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Nested case-control study

Lucie-Marie Scailteux, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Sébastien Vincendeau, Frédéric Balusson, Emmanuel Nowak, Emmanuel Oger
BACKGROUND: To assess the association between 5α-reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) use and high grade (Gleason score 8-10) prostate cancer. METHODS: We set up a population-based nested matched case-control study using the French Health Insurance Database linked to data from all Brittany (France) path labs. Among 74,596 men with ≥ 1 drug reimbursement for symptomatic benign prostate hypertrophy between January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2011, 767 incident prostate cancer cases between January 1, 2012 through December 31, 2013 were matched on age and delay between the first observed delivery of drug for benign prostate hypertrophy (5-ARI, alpha-blockers or phytotherapy) and diagnostic date of the case to five controls, using an incidence density sampling design...
July 19, 2018: BJU International
Elias Merdassa Roro, Mitike Molla Sisay, Lynn M Sibley
BACKGROUND: Statistics indicate that Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality. It is however estimated that there is high rate of perinatal mortality although there is scarcity of data due to a lack of vital registration in the country. This study was conducted with the purpose of assessing the determinants and causes of perinatal mortality among babies born from cohorts of pregnant women in three selected districts of North Showa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia...
July 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
Anna Kathryn Taylor, Simon Gilbody, Katharine Bosanquet, Karen Overend, Della Bailey, Deborah Foster, Helen Lewis, Carolyn Anne Chew-Graham
BACKGROUND: Depression in older people may have a prevalence as high as 20%, and is associated with physical co-morbidities, loss, and loneliness. It is associated with poorer health outcomes and reduced quality of life, and is under-diagnosed and under-treated. Older people may find it difficult to speak to their GPs about low mood, and GPs may avoid identifying depression due to limited consultation time and referral options for older patients. METHODS: A qualitative study nested within a randomised controlled trial for older people with moderate to severe depression: the CASPER plus Trial (Care for Screen Positive Elders)...
July 18, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Andrew Tinsley, Seyedehsan Navabi, Emmanuelle D Williams, Guodong Liu, Lan Kong, Matthew D Coates, Kofi Clarke
Background: Diseases of immune dysregulation are associated with an increased risk of viral infections, some of which may be preventable. To date, there are very limited data on the incidence and risk of influenza and related complications in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Furthermore, the impact of immunosuppressive medications on that risk is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and severity of influenza infections in IBD patients...
July 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Timur Mese, Baris Guven, Murat Muhtar Yilmazer, Cem Karadeniz, Rahmi Ozdemir, Onder Doksoz
BACKGROUND: Mean platelet volume (MPV), platecrit, and platelet distribution width (PDW) are markers of platelet activation. Previous studies have found that platelet activation occurs in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Platelet indices including MPV, PDW, and platecrit have not been studied in children with congenital heart disease associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (APAH-CHD) who survived and those who died. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study to investigate the value of platelet indices with clinical and hemodynamic indicators predicting the disease severity and survival in children with APAH-CHD...
July 17, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
Yen-Chun Peng, Cheng-Li Lin, Wan-Yun Hsu, Wai-Keung Chow, Show-Wu Lee, Hong-Zen Yeh, Chia-Chang Chen, Chia-Hung Kao
Background: The present study aimed to examine the odds of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in patients with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) use. Methods : A nested case-control study design was employed using data obtained from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. In total, 2,293 patients with confirmed diagnosis of CCA were identified and served as the CCA group. The CCA patients were propensity score-matched with 2,293 subjects without CCA who served as the control group. The cumulative defined daily dose (DDD) of PPIs was calculated based on the total supply in days and quantity of individual PPIs...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Eloise Berger, Cyrille Delpierre, Fatemeh Saberi Hosnijeh, Michelle Kelly-Irving, Lutzen Portengen, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Ann-Sofie Johansson, Vittorio Krogh, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, Carlotta Sacerdote, Rosario Tumino, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Paolo Vineis, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Roel Vermeulen, Raphaële Castagné
Chronic inflammation may be involved in cancer development and progression. Using 28 inflammatory-related proteins collected from prospective blood samples from two case-control studies nested in the Italian component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (n = 261) and in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (n = 402), we tested the hypothesis that an inflammatory score is associated with breast cancer (BC) and Β-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (B-cell NHL, including 68 multiple myeloma cases) onset...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Da-Lin Lu, Charlotte Le Cornet, Disorn Sookthai, Theron S Johnson, Rudolf Kaaks, Renée T Fortner
Background: 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) was the first identified endogenous selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM); 27HC promoted growth and metastasis in experimental models of estrogen receptor-positive mammary cancer. There are no data on prediagnosis circulating 27HC and breast cancer risk in women. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study in the well-characterized Heidelberg, Germany, cohort of the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) including 530 incident invasive breast cancer cases, each matched to up to two control participants (n = 1036)...
July 16, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Xiao Zhang, Neelam Kumari, Serena Low, Keven Ang, Darren Yeo, Lee Ying Yeoh, Allen Liu, Pek Yee Kwan, Wern Ee Tang, Subramaniam Tavintharan, Chee Fang Sum, Su Chi Lim
BACKGROUND: Fluctuation of kidney function may signify intra-glomerular microvascular hemodynamic instability. We aim to examine the association of long-term serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate variability with diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: We included type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who attended the Diabetes Centre in 2011-2014 and were followed up (median = 3.2 years). Digital colour fundus photographs were assessed for diabetic retinopathy at follow-up...
July 1, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Luyun Wei, Dehao Cao, Xiujuan Zhu, Yu Long, Chaoqun Liu, Shengzhu Huang, Jiarong Tian, Qingzhi Hou, Yaling Huang, Juan Ye, Bangzhu Luo, Ying Luo, Chunmei Liang, Mujun Li, Xiaobo Yang, Zengnan Mo, Jianfeng Xu
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight infants (LBW) are at risk of chronic diseases in later life due to the disorder of energy metabolism during pregnancy. Osteocalcin (OC) has been identified as a hormone that regulate energy metabolism. However, few studies have researched on the associations between maternal serum OC levels and low birth weight infants. OBJECTIONS: To examine the associations between maternal serum OC concentrations and LBW. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study involving a total of 230 pregnant women delivering LBW and 382 control pregnant women (matched for infant gender, gestational age at blood draw, region of Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital and maternal age in 1: (1-2) ratio)...
July 13, 2018: Bone
Anne Eskild, Lars Monkerud, Anne Marie Jukic, Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Kari Kveim Lie
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine conditions may be important in the development of cerebral palsy in the child. The hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), is synthesized in the placenta, and hCG plays an important role in placental angiogenesis and development. Thus, maternal hCG concentrations may be an indicator of placental function and thereby the intrauterine environment for the offspring. We studied the associations of maternal concentrations of hCG during pregnancy with cerebral palsy in the child...
July 4, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Jing Li, Yun-Feng Cao, Xiao-Yu Sun, Liang Han, Sai-Nan Li, Wen-Qing Gu, Min Song, Chang-Tao Jiang, Xilin Yang, Zhong-Ze Fang
OBJECTIVE: Metabolomic markers have the potential to improve the predicting accuracy of existing risk scores for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This study aimed to test associations between plasma tyrosine and T2DM with special attention to identifying possible cutoff points for T2DM, and its interactive effects with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) or/and high triglyceride for T2DM. METHODS: From May 27, 2015, to August 3, 2016, we retrieved medical notes of 1898 in-patients with T2DM as the cases and 1522 subjects without diabetes as the controls who attended annual medical check-ups from the same tertiary care center in Jinzhou, China...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Dagfinn Aune, Sabrina Schlesinger, Teresa Norat, Elio Riboli
Background Epidemiological studies on smoking and atrial fibrillation have been inconsistent, with some studies showing a positive association while others have found no association. It is also unclear whether there is a dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked or pack-years and the risk of atrial fibrillation. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We searched the PubMed and Embase databases for studies of smoking and atrial fibrillation up to 20 July 2017...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Arial Shogren, Jennifer L Tank, Scott Patrick Egan, Olivia August, Emma J Rosi, Brittany R Hanrahan, Mark A Renshaw, Crysta A Gantz, Diogo Bolster
The application of environmental DNA (eDNA) to infer species presence in aquatic ecosystems has become an invaluable tool for both the ecology and management of aquatic ecosystems. However, we are only beginning to understand how environmental conditions influence eDNA detection and persistence in freshwaters. Here, we examined the degradation dynamics of fish eDNA using an experimental array of recirculating streams using a novel "nested" primer assay to estimate degradation among eDNA fragment sizes...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Giovanni Busonera, Marco Cogoni, Monica Puligheddu, Raffaele Ferri, Giulia Milioli, Liborio Parrino, Francesco Marrosu, Gianluigi Zanetti
OBJECTIVE: Electro-encephalographic (EEG) is widely employed in the study of sleep disorders. The present work exploits the identification of cyclic alternating patterns (CAP), a periodic ubiquitous phenomenon nested in the sleep stages, to analyze the EEG spectral coherence in subjects affected by nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) with respect to controls. METHODS: For each EEG recording we extracted several CAP A1 subtype 4 seconds timeseries. We analyze the coherence between each pair of electrodes for each individual to obtain its distribution for each frequency range of interest to investigate differences between cases and controls...
March 9, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Julien Bezin, Yohann Mansiaux, Pernelle Noize, Francesco Salvo, Bernard Bégaud, Antoine Pariente
Eye lens membrane cells require high cholesterol concentrations that might be counteracted by lipid-lowering drugs. Using a nationwide database, we conducted a nested case-control study to evaluate the risk of cataract development associated with the use of lipid-lowering drugs. Patients aged 45 years and over with first cataract surgery in 2014 (cases) and up to four controls matched on age, gender, diabetes, hypothyroidism, glucocorticoid use, cardiovascular risk and area of residence were included in the study...
July 10, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Wenjie Ma, Mingyang Song, Ane Sørlie Kværner, Jennifer Prescott, Andrew T Chan, Edward L Giovannucci, Xuehong Zhang
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). It remains unclear whether family history of diabetes influences CRC risk and relevant biomarkers. We followed 101,323 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1982-2012) and 48,542 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1988-2012), free of cancer and inflammatory bowel disease at baseline. Participants reported whether any of their first-degree family members ever had diabetes in multiple questionnaires administered biennially...
July 10, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Ayoung Jeong, Giovanni Fiorito, Pekka Keski-Rahkonen, Medea Imboden, Agneta Kiss, Nivonirina Robinot, Hans Gmuender, Jelle Vlaanderen, Roel Vermeulen, Soterios Kyrtopoulos, Zdenko Herceg, Akram Ghantous, Gianfranco Lovison, Claudia Galassi, Andrea Ranzi, Vittorio Krogh, Sara Grioni, Claudia Agnoli, Carlotta Sacerdote, Nahid Mostafavi, Alessio Naccarati, Augustin Scalbert, Paolo Vineis, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence indicates common risk factors, including air pollution exposure, for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, suggesting the involvement of common altered molecular pathways. OBJECTIVES: The goal was to find intermediate metabolites or metabolic pathways that could be associated with both air pollutants and health outcomes ("meeting-in-the-middle"), thus shedding light on mechanisms and reinforcing causality. METHODS: We applied a statistical approach named 'meet-in-the-middle' to untargeted metabolomics in two independent case-control studies nested in cohorts on adult-onset asthma (AOA) and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD)...
July 7, 2018: Environment International
Signe T Andersen, Daniel R Witte, Henning Andersen, Lasse Bjerg, Niels Henrik Bruun, Marit E Jørgensen, Nanna B Finnerup, Torsten Lauritzen, Troels S Jensen, Hatice Tankisi, Morten Charles
OBJECTIVE: To study cardiometabolic risk-factor trajectories (in terms of levels and changes over time) preceding diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) 13 years after a screen-detected diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We clinically diagnosed DPN in a nested case-control study of 452 people in the Danish arm of the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment of Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION). By linear regression models, we estimated preceding risk-factor trajectories during 13 years...
July 9, 2018: Diabetes Care
Munyaradzi Tambo, Joyce R Auala, Hugh J Sturrock, Immo Kleinschmidt, Ronnie Bock, Jennifer L Smith, Roland Gosling, Davis R Mumbengegwi
BACKGROUND: As malaria transmission decreases, the proportion of infections that are asymptomatic at any given time increases. This poses a challenge for diagnosis as routinely used rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) miss asymptomatic malaria cases with low parasite densities due to poor sensitivity. Yet, asymptomatic infections can contribute to onward transmission of malaria and therefore act as infectious reservoirs and perpetuate malaria transmission. This study compared the performance of RDTs to loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in the diagnosis of malaria during reactive active case detection surveillance...
July 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
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