of gout in mice. Injection of MSU crystals into the knee joint of mice induced neutrophil influx and inflammatory hypernociception...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Ahmet Mutlu, Emine Dündar, Mete İşeri, Cengiz Erçin, Ayşe Cefle
Gout is a common metabolic disease and is characterized by episodic acute and chronic arthritis caused by the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in joints and connective tissues. The most commonly involved joint is the first metatarsophalangeal joint. It may also present with nonspecific complaints caused by gouty tophi in unusual sites of the body such as the spine, bone, and middle ear. Such involvements can be disabling and impair the quality of life. In this report, we describe the case of a patient who had complaints of hearing loss and otorrhea...
August 2016: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Yi Wang, Chao Luo, Guang Yang, Xiao Wei, Dian Liu, Shaobing Zhou
The recurrence of acute gout attacks remains an unsolved problem in clinical therapy. In order to tackle this problem, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/gelatin composite fibrous devices loaded with luteolin are presented via electrospinning for the therapy of gout and its recurrence. The luteolin-loaded fibrous device has the capability of inhibiting metabolic activities and reducing inflammation-associated cytokine productions (TNF-a, IL-1β, IL-6) that are secreted by lipopolysaccharide stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages...
July 22, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Sung Kyun Joo, In-Gu Lee, Hyung Won Lee, Kwang-Seok Chea, Tae Su Jo, Sang-Chul Jung, Sang Chai Kim, Chang Hyun Ko, Young-Kwon Park
Catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of obtaining valuable chemicals from Pinus densiflora, a native Korean tree species occupying 21.4% of the total area under forests in South Korea. Two representative mesoporous catalysts, Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F, as well as hierarchical mesoporous MFI (Meso-MFI) that has both mesopores and micropores, were used as catalysts. Compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis was shown to reduce the fractions of levoglucosan, phenolics, and acids in bio-oil, while increasing the fractions of aromatics, PAHs, and furans...
February 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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