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Neurology and review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#1
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430167/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-modeling-of-gaucher-s-disease-what-have-we-learned
#2
REVIEW
Dino Matias Santos, Gustavo Tiscornia
Gaucher's disease (GD) is the most frequently inherited lysosomal storage disease, presenting both visceral and neurologic symptoms. Mutations in acid β-glucocerebrosidase disrupt the sphingolipid catabolic pathway promoting glucosylceramide (GlcCer) accumulation in lysosomes. Current treatment options are enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and substrate reduction therapy (SRT). However, neither of these approaches is effective in treating the neurological aspect of the disease. The use of small pharmacological compounds that act as molecular chaperones is a promising approach that is still experimental...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429801/the-dizzy-patient-don-t-forget-disorders-of-the-central-vestibular-system
#3
REVIEW
Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Vertigo and dizziness are among the most common complaints in neurology clinics, and they account for about 13% of the patients entering emergency units. In this Review, we focus on central vestibular disorders, which are mostly attributable to acute unilateral lesions of the bilateral vestibular circuitry in the brain. In a tertiary interdisciplinary outpatient dizziness unit, central vestibular disorders, including vestibular migraine, comprise about 25% of the established diagnoses. The signs and symptoms of these disorders can mimic those of peripheral vestibular disorders with sustained rotational vertigo...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429143/how-to-treat-lumbar-disc-herniation-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-on-current-standards
#4
REVIEW
Alberto Di Martino, Fabrizio Russo, Luca Denaro, Vincenzo Denaro
PURPOSE: In this systematic review, we aim to illustrate the current and safe concepts in the assessment, diagnosis and management of herniated lumbar disc (HLD) during pregnancy. METHODS: A systematic review and reporting on the diagnosis, treatment and clinical results of HLD during pregnancy is performed. RESULTS: The MRI represents the first level and safest diagnostic tool for pregnant women affected by spinal problems allowing for a noninvasive and detailed radiological examination of the spine...
April 20, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428929/treatment-of-posttubercular-syringomyelia-not-responsive-to-antitubercular-therapy-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#5
Giuseppe Canova, Alessandro Boaro, Enrico Giordan, Pierluigi Longatti
Posttubercular adhesive arachnoiditis is a rare, late complication of tubercular meningitis. Syringomyelia can develop as a consequence of intramedullary cystic lesions and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow disturbance around the spinal cord, even after successful chemotherapy. We reviewed the literature related to posttubercular syringomyelia treatment and suggest a new combined surgical approach. A 25-year-old Nigerian male patient presented with legs numbness, urinary disturbance, and legs weakness. Spinal magnetic resonance revealed a T5-T7 syringomyelia, secondary to adhesive spinal arachnoiditis related to a history of tuberculous meningitis...
April 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428081/intraoperative-image-guidance-compared-with-free-hand-methods-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-posterior-spinal-surgery-a-systematic-review-on-screw-related-complications-and-breach-rates
#6
Andrew Chan, Eric Parent, Karl Narvacan, Cindy San, Edmond Lou
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Severe adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a 3D spinal deformity requiring surgery to stop curve progression. Posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion with pedicle screws is the standard surgery for AIS curve correction. Vascular and neurologic complications related to screw-malpositioning are concerns in surgeries for AIS. Breach rates are reported at 15.7%, implant-related complications at 1.1% and neurologic deficit at 0.8%. Free-hand screw insertion remains the prevailing method of screw placement while image guidance has been suggested to improve placement accuracy...
April 17, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427975/surgical-management-of-vertex-epidural-hematoma-technical-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
David T Fernandes-Cabral, Ali Kooshkabadi, Sandip S Panesar, Emrah Celtikci, Hamid Borghei-Razavi, Pinar Celtikci, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda
BACKGROUND: Vertex epidural hematoma (VEH) is an uncommon presentation of extra-axial hematomas. It can represent a surgical dilemma regarding when and how to operate, particularly considering the potential implication of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). OBJECTIVE: Here, we illustrate the surgical technique for VEH as well as review of the existing literature. METHODS: A 60-year-old male sustained a ground level fall resulting in complete diastasis of the sagittal suture with underlying large VEH causing significant mass effect on the SSS and bi-hemispheric convexities...
April 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427972/endovascular-treatment-of-complex-distal-posterior-cerebral-artery-aneurysms-with-the-pipeline-embolization-device
#8
Paul Mazaris, Tapan Mehta, Mohammed Hussain, Violiza Inoa, Justin Singer, Gary Spiegel, Inam Kureshi, Martin Ollenschleger
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of our study is to assess the safety and efficacy of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) for endovascular treatment of complex, distal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysms. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent endovascular treatment of complex PCA aneurysms with PED from November 2012 to December 2015. A total of 4 patients were identified and treated. 12 month angiographic and clinical follow-up was available for all patients...
April 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427971/extent-of-resection-in-glioma-a-review-of-the-cutting-edge
#9
REVIEW
Randy S D'Amico, Zachary K Englander, Peter Canoll, Jeffrey N Bruce
Modern glioma surgery has evolved from the principle belief that safe, maximal tumor resection improves symptom management, quality of life, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) in both low- and high-grade glioma (LGG and HGG, respectively). However, in the absence of level I data, the overwhelming support for this idea is derived largely from retrospective series. As a result, the influence of increasing extent of resection (EOR) and reducing tumor burden on the efficacy of postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and ultimately survival, remains inadequately defined...
April 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427768/syndrome-of-transient-headache-and-neurological-deficits-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-lymphocytosis-handl-in-a-patient-with-confusional-symptoms-diffuse-eeg-abnormalities-and-bilateral-vasospasm-in-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
M Hidalgo de la Cruz, R Domínguez Rubio, E Luque Buzo, F Díaz Otero, P Vázquez Alén, J Orcajo Rincón, J Prieto Montalvo, A Contreras Chicote, F Grandas Pérez
INTRODUCTION: HaNDL syndrome (transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis) is characterised by one or more episodes of headache and transient neurological deficits associated with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. To date, few cases of HaNDL manifesting with confusional symptoms have been described. Likewise, very few patients with HaNDL and confusional symptoms have been evaluated with transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). TCD data from patients with focal involvement reveal changes consistent with vasomotor alterations...
April 17, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427688/pruritus-may-be-a-common-symptom-related-to-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#11
Zhiyong He, Ming Ren, Xiaofeng Wang, Qifeng Guo, Xiaokun Qi
BACKGROUND: To evaluate pruritus in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and to characterize the relationship between pruritus and lesions of NMOSD. METHODS: 61 patients with NMOSD were included in the study and their medical records were reviewed for pruritus, neurological symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. We focused on the patients' history of pruritus, especially the severity, duration, region, and the relationship of pruritus with other symptoms of NMOSD...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427448/capture-recapture-methodology-to-study-rare-conditions-using-surveillance-data-for-fragile-x-syndrome-and-muscular-dystrophy
#12
Michael G Smith, Julie Royer, Joshua Mann, Suzanne McDermott, Rodolfo Valdez
BACKGROUND: Rare conditions can be catastrophic for families and the implications for public health can be substantial. Our study compared basic surveillance through active medical record review with a linked administrative data file to assess the number of cases of two rare conditions, fragile X syndrome (FXS) and muscular dystrophy (MD) in a population. METHODS: Two methods of data collection were used to collect information from five counties comprising two standard metropolitan statistical areas of South Carolina...
April 21, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426562/asymptomatic-cervical-spine-fractures-current-guidelines-can-fail-older-patients
#13
Christopher D Healey, Sarah K Spilman, Bradley D King, Joseph E Sherrill, Carlos A Pelaez
BACKGROUND: Older adults represent a growing proportion of trauma patients treated in the United States, and cervical spine (c-spine) fracture is an injury that is increasingly common in this population. Neck pain is a major component of current clinical clearance guidelines, but some older adults with c-spine fractures report no neck pain after injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency at which c-spine fractures were unassociated with neck pain in an aging population...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426381/hyperbaric-oxygen-for-experimental-intracerebral-haemorrhage-systematic-review-and-stratified-meta-analysis
#14
Han-Jin Cui, Hao-Yu He, A-Li Yang, Hua-Jun Zhou, Tao Tang, Jie-Kun Luo
OBJECTIVE: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is widely used in treating various neurological diseases. However, HBO for treatment of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) remains controversial, in either animal or clinical studies. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis on studies describing the efficacy of HBO in animal models of ICH. METHODS: Studies were identified by searching mainstream databases through November 2015. The efficacy of HBO in animal models of ICH was assessed by changes in the brain water content (BWC), neurobehavioural outcome (NO) or both...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426137/hydroxyurea-hydroxycarbamide-for-sickle-cell-disease
#15
REVIEW
Sarah J Nevitt, Ashley P Jones, Jo Howard
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common inherited diseases worldwide. It is associated with lifelong morbidity and a reduced life expectancy. Hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide), an oral chemotherapeutic drug, ameliorates some of the clinical problems of SCD, in particular that of pain, by raising fetal haemoglobin. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of hydroxyurea therapy in people with SCD (all genotypes), of any age, regardless of setting...
April 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426103/neurotoxicity-from-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-melanoma-a-single-centre-experience-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
L Spain, G Walls, M Julve, K O'Meara, T Schmid, E Kalaitzaki, S Turajlic, M Gore, J Rees, J Larkin
Background: Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPi) has greatly improved survival for patients with advanced melanoma in recent years. Anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD1 antibodies have been approved following large Phase III trials. Immune-related neurological toxicity of varying severity has been reported in the literature. The cumulative incidence of neurotoxicity among ipilimumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab is reported as <1% in published clinical trials. We aimed to identify the incidence of neurotoxicity in our institution across anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies, including the combination of ipilimumab with nivolumab...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425334/remifentanil-for-sedation-of-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
James L Hungerford, Nicole O'Brien, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Eric A Sribnick, Cheryl Sargel, Mark Hall, Jeffrey R Leonard, Joseph D Tobias
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether remifentanil would provide adequate sedation while allowing frequent and reproducible neurologic assessments in children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary care PICU. PATIENTS: Thirty-eight patients over a 30-month period. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Median age was 9 years (interquartile range [IQR] 2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425324/persistent-idiopathic-facial-pain
#18
Rafael Benoliel, Charly Gaul
Background Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP) is a chronic disorder recurring daily for more than two hours per day over more than three months, in the absence of clinical neurological deficit. PIFP is the current terminology for Atypical Facial Pain and is characterized by daily or near daily pain that is initially confined but may subsequently spread. Pain cannot be attributed to any pathological process, although traumatic neuropathic mechanisms are suspected. When present intraorally, PIFP has been termed 'Atypical Odontalgia', and this entity is discussed in a separate article in this special issue...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424657/magnetic-vestibular-stimulation-mvs-as-a-technique-for-understanding-the-normal-and-diseased-labyrinth
#19
REVIEW
Bryan K Ward, Jorge Otero-Millan, Prem Jareonsettasin, Michael C Schubert, Dale C Roberts, David S Zee
Humans often experience dizziness and vertigo around strong static magnetic fields such as those present in an MRI scanner. Recent evidence supports the idea that this effect is the result of inner ear vestibular stimulation and that the mechanism is a magnetohydrodynamic force (Lorentz force) that is generated by the interactions between normal ionic currents in the inner ear endolymph and the strong static magnetic field of MRI machines. While in the MRI, the Lorentz force displaces the cupula of the lateral and anterior semicircular canals, as if the head was rotating with a constant acceleration...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424653/disentangling-stigma-from-functional-neurological-disorders-conference-report-and-roadmap-for-the-future
#20
Karen S Rommelfanger, Stewart A Factor, Suzette LaRoche, Phyllis Rosen, Raymond Young, Mark H Rapaport
A multidisciplinary expert review of key issues and future directions from the conference "Controversial labels and clinical uncertainties: psychogenic disorders, conversion disorder, and functional symptoms." On October 9 and 10, 2015, a conference entitled "Controversial labels and clinical uncertainties: psychogenic disorders, conversion disorder, and functional symptoms" was held at the Center for Ethics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. This conference brought together a select group of 30 distinguished thought leaders and practitioners, including ethicists, researchers, clinicians, humanities scholars, and advocates to discuss the unique challenges and controversies related to the diagnosis, treatment, and stigma for patients with what is currently recognized as functional ("psychogenic") neurological disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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