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Neurology and review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735260/aetiological-investigations-in-early-developmental-impairment-are-they-worth-it
#1
Anthony Richard Hart, Ruchi Sharma, Mark Atherton, Samer Alabed, Sally Simpson, Stuart Barfield, Judith Cohen, Nicholas McGlashan, Asha Ravi, Michael James Parker, Daniel Ja Connolly
OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency a diagnosis is made in children with early developmental impairment (EDI), and the contribution made to diagnosis by specific investigations. DESIGN: Retrospective case note review. SETTING: Community, neurodisability and neurology department at a UK tertiary centre. PARTICIPANTS: Children referred to determine the aetiology of EDI where a cause was not evident on history and examination...
July 22, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735133/neurological-outcome-after-resection-of-parietal-lobe-including-primary-somatosensory-cortex-implications-of-additional-resection-of-posterior-parietal-cortex
#2
Young-Hoon Kim, June Sic Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Chun Kee Chung
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative neurological outcomes after primary somatosensory cortex (S1) resection have not been well-documented. This study was designed to evaluate the neurological deterioration that follows resection of the S1 areas and to assess the risk factors associated with these morbidities. METHODS: We reviewed 48 consecutive patients who suffered from medically intractable epilepsy and underwent resection of the S1 and/or the adjacent cortex. The 48 patients were categorized into 4 groups according to the resected area as seen on postoperative magnetic resonance images: Group 1 (resection of S1 only; n=4), 2 (the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) only; n=24), 3 (S1 and PPC; n=10), and 4 (S1 and precentral gyrus; n=10)...
July 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734784/drug-delivery-innovations-to-address-global-health-challenges-for-pediatric-and-geriatric-populations-through-improvements-in-patient-compliance
#3
Joshua Boateng
Despite significant advances in pharmaceutical and biotechnological drug discovery, the global population is plagued with many challenging diseases. These are further compounded by anticipated explosion in an ageing population, which presents several problems such as polypharmacy, dysphagia and neurological conditions, resulting in non-compliance and disease complications. For antibiotics, poor compliance, can result in development of drug resistant infections which can be fatal. Further, children, especially, in developing countries die unnecessarily from easily treatable diseases (e...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734555/decisional-and-dispositional-capacity-determinations-neuropsychiatric-illness-and-an-integrated-clinical-paradigm
#4
REVIEW
James A Bourgeois, Mary Ann Cohen, Jennifer M Erickson, Rebecca Weintraub Brendel
BACKGROUND: Assessment of decisional capacity requires thorough clinical review of a patient's current psychiatric symptoms and cognitive processes. The assessment to determine the patient's capacity for self-management postdischarge is a different clinical concept from decisional capacity. OBJECTIVES: Standardized guidelines for capacity determinations (both for informed consent and for disposition) would be helpful to clinicians, patients, and their caregivers...
May 13, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733958/the-study-of-postmortem-human-synaptosomes-for-understanding-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-neurological-disorders-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Jia-Fong Jhou, Hwan-Ching Tai
Synaptic dysfunction is thought to play important roles in the pathophysiology of many neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Over the past few decades, there have been systematic efforts to collect postmortem brain tissues via autopsies, leading to the establishment of dozens of human brain banks around the world. From cryopreserved human brain tissues, it is possible to isolate detached-and-resealed synaptic terminals termed synaptosomes, which remain metabolically and enzymatically active...
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733904/polyamines-therapeutic-perspectives-in-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Tarique Hussain, Bie Tan, Wenkai Ren, Najma Rahu, Rahim Dad, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro, Yulong Yin
Polyamines are naturally occurring aliphatic compounds, particularly essential elements for biological functions. These compounds play a central role in regulating molecular pathways which are responsible for cellular proliferation, growth, and differentiation. Importantly, excessive polyamine catabolism can lead to a prominent source of oxidative stress which increases inflammatory response and thought to be involved in several diseases including stroke, renal failure, neurological disease, liver disease, and even cancer...
July 21, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732280/evaluation-of-a-novel-median-power-spectrogram-for-seizure-detection-by-non-neurophysiologists
#7
Peter Yan, Tamar Melman, Sherry Yan, Munkhzul Otgonsuren, Zachary Grinspan
PURPOSE: (1) To evaluate how well resident physicians use a novel EEG spectral analysis tool (the median power spectrogram; MPS) to detect seizures. (2) To assess the capability of the MPS to identify different seizure types. METHODS: 120 EEG records from children with intractable seizures were converted to MPS by taking the median power across leads and using multi-taper spectral estimation. Twelve blinded neurology residents were trained to interpret the spectrogram with a five-minute video tutorial and post-test...
June 15, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731840/clinical-effect-of-rebound-hyperthermia-after-cooling-postcardiac-arrest-a-meta-analysis
#8
Parth Makker, Yumiko Kanei, Deepkia Misra
Rebound hyperthermia (RH) is frequently seen after completion of targeted temperature management (TTM) in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. However, its clinical significance is not well understood. Previous studies analyzing the association of RH with clinical outcome have reported conflicting results. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to examine the impact of RH after completion of TTM in patients postcardiac arrest. We reviewed six studies that evaluated the incidence of RH (T > 38°C) with documentation of outcome based on the presence of hyperthermia...
July 21, 2017: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731401/intraoperative-perception-and-estimates-on-extent-of-resection-during-awake-glioma-surgery-overcoming-the-learning-curve
#9
Darryl Lau, Shawn L Hervey-Jumper, Seunggu J Han, Mitchel S Berger
OBJECTIVE There is ample evidence that extent of resection (EOR) is associated with improved outcomes for glioma surgery. However, it is often difficult to accurately estimate EOR intraoperatively, and surgeon accuracy has yet to be reviewed. In this study, the authors quantitatively assessed the accuracy of intraoperative perception of EOR during awake craniotomy for tumor resection. METHODS A single-surgeon experience of performing awake craniotomies for tumor resection over a 17-year period was examined...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731396/contralateral-posterior-interhemispheric-approach-to-deep-medial-parietooccipital-vascular-malformations-surgical-technique-and-results
#10
Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Ethan A Winkler, Michael T Lawton
OBJECTIVE Deep medial parietooccipital arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are traditionally resected through an ipsilateral posterior interhemispheric approach (IPIA), which creates a deep, perpendicular perspective with limited access to the lateral margins of the lesion. The contralateral posterior interhemispheric approach (CPIA) flips the positioning, with the midline positioned horizontally for retraction due to gravity, but with the AVM on the upper side and the approach from the contralateral, lower side...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731207/polyclonal-and-monoclonal-antibodies-for-treating-acute-rejection-episodes-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#11
REVIEW
Angela C Webster, Sunny Wu, Krishna Tallapragada, Min Young Park, Jeremy R Chapman, Sue J Carr
BACKGROUND: Registry data shows that the incidence of acute rejection has been steadily falling. Approximately 10% to 35% of kidney recipients will undergo treatment for at least one episode of acute rejection within the first post-transplant year. Treatment options include pulsed steroid therapy, the use of an antibody preparation, the alteration of background immunosuppression, or combinations of these options. Over recent years, new treatment strategies have evolved, and in many parts of the world there has been an increase in use of tacrolimus and mycophenolate and a reduction in the use of cyclosporin and azathioprine use as baseline immunosuppression to prevent acute rejection...
July 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730861/comparative-outcomes-in-children-and-adults-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis
#12
Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Anusha K Yeshokumar, Deanna Saylor, Ana Arenivas, John C Probasco
This study compared neurologic disability and adaptive function in children and adults >1 year following anti- N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis diagnosis. Retrospective record review identified 12 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. At last follow-up, all surviving patients had "good" modified Rankin Score (0-2). Four children, 6 adults, and their families participated in a telephone interview. Median duration since diagnosis was similar for children (2.42 years, interquartile range 2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730843/clinical-value-of-st-segment-change-after-return-of-spontaneous-cardiac-arrest-and-emergent-coronary-angiography-in-patients-with-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-importance-of-vasospastic-angina
#13
Kazuya Tateishi, Daisuke Abe, Tooru Iwama, Yuichi Hamabe, Kazutaka Aonuma, Akira Sato
BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between initial ST-segment change after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and the incidence of acute coronary lesions in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), and clinical outcomes of patients with OHCA caused by vasospastic angina pectoris (VSA). METHODS: Among 2779 OHCA patients in our institution, all patients with ROSC underwent emergent coronary angiography (CAG) except for those with an obvious extra-cardiac cause of OHCA...
July 1, 2017: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730571/early-trigeminal-nerve-involvement-in-listeria-monocytogenes-rhombencephalitis-case-series-and-systematic-review
#14
William K Karlsson, Zitta Barrella Harboe, Casper Roed, Jeppe B Monrad, Mette Lindelof, Vibeke Andrée Larsen, Daniel Kondziella
Listeria monocytogenes is associated with rhombencephalitis. However, the exact mechanisms of brainstem invasion remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate clinical and radiological data suggesting that Listeria may invade the brainstem via the trigeminal nerve. Three females (41, 64 and 70 years) with culture proven L. monocytogenes bacteremia and rhombencephalitis were investigated in the period of 2014-16. T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI revealed a cerebellopontine abscess in all three patients, including the involvement of the trigeminal nerve root...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730529/role-of-the-golgi-apparatus-in-the-blood-brain-barrier-golgi-protection-may-be-a-targeted-therapy-for-neurological-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Shuwen Deng, Hui Liu, Ke Qiu, Hong You, Qiang Lei, Wei Lu
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain from toxic material in the blood, provides nutrients for brain tissues, and screens harmful substances from the brain. The specific brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs), tight junction between endothelial cells, and astrocytes ensure proper function of the central nervous system (CNS). Pathological factors disrupt the integrity of the BBB by destroying the normal function of endothelial cells and decreasing the production of tight junction proteins or the expression of proteins specifically localized on astrocytes...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730152/zebrafish-get-connected-investigating-neurotransmission-targets-and-alterations-in-chemical-toxicity
#16
Katharine A Horzmann, Jennifer L Freeman
Neurotransmission is the basis of neuronal communication and is critical for normal brain development, behavior, learning, and memory. Exposure to drugs and chemicals can alter neurotransmission, often through unknown pathways and mechanisms. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) model system is increasingly being used to study the brain and chemical neurotoxicity. In this review, the major neurotransmitter systems, including glutamate, GABA, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, and glutamate are surveyed and pathways of synthesis, transport, metabolism, and action are examined...
September 2016: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729933/unprovoked-seizures-in-multiple-sclerosis-why-are-they-rare
#17
Anamarija Kavčič, Werner E Hofmann
INTRODUCTION: The frequency of seizures in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) ranges from 1.5% to 7.8% and is considerably more common than chance events. The etiopathogenesis of seizures in MS is still poorly understood. METHOD: A review of the literature on seizures and MS using PubMed. RESULTS: Cortical gray matter involvement appears to be an all-too-common pathological finding in MS to play a primary role in the pathogenesis of seizures in MS patients...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729919/toward-understanding-non-coding-rna-roles-in-intracranial-aneurysms-and-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#18
Fengzhen Huang, Jiping Yi, Tieqiao Zhou, Xiaoxiang Gong, Hong Jiang, Xiaoxi Yao
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a common and frequently life-threatening cerebrovascular disease, which is mostly related with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Its complications include rebleeding, early brain injury, cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, chronic hydrocephalus, and also non neurological problems. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), comprising of microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), play an important role in intracranial aneurysms and SAH. Here, we review the non-coding RNAs expression profile and their related mechanisms in intracranial aneurysms and SAH...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729900/unravelling-functional-neurology-a-scoping-review-of-theories-and-clinical-applications-in-a-context-of-chiropractic-manual-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Anne-Laure Meyer, Amanda Meyer, Sarah Etherington, Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde
BACKGROUND: Functional Neurology (FN), a seemingly attractive treatment approach used by some chiropractors, proposes to have an effect on a multitude of conditions but some of its concepts are controversial. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: A scoping review was performed to describe, in the context of chiropractic manual therapy, 1) the FN theories, and 2) its clinical applications (i.e. its indications, examination procedures, treatment modalities, treatment plans, and clinical outcomes) using four sources: i) one key textbook, ii) the scientific peer-reviewed literature, iii) websites from chiropractors using FN, and iv) semi-structured interviews of chiropractors using FN...
2017: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729888/social-brain-circuitry-and-social-cognition-in-infants-born-preterm
#20
REVIEW
Angela Fenoglio, Michael K Georgieff, Jed T Elison
Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk of adverse neurologic, psychiatric, and cognitive outcomes. The brain circuits involved in processing social information are critical to all of these domains, but little work has been done to examine whether and how these circuits may be especially sensitive to prematurity. This paper contains a brief summary of some of the cognitive, psychiatric, and social outcomes associated with prematurity, followed by a description of findings from the modest body of research into social-cognitive development in infants and children born preterm...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
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