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Nested case-control study

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550647/genetic-variation-in-the-adipoq-gene-adiponectin-concentrations-and-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-a-mendelian-randomization-analysis-using-data-from-three-large-cohort-studies
#1
Katharina Nimptsch, Mingyang Song, Krasimira Aleksandrova, Michail Katsoulis, Heinz Freisling, Mazda Jenab, Marc J Gunter, Konstantinos K Tsilidis, Elisabete Weiderpass, H Bas Bueno-De-Mesquita, Dawn Q Chong, Majken K Jensen, Chunsen Wu, Kim Overvad, Tilman Kühn, Myrto Barrdahl, Olle Melander, Karin Jirström, Petra H Peeters, Sabina Sieri, Salvatore Panico, Amanda J Cross, Elio Riboli, Bethany Van Guelpen, Robin Myte, José María Huerta, Miguel Rodriguez-Barranco, José Ramón Quirós, Miren Dorronsoro, Anne Tjønneland, Anja Olsen, Ruth Travis, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Franck Carbonnel, Gianluca Severi, Catalina Bonet, Domenico Palli, Jürgen Janke, Young-Ae Lee, Heiner Boeing, Edward L Giovannucci, Shuji Ogino, Charles S Fuchs, Eric Rimm, Kana Wu, Andrew T Chan, Tobias Pischon
Higher levels of circulating adiponectin have been related to lower risk of colorectal cancer in several prospective cohort studies, but it remains unclear whether this association may be causal. We aimed to improve causal inference in a Mendelian Randomization meta-analysis using nested case-control studies of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, 623 cases, 623 matched controls), the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, 231 cases, 230 controls) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 399 cases, 774 controls) with available data on pre-diagnostic adiponectin concentrations and selected single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549981/early-pregnancy-vaginal-microbiome-trends-and-preterm-birth
#2
Molly J Stout, Yanjiao Zhou, Kristine M Wylie, Phillip I Tarr, George A Macones, Methodius G Tuuli
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of attempts to link infectious agents to preterm birth, an exact causative microbe or community of microbes remains elusive. Non-culture 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing suggests important racial differences and pregnancy specific changes in the vaginal microbial communities. A recent study examining the association of the vaginal microbiome and preterm birth documented important findings but was performed in a predominantly White cohort. Given the important racial differences in bacterial communities within the vagina as well as persistent racial disparities in preterm birth it is important to examine cohorts with varied demographic compositions...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546543/metabolic-profiling-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-reveals-interactions-with-abdominal-obesity
#3
Alexessander Couto Alves, Beatriz Valcarcel, Ville-Petteri Mäkinen, Laure Morin-Papunen, Sylvain Sebert, Antti J Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Shikta Das, Maria De Iorio, Lachlan Coin, Mika Ala-Korpela, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Stephen Franks
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder associated with metabolic disturbances including obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. Here we investigate whether changes in the metabolic profile of PCOS women are driven by increased tendency to obesity or are specific features of PCOS related to increased testosterone levels. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted an NMR metabolomics association study of PCOS cases (n=145) and controls (n=687) nested in a population-based birth cohort (n=3,127)...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545893/type-2-diabetes-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-dementia-conversion-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Andreea Ciudin, Ana Espinosa, Olga Simó-Servat, Agustín Ruiz, Montserrat Alegret, Cristina Hernández, Mercè Boada, Rafael Simó
AIMS: To explore whether type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a risk factor for dementia conversion in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: A longitudinal nested case-control study in which 101 T2D patients and 101 non-diabetic patients with MCI matched by age and gender were included. RESULTS: The dementia conversion rate was 57.4% in T2D patients vs. 42.6% in non-diabetic subjects (p=0.02). T2D and APOE ε4 allele were independent risk factors for developing dementia...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543377/hepcidin-levels-and-gastric-cancer-risk-in-the-epic-eurgast-study
#5
Paula Jakszyn, Ana Fonseca-Nunes, Leila Lujan-Barroso, Núria Aranda, Mónica Tous, Victoria Arija, Amanda Cross, Bas Bueno de Mesquita, Elisabete Weiderpass, Tilman Kühn, Rudolf Kaaks, Klas Sjöberg, Bodil Ohlsson, Rosario Tumino, Domenico Palli, Fulvio Ricceri, Francesca Fasanelli, Vittorio Krogh, Amalia Mattiello, Mazda Jenab, Marc Gunter, Aurora Perez-Cornago, Kay-Tee Khaw, Anne Tjønneland, Anja Olsen, Kim Overvad, Antonia Trichopoulou, Eleni Peppa, Effie Vasilopoulou, Heiner Boeing, Emilio Sánchez-Cantalejo, José María Huerta, Miren Dorronsoro, Aurelio Barricarte, José Maria Quirós, Petra H Peeters, Antonio Agudo
Hepcidin is the main regulator of iron homeostasis and dysregulation of proteins involved in iron metabolism has been associated with tumorogenesis. However, to date, no epidemiological study has researched the association between hepcidin levels and gastric cancer risk. To further investigate the relationship between hepcidin levels and gastric cancer risk, we conducted a nested case-control study (EURGAST) within the multicentric European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The study included 456 primary incident gastric adenocarcinoma cases and 900 matched controls that occurred during an average of 11 years of follow-up...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542740/plasma-micrornas-as-biomarkers-of-pancreatic-cancer-risk-in-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Eric J Duell, Leila Lujan-Barroso, Núria Sala, Samantha Deitz McElyea, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjonneland, Anja Olsen, Elisabete Weiderpass, Lill-Tove Busund, Line Moi, David Muller, Paolo Vineis, Dagfinn Aune, Giuseppe Matullo, Alessio Naccarati, Salvatore Panico, Giovanna Tagliabue, Rosario Tumino, Domenico Palli, Rudolf Kaaks, Verena A Katzke, Heiner Boeing, H B As Bueno-de-Mesquita, Petra H Peeters, Antonia Trichopoulou, Pagona Lagiou, Anastasia Kotanidou, Ruth C Travis, Nick Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Jose Ramon Quiros, Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco, Miren Dorronsoro, María-Dolores Chirlaque, Eva Ardanaz, Gianluca Severi, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Vinciane Rebours, Paul Brennan, Marc Gunter, Ghislaine Scelo, Greg Cote, Stuart Sherman, Murray Korc
Non-invasive biomarkers for early pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) diagnosis and disease risk stratification are greatly needed. We conducted a nested case-control study within the Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to evaluate pre-diagnostic microRNAs (miRs) as biomarkers of subsequent PDAC risk. A panel of eight miRs (miR-10a, -10b, -21-3p, -21-5p, -30c, -106b, -155, and -212) based on previous evidence from our group was evaluated in 225 microscopically confirmed PDAC cases and 225 controls matched on center, sex, fasting status, and age/date/time of blood collection...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542655/-risk-factors-associated-with-postoperative-acute-renal-failure-in-pediatric-patients-undergoing-cardiopulmonary-bypass-surgery
#7
Elsa Nohemí Reyes-Flandes, Alejandro Herrera-Landero, Pascual Bobadilla-González, Juan Carlos Núñez-Enríquez
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a complication associated with cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with an impact on morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with postoperative IRA according to pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease scale in children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A nested case-control study was conducted. We included children under 16 years of age attended postoperative for CBP in a pediatric intensive care unit over a period of 18 months...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535713/the-relationship-between-shiftwork-and-violence-against-nurses-a-case-control-study
#8
Steve Sun, Susan Goodwin Gerberich, Andrew D Ryan
This study investigated the potential relationship between shiftwork and work-related physical assault (PA) against nurses who are at high risk of violence globally. Nurses (6,300), randomly selected from the licensing database and working in Minnesota, were surveyed regarding PA experiences. Through a nested case-control study, nurses who reported a PA in the previous 12 months and controls who were randomly selected from their assault-free working months, respectively, identified exposures experienced during the month prior to the assault month (cases) and the random non-PA months (controls)...
May 1, 2017: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535690/adherence-with-bisphosphonates-and-long-term-risk-of-hip-fractures-a-nested-case-control-study-using-real-world-data
#9
Varda Shalev, Sarah Sharman Moser, Inbal Goldshtein, Jingbo Yu, Clara Weil, Sophia Ish-Shalom, Vanessa Rouach, Gabriel Chodick
BACKGROUND: Hip fracture is a major complication of osteoporosis. Bisphosphonate medication is the mainstay of treatment for osteoporosis. However, concerns have been raised regarding the effectiveness of bisphosphonates in reducing hip fracture risk after long-term use, particularly among patients with suboptimal adherence. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between adherence with bisphosphonate therapy and long-term risk of hip fracture. METHODS: Included in the present nested case-control study were osteoporotic women (n = 14 357) who initiated bisphosphonate therapy in 2000-2010 and were retrospectively followed for incident hip fracture through November 2014...
May 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535171/cumulative-lactation-and-onset-of-hypertension-in-african-american-women
#10
Ellen M Chetwynd, Alison M Stuebe, Lynn Rosenberg, Melissa Troester, Diane Rowley, Julie R Palmer
Hypertension affects nearly one of three women and contributes to cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the United States. Breastfeeding leads to metabolic changes that could reduce risks of hypertension. Hypertension disproportionately affects black women, but rates of breastfeeding lag behind the general population. In the Black Women's Health Study (N = 59,001), we conducted a nested case control analysis using unconditional logistic regression to estimate the association between breastfeeding and incident hypertension at ages 40-65 using data collected from 1995 to 2011...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534090/tooth-loss-and-liver-cancer-incidence-in-a-finnish-cohort
#11
Baiyu Yang, Jessica L Petrick, Christian C Abnet, Barry I Graubard, Gwen Murphy, Stephanie J Weinstein, Satu Männistö, Demetrius Albanes, Katherine A McGlynn
PURPOSE: Periodontal disease, a major cause of tooth loss in adults, may have systemic effects and has been associated with higher risk of several cancer types. However, the associations of periodontal disease or tooth loss with liver cancer have only been examined prospectively in two studies, neither of which had sufficient statistical power. In addition, no studies assessed the potential confounding by viral hepatitis or Helicobacter pylori infection status. METHODS: In this study, we examined the association between tooth loss and primary liver cancer incidence in a prospective cohort of Finnish male smokers (n = 29,096)...
May 22, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531276/impact-of-vitamin-a-and-carotenoids-on-the-risk-of-tuberculosis-progression
#12
Omowunmi Aibana, Molly F Franke, Chuan-Chin Huang, Jerome T Galea, Roger Calderon, Zibiao Zhang, Mercedes C Becerra, Emily R Smith, Alayne G Ronnenberg, Carmen Contreras, Rosa Yataco, Leonid Lecca, Megan B Murray
Background: Low and deficient levels of vitamin A are common in low and middle income countries where tuberculosis (TB) burden is high. We assessed the impact of baseline levels of vitamins A and carotenoids on TB disease risk. Methods: We conducted a case-control study nested within a longitudinal cohort of household contacts of pulmonary TB cases in Lima, Peru. We defined cases as HIV-negative household contacts with blood samples who developed TB disease at least 15 days after enrollment of index patient...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527248/-clinical-and-demographic-profile-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#13
Carlos Carvajal, Carlos Pacheco, Fabián Jaimes
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. The increasing incidence added to a lower rate of response to the initial treatment and higher rates of relapse has generated a higher burden of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We made a nested case-cohort study. We reviewed medical records of the patients with nosocomial diarrhea for whom an assay for toxin A-B of C...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523518/decreased-human-leukocyte-antigen-a-02-01-frequency-is-associated-with-risk-of-glioma-and-existence-of-human-cytomegalovirus-a-case-control-study-in-northern-china
#14
Sheng Han, Jian Deng, Zixun Wang, Huan Liu, Wen Cheng, Anhua Wu
BACKGROUND: Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) play an important role in host defense against viral infection and tumorigenesis. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been linked to glioma development. This study investigated the relationship between HLA distribution, presence of HCMV, and glioma development in a Han Chinese population. METHODS: The study population included 150 glioma patients and 150 tumor-free brain injury control subjects (control-A) matched according to geography, ethnicity, age, and gender...
May 18, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522912/recent-upper-gastrointestinal-panendoscopy-increases-the-risk-of-pyogenic-liver-abscess
#15
Ming-Jen Tsai, Chin-Li Lu, Ying C Huang, Chung Hsien Liu, Wan-Ting Huang, Kai-Yuan Cheng, Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen
AIM: To investigate the association between a recent gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and the subsequent risk of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). METHODS: We designed a nested case control study. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 2135 patients with a first diagnosis of PLA were identified from 1998 to 2011. Another 10675 patients without PLA matched by age and sex were selected as reference controls. We identified and compared the possible risk factors for PLA and GI endoscopies performed before the index date (when PLA was diagnosed) between the two cohorts...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522672/risk-of-ischemic-stroke-associated-with-calcium-supplements-with-or-without-vitamin-d-a-nested-case-control-study
#16
Francisco J de Abajo, Sara Rodríguez-Martín, Antonio Rodríguez-Miguel, Miguel J Gil
BACKGROUND: There is controversy surrounding the risk of ischemic stroke associated with the use of calcium supplements either in monotherapy or in combination with vitamin D. METHODS AND RESULTS: A nested case-control study was performed with patients aged 40 to 89 years old, among whom a total of 2690 patients had a first episode of nonfatal ischemic stroke and for which 19 538 controls were randomly selected from the source population and frequency-matched with cases for age, sex, and calendar year...
May 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520645/oxidative-stress-and-breast-cancer-risk-in-premenopausal-women
#17
Hazel B Nichols, Chelsea Anderson, Alexandra J White, Ginger L Milne, Dale P Sandler
BACKGROUND: Detrimental effects of oxidative stress are widely recognized, but induction of apoptosis and senescence may also have benefits for cancer prevention. Recent studies suggest oxidative stress may be associated with lower breast cancer risk before menopause. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study (N=457 cases, 910 controls) within the NIEHS Sister Study cohort of 50,884 women. Premenopausal women ages 35-54 were eligible for selection. We matched controls 2:1 to cases on age and enrollment year and were breast cancer-free at the time of the corresponding case's diagnosis...
May 17, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520643/risk-of-lung-cancer-mortality-in-nuclear-workers-from-internal-exposure-to-alpha-particle-emitting-radionuclides
#18
James Grellier, Will Atkinson, Philippe Bérard, Derek Bingham, Alan Birchall, Eric Blanchardon, Richard Bull, Irina Canu Guseva, Cécile Challeton-de Vathaire, Rupert Cockerill, Minh T Do, Hilde Engels, Jordi Figuerola, Adrian Foster, Luc Holmstock, Christian Hurtgen, Dominique Laurier, Matthew Puncher, Anthony E Riddell, Eric Samson, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Margot Tirmarche, Martine Vrijheid, Elisabeth Cardis
BACKGROUND: Carcinogenic risks of internal exposures to alpha-emitters (except radon) are poorly understood. Since exposure to alpha particles-particularly through inhalation-occurs in a range of settings, understanding consequent risks is a public health priority. We aimed to quantify dose-response relationships between lung dose from alpha-emitters and lung cancer in nuclear workers. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study, nested within Belgian, French, and UK cohorts of uranium and plutonium workers...
May 17, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515497/invasion-dynamics-of-asian-hornet-vespa-velutina-hymenoptera-vespidae-a-case-study-of-a-commune-in-south-west-france
#19
Daniel N Franklin, Mike A Brown, Samik Datta, Andrew G S Cuthbertson, Giles E Budge, Matt J Keeling
Asian hornet, Vespa velutina Lepeletier nests were discovered in 2007 in Andernos-les-Bains on the south-west coast of France, 3 years after the first reported sightings in France. The number of nests increased in the commune over the following 7 years, despite local authorities enacting a destruction policy. The nests existed in close proximity to one another leading to a high density of over 10 nests per square kilometre in urban areas. New information on the chosen habitat for nests is presented, and the differences between primary and secondary locations are evident, with primary nests mostly occupying buildings and man-made structures, while secondary nests were found on trees...
2017: Applied Entomology and Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509392/aflatoxin-b1-exposure-increases-the-risk-of-cirrhosis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-carriers
#20
Yu-Ju Chu, Hwai-I Yang, Hui-Chen Wu, Jessica Liu, Li-Yu Wang, Sheng-Nan Lu, Mei-Hsuan Lee, Chin-Lan Jen, San-Lin You, Regina M Santella, Chien-Jen Chen
The relation between aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and cirrhosis in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains inconclusive. This case-control study nested in a large community-based cohort aimed to assess the effect of AFB1 exposure on cirrhosis and HCC in chronic HBV carriers. Serum AFB1 -albumin adduct levels at study entry were measured in 232 cirrhosis cases, 262 HCC cases and 577 controls. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using logistic regression...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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