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Nested case-control study

Nada Assi, Duncan C Thomas, Michael Leitzman, Magdalena Stepien, Veronique Chajes, Thierry Philip, Paolo Vineis, Christina Bamia, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Torkjel M Sandanger, Amaia Molinuevo, Hendriek C Boshuizen, Anneli Sundkvist, Tilman Kühn, Ruth C Travis, Kim Overvad, Elio Riboli, Marc J Gunter, Augustin Scalbert, Mazda Jenab, Pietro Ferrari, Vivian Viallon
BACKGROUND: The "meeting-in-the-middle" (MITM) is a principle to identify exposure biomarkers that are also predictors of disease. The MITM statistical framework was applied in a nested case-control study of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within EPIC where healthy lifestyle index (HLI) variables were related to targeted serum metabolites. METHODS: Lifestyle and targeted metabolomic data were available from 147 incident HCC cases and 147 matched controls...
March 21, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Tom Calderbank, Ahmed Karim, Mike Wall, Arooj Syed, Robert S M Davies, Athanasios Saratzis
AIM: Malignancy is common in patients presenting with critical lower limb ischemia (CLI). However, outcomes in patients with concomitant active malignancy and CLI have not been well defined in comparative prospective analyses. Using contemporary prospective data, we aimed to assess outcomes following revascularization in patients with CLI and active malignancy. METHODS: A nested case-control study was performed using data from 2 tertiary referral centers for vascular disease...
January 1, 2018: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Shao-Yuan Chuang, Pai-Feng Hsu, Fang-Ju Lin, Ya-Wen Huang, Gou-Zhau Wang, Wei-Chiao Chang, Hui-Ju Tsai
AIMS: It remains inconclusive whether the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), especially in middle-aged Asian populations. In this study, we evaluated the association between NSAID use and the risk of AF in a nationwide population-based study of middle-aged individuals in Taiwan. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Gouri Chaubal, Prasad Sarkale, Pravin Kore, Pragya Yadav
Background: Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD), a tick borne flavivirus, which was earlier endemic to Karnataka state, India, has been confirmed and detected from neighboring states of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Goa and Kerala states in India. Increased human and vector surveillance therefore becomes essential for the identification of KFD affected regions and control of further spread of the disease. Currently, available KFD detection assays include realtime RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR assays...
February 2018: Heliyon
Lei Zhang, Xin Liu, Guimin Meng, Min Chi, Jingguang Li, Shuaixing Yin, Yunfeng Zhao, Yongning Wu
Several studies support a plausible association of human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, little is known about the potential link between circulating PCBs levels in early pregnancy and development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Here, we conducted a prospective study with a nested case-control design to determine the association of PCB exposure in early pregnancy with GDM risk. Concentrations of selected so-called 'indicator PCBs' were determined in sera of women in the first trimester of pregnancy via gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry...
March 17, 2018: Environment International
Luis Jara-Palomares, Remedios Otero, David Jimenez, Juan Manuel Praena-Fernandez, Carme Font, Conxita Falga, Silvia Soler, David Riesco, Peter Verhamme, Manuel Monreal
The usefulness of a diagnostic workup for occult cancer in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) is controversial. We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad Trombo Embólica) database to perform a nested case-control study to validate a prognostic score that identifies patients with unprovoked VTE at increased risk for cancer. We dichotomized patients as having low- (≤2 points) or high (≥3 points) risk for cancer, and tried to validate the score at 12 and 24 months. From January 2014 to October 2016, 11,695 VTE patients were recruited...
2018: PloS One
Tali Sinai, Shely Ben-Avraham, Inbal Guelmann-Mizrahi, Michael R Goldberg, Larisa Naugolni, Galia Askapa, Yitzhak Katz, Marianna Rachmiel
PURPOSE: The use of soy products is common in young children with cow milk allergy (CMA). The aim was to examine prospectively the association between infantile consumption of soy-based formula, growth parameters and early pubertal signs, in comparison to cow milk-based formula. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted, selected from a cohort of infants prospectively followed from birth until the age of 3 years for eating habits and the development of IgE-mediated CMA...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Annika Idahl, Andrea Hermansson, Ann Lalos
OBJECTIVE: Low social support is associated with worse prognosis for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. However, few studies have explored the relation between low social support and incidence of EOC. The aim of this prospective nested case-control study was to examine whether self-perceived low social support was associated with the incidence of EOC. METHODS: The Swedish Cancer Registry was used to identify participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) comprising 58,000 women, who later developed EOC...
March 17, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Rick J Jansen, Bruce H Alexander, Richard B Hayes, Anthony B Miller, Sholom Wacholder, Timothy R Church
When some individuals are screen-detected before the beginning of the study, but otherwise would have been diagnosed symptomatically during the study, this results in different case-ascertainment probabilities among screened and unscreened participants, referred to here as lead-time-biased case-ascertainment (LTBCA). In fact, this issue can arise even in risk-factor studies nested within a randomized screening trial; even though the screening intervention is randomly allocated to trial arms, there is no randomization to potential risk-factors and uptake of screening can differ by risk-factor strata...
2018: PloS One
Daniel Ruiz, Jim C Oates, Diane L Kamen
Evaluation of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and correlation with heart valve abnormalities among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Nested case-control study was conducted with 70 patients with SLE selected from a longitudinal database based on levels of aPL and presence or absence of valve disease by echocardiogram. Valvular abnormalities observed were regurgitation (52), other (14), artificial valves (4), stenosis (2), thickening (2) and no Libman-Sacks endocarditis (0). The mitral valve was the most commonly affected (30 abnormalities), followed by the tricuspid (20 abnormalities)...
March 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Theodore Gouliouris, Ben Warne, Edward J P Cartwright, Luke Bedford, Chathika K Weerasuriya, Kathy E Raven, Nick M Brown, M Estée Török, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Sharon J Peacock
Background: VRE bacteraemia has a high mortality and continues to defy control. Antibiotic risk factors for VRE bacteraemia have not been adequately defined. We aimed to determine the risk factors for VRE bacteraemia focusing on duration of antibiotic exposure. Methods: A retrospective matched nested case-control study was conducted amongst hospitalized patients at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Xu Chen, Stefan Gustafsson, Thomas Whitington, Yan Borné, Erik Lorentzen, Jitong Sun, Peter Almgren, Jun Su, Robert Karlsson, Jie Song, Yi Lu, Yiqiang Zhan, Sara Hägg, Per Svensson, Karin E Smedby, Susan L Slager, Erik Ingelsson, Cecilia M Lindgren, Andrew P Morris, Olle Melander, Thomas Karlsson, Ulf de Faire, Kenneth Caidahl, Gunnar Engström, Lars Lind, Mikael C I Karlsson, Nancy L Pedersen, Johan Frostegård, Patrik K E Magnusson
Phosphorylcholine (PC) is an epitope on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), apoptotic cells and several pathogens like Streptococcus pneumoniae. Immunoglobulin M against PC (IgM anti-PC) has the ability to inhibit uptake of oxLDL by macrophages and increase clearance of apoptotic cells. From our genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in four European-ancestry cohorts, six SNPs in 11q24.1 were discovered (in 3002 individuals) and replicated (in 646 individuals) to be associated with serum level of IgM anti-PC (the leading SNP rs35923643-G, combined beta=0...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Axel C Carlsson, Jan-Håkan Jansson, Stefan Söderberg, Toralph Ruge, Anders Larsson, Johan Ärnlöv
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor alpha (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, and some evidence points towards a difference in associated risk between men and women. We aimed to study the association between sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 and incident myocardial infarctions (MI) and to explore the influence of established cardiovascular risk factors in men and women. METHODS: We conducted a nested case control study in three large Swedish cohorts, including 533 myocardial infarction cases, and 1003 age-, sex- and cohort-matched controls...
March 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Irene E G van Hellemond, Ingeborg J H Vriens, Petronella G M Peer, Astrid C P Swinkels, Carolien H Smorenburg, Caroline M Seynaeve, Maurice J C van der Sangen, Judith R Kroep, Hiltje de Graaf, Aafke H Honkoop, Frans L G Erdkamp, Franchette W P J van den Berkmortel, Jos J E M Kitzen, Maaike de Boer, Wïlfred K de Roos, Sabine C Linn, Alexander L T Imholz, Vivianne C G Tjan-Heijnen
Background: Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are given as adjuvant therapy for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women, also to those with chemotherapy-induced ovarian function failure. The current analysis reports on endocrine data of patients with chemotherapy-induced ovarian function failure who were included in the phase III DATA study assessing different durations of adjuvant anastrozole after tamoxifen. Methods: We identified all patients with chemotherapy-induced ovarian function failure...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Tomáš Vaisar, Erica Couzens, Arnold Hwang, Michael Russell, Carolyn E Barlow, Laura F DeFina, Andrew N Hoofnagle, Francis Kim
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: One of the hallmarks of diabetes is impaired endothelial function. Previous studies showed that HDL can exert protective effects on endothelium stimulating NO production and protecting from inflammation and suggested that HDL in obese people with diabetes and dyslipidemia may have lower endothelial protective function. We aimed to investigate whether type 2 diabetes impairs HDL endothelium protective functions in people with otherwise normal lipid profile. METHODS: In a case-control study (n = 41 per group) nested in the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study we tested the ability of HDL to protect endothelium by stimulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity and suppressing NFκB-mediated inflammatory response in endothelial cells...
2018: PloS One
Evangelia Elenis, Alkistis Skalkidou, Agneta Skoog-Svanberg, Gunilla Sydsjö, Anneli Stavreus-Evers, Helena Åkerud
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia and gestational hypertensive disorders are thought to occur due to endothelial cell dysfunction and abnormal placentation, triggered by angiogenesis-related factors yet undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a genetic polymorphism (SNP) of Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), HRG C633T SNP, is associated with gestational hypertensive disorders. METHODS: It was performed a nested case-control study from the BASIC Cohort of Uppsala University Hospital comprising 92 women diagnosed with gestational hypertensive disorders without other comorbidities and 200 women with full term uncomplicated pregnancies, all genotyped regarding HRG C633T SNP...
March 14, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
Antonios Douros, Matthew Ades, Christel Renoux
BACKGROUND: Observational studies have suggested an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressants primarily inhibiting serotonin reuptake. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to systematically review the available epidemiologic evidence regarding the risk of ICH associated with SSRIs and antidepressants inhibiting serotonin reuptake. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE were searched for all relevant articles in English, French, or German published before April 2017...
March 13, 2018: CNS Drugs
Yu-Ju Chu, Hwai-I Yang, Hui-Chen Wu, Mei-Hsuan Lee, Jessica Liu, Li-Yu Wang, Sheng-Nan Lu, Chin-Lan Jen, San-Lin You, Regina M Santella, Chien-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Hepatocarcinogenicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) has rarely been studied in populations with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and those without hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV infection (non-B-non-C). This case-control study nested in a community-based cohort aimed to investigate the HCC risk associated with AFB1 in HCV-infected and non-B-non-C participants. METHODS: Baseline serum AFB1 -albumin adduct levels were measured in 100 HCC cases and 1767 controls seronegative for anti-HCV and HBsAg (non-B-non-C), and another 103 HCC cases and 176 controls who were anti-HCV-seropositive and HBsAg-seronegative...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Venkatesh Ravi, Fady Iskander, Abhimanyu Saini, Carolyn Brecklin, Rami Doukky
BACKGROUND: Pericardial effusion is common in hospitalized patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We sought to identify predictors of pericardial effusion in CKD patients and to evaluate the impact of pericardial effusion on their mortality and morbidity. METHODS: In a retrospective nested case control study design, we analyzed hospitalized adult patients with CKD stage 4, 5, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) diagnosed with pericardial effusion. Randomly selected patients with CKD stage 4, 5, and ESRD without pericardial effusion were used as controls...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Silva Hovsepian, Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard, Marjan Mansourian, Mahin Hashemipour, Mohamadhasan Tajadini, Roya Kelishadi
Background: Genetically, predisposed children are considered as at-risk individuals for cardiovascular disease. In this study, we aimed to compare the frequency of four-lipid regulatory polymorphism in obese and normal-weight children with and without cardiometabolic risk factors. Materials and Methods: In this nested case-control study, 600 samples of four groups of participants consisted of those with normal weight with and without cardiometabolic risk factors and obese with and without cardiometabolic risk factors...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
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