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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055917/burden-of-chronic-viral-hepatitis-and-liver-cirrhosis-in-brazil-the-brazilian-global-burden-of-disease-study
#1
Juliana R de Carvalho, Cristiane A Villela-Nogueira, Renata M Perez, Flavia B Portugal, Luisa S Flor, Mônica R Campos, Joyce M A Schramm
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Data on epidemiology of liver diseases in Brazil is scarce. This study aimed to estimate the burden of chronic viral hepatitis and liver cirrhosis in the country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The indicator used was disability-adjusted life year (DALY), a sum of years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD). Liver cirrhosis was analyzed in etiologic categories and cirrhosis of viral origin was considered part of the burden of chronic hepatitis...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935757/resveratrol-inhibits-growth-of-experimental-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-associated-with-upregulation-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2
#2
Corey S Moran, Erik Biros, Smriti M Krishna, Yutang Wang, Chris Tikellis, Susan K Morton, Joseph V Moxon, Mark E Cooper, Paul E Norman, Louise M Burrell, Merlin C Thomas, Jonathan Golledge
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests an important role for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in limiting abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This study examined the effect of ACE2 deficiency on AAA development and the efficacy of resveratrol to upregulate ACE2 in experimental AAA. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Ace2 deletion in apolipoprotein-deficient mice (ApoE(-/-)Ace2(-/y) ) resulted in increased aortic diameter and spontaneous aneurysm of the suprarenal aorta associated with increased expression of inflammation and proteolytic enzyme markers...
November 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930591/lipoprotein-a-and-cardiovascular-disease-current-state-and-future-directions-for-an-enigmatic-lipoprotein
#3
Anum Saeed, Salim S Virani
Lipoprotein (a) (Lp (a)) is a complex polymorphic lipoprotein. Although structurally similar to low-density lipoprotein, Lp(a) has a glycoprotein, apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), attached to the apolipoprotein B-100 component. Several unique properties of Lp(a) can be attributed to the presence of apo(a). Several decades of research has improved our understanding of the structure, biochemistry, and pathophysiology of Lp(a) associated diseases. Genetic, epidemiological, and translational data indicate that elevated Lp(a) levels are likely in the causal pathway for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases as well as calcification of the aortic valves...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902234/monitoring-of-post-vaccination-anti-hbs-titles-vaccine-in-children-and-adolescents-in-the-pre-dialysis-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
Nathália Cristina Pereira da Costa, Mônica Ribeiro Canhestro, Cristina Maria Bouissou Morais Soares, Juliana Scudilio Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial or viral diseases are one of the major causes of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). These patients show a quantitative reduction of levels of antibodies over time. Among the infectious diseases that affect CKD patients, stands out hepatitis B (HB). Immunization and control of antibodies levels against the hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are ways to prevent the HB infection in this population. Patients with anti-HBs levels ≥10 IU/ml are considered adequate responders, whereas those with anti-HBs levels ≥ 100 IU/ml are considered excellent responders...
July 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883613/evidence-that-endogenous-formaldehyde-produces-immunogenic-and-atherogenic-adduct-epitopes
#5
Jun Nakamura, Takasumi Shimomoto, Leonard B Collins, Darcy W Holley, Zhenfa Zhang, Jenna M Barbee, Vyom Sharma, Xu Tian, Tomohiro Kondo, Koji Uchida, Xianwen Yi, Diana O Perkins, Monte S Willis, Avram Gold, Scott J Bultman
Endogenous formaldehyde is abundantly present in our bodies, at around 100 µM under normal conditions. While such high steady state levels of formaldehyde may be derived by enzymatic reactions including oxidative demethylation/deamination and myeloperoxidation, it is unclear whether endogenous formaldehyde can initiate and/or promote diseases in humans. Here, we show that fluorescent malondialdehyde-formaldehyde (M2FA)-lysine adducts are immunogenic without adjuvants in mice. Natural antibody titers against M2FA are elevated in atherosclerosis-prone mice...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862926/alirocumab-treatment-and-achievement-of-non-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-and-apolipoprotein-b-goals-in-patients-with-hypercholesterolemia-pooled-results-from-10-phase-3-odyssey-trials
#6
Harold E Bays, Lawrence A Leiter, Helen M Colhoun, Desmond Thompson, Laurence Bessac, Robert Pordy, Peter P Toth
BACKGROUND: Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) B are better predictors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol alone. US and European lipid management guidelines support non-HDL-C and apoB as targets for lipid-lowering therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: This analysis evaluated the efficacy of alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor, on non-HDL-C and apoB...
August 8, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853330/activity-of-the-antioxidant-enzyme-paraoxonase-in-argentinean-children-living-at-high-altitude
#7
V Hirschler, M Martín, K Oestreicher, C Molinari, W Tetzlaff, E Botta, L Boero, F Brites
BACKGROUND: Children living at high altitude in San Antonio de los Cobres (SAC), Argentina, were shown to have lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than Buenos Aires (BA) children. HDL antioxidant capacity is mainly attributed to paraoxonase1 (PON1). OBJECTIVE: To compare PON1 activity in indigenous SAC vs. BA children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study compared 158 SAC vs. 97 BA children (6-16 years). Anthropometric data and lipoprotein profile were measured...
August 30, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795506/oral-apolipoprotein-a-i-mimetic-d-4f-lowers-hdl-inflammatory-index-in-high-risk-patients-a-first-in-human-multiple-dose-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Richard L Dunbar, Rajesh Movva, LeAnne T Bloedon, Danielle Duffy, Robert B Norris, Mohamad Navab, Alan M Fogelman, Daniel J Rader
A single dose of the apolipoprotein (apo)A-I mimetic peptide D-4F rendered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) less inflammatory, motivating the first multiple-dose study. We aimed to assess safety/tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of daily, orally administered D-4F. High-risk coronary heart disease (CHD) subjects added double-blinded placebo or D-4F to statin for 13 days, randomly assigned 1:3 to ascending cohorts of 100, 300, then 500 mg (n = 62; 46 men/16 women). D-4F was safe and well-tolerated...
November 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761931/unc5c-variants-are-associated-with-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#9
Hyun-Sik Yang, Charles C White, Lori B Chibnik, Hans-Ulrich Klein, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Philip L De Jager
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether common genetic variants in UNC5C, a recently identified late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) dementia susceptibility gene, are associated with AD susceptibility or AD-related clinical/pathologic phenotypes. METHODS: We used data from deceased individuals of European descent who participated in the Religious Orders Study or the Rush Memory and Aging Project (n = 1,288). We examined whether there were associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within ±100 kb of the UNC5C gene and a diagnosis of AD dementia, global cognitive decline, a pathologic diagnosis of AD, β-amyloid load, neuritic plaque count, diffuse plaque count, paired helical filament tau density, neurofibrillary tangle count, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) score...
August 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729361/cetp-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-inhibition-with-anacetrapib-decreases-production-of-lipoprotein-a-in-mildly-hypercholesterolemic-subjects
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tiffany Thomas, Haihong Zhou, Wahida Karmally, Rajasekhar Ramakrishnan, Stephen Holleran, Yang Liu, Patricia Jumes, John A Wagner, Brian Hubbard, Stephen F Previs, Thomas Roddy, Amy O Johnson-Levonas, David E Gutstein, Santica M Marcovina, Daniel J Rader, Henry N Ginsberg, John S Millar, Gissette Reyes-Soffer
OBJECTIVE: Lp(a) [lipoprotein (a)] is composed of apoB (apolipoprotein B) and apo(a) [apolipoprotein (a)] and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and aortic stenosis. In clinical trials, anacetrapib, a CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) inhibitor, causes significant reductions in plasma Lp(a) levels. We conducted an exploratory study to examine the mechanism for Lp(a) lowering by anacetrapib. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We enrolled 39 participants in a fixed-sequence, double-blind study of the effects of anacetrapib on the metabolism of apoB and high-density lipoproteins...
September 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711866/identification-of-apob-100-peptide-specific-cd8-t-cells-in-atherosclerosis
#11
Paul C Dimayuga, Xiaoning Zhao, Juliana Yano, Wai Man Lio, Jianchang Zhou, Peter M Mihailovic, Bojan Cercek, Prediman K Shah, Kuang-Yuh Chyu
BACKGROUND: T cells are found in atherosclerotic plaques, with evidence supporting a potential role for CD8+ T cells in atherogenesis. Prior studies provide evidence of low-density lipoprotein and apoB-100 reactive T cells, yet specific epitopes relevant to the disease remain to be defined. The current study was undertaken to identify and characterize endogenous, antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: A peptide fragment of apoB-100 that tested positive for binding to the mouse MHC-I allele H2K(b) was used to generate a fluorescent-labeled H2K(b) pentamer and tested in apoE(-/-) mice...
July 15, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702990/relationship-between-amphipathic-%C3%AE-structures-in-the-%C3%AE-1-domain-of-apolipoprotein-b-and-the-properties-of-the-secreted-lipoprotein-particles-in-mca-rh7777-cells
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Medha Manchekar, Richa Kapil, Zhihuan Sun, Jere P Segrest, Nassrin Dashti
Our previous studies demonstrated that the first 1000 amino acid residues (the βα1 domain) of human apolipoprotein (apo) B-100, termed apoB:1000, are required for the initiation of lipoprotein assembly and the formation of a monodisperse stable phospholipid (PL)-rich particle. The objectives of this study were (a) to assess the effects on the properties of apoB truncates undergoing sequential inclusion of the amphipathic β strands in the 700 N-terminal residues of the β1 domain of apoB-100 and (b) to identify the subdomain in the β1 domain that is required for the formation of a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP)-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG)-rich apoB-containing particle...
August 8, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692480/association-of-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-and-low-density-lipoprotein-heterogeneity-as-a-risk-factor-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-with-triglyceride-metabolic-disorder-a-pilot-cross-sectional-study
#13
Kiyoshi Iida, Shigemasa Tani, Wataru Atsumi, Tsukasa Yagi, Kenji Kawauchi, Naoya Matsumoto, Atsushi Hirayama
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that an increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) might reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size in conjunction with triglyceride (TG) metabolism disorder, resulting in an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). METHODS: This study was carried out as a hospital-based cross-sectional study in 537 consecutive outpatients (mean age: 64 years; men: 71%) with one or more risk factors for ASCVD from April 2014 to October 2014 at the Cardiovascular Center of Nihon University Surugadai Hospital...
November 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673336/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-and-vascular-disease-vary-by-age-gender-and-apoe-genotype-in-cognitively-normal-adults
#14
Ge Li, Jane B Shofer, Eric C Petrie, Chang-En Yu, Charles W Wilkinson, Dianne P Figlewicz, Andrew Shutes-David, Jing Zhang, Thomas J Montine, Murray A Raskind, Joseph F Quinn, Douglas R Galasko, Elaine R Peskind
BACKGROUND: This study sought to evaluate gender and APOE genotype-related differences in the concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular injury across the life span of cognitively normal adults. METHODS: CSF amyloid beta1-42 (Aβ42), phospho-tau-181 (p-tau181), and total tau were measured in 331 participants who were between the ages of 21 and 100. CSF E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM1) were measured in 249 participants who were between the ages of 50 and 100...
July 3, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572160/oxidized-phospholipids-and-risk-of-calcific-aortic-valve-disease-the-copenhagen-general-population-study
#15
Pia R Kamstrup, Ming-Yow Hung, Joseph L Witztum, Sotirios Tsimikas, Børge G Nordestgaard
OBJECTIVE: Lipoprotein(a) is causally associated with calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). Lipoprotein(a) carries proinflammatory and procalcific oxidized phospholipids (OxPL). We tested whether the CAVD risk is mediated by the content of OxPL on lipoprotein(a). APPROACH AND RESULTS: A case-control study was performed within the Copenhagen General Population Study (n=87 980), including 725 CAVD cases (1977-2013) and 1413 controls free of cardiovascular disease...
August 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527325/dyslipidemia-management-update
#16
REVIEW
Yingzi Chang, Jacques Robidoux
Association of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is well established. Reducing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and raising high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) have been the therapeutic targets to reduce the risk of ASCVD. Cholesterol-lowering medications have been used to provide both primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD for many years by reducing the absorption and reabsorption, promoting excretion, or decreasing the synthesis of cholesterol. Within the past five years, several new classes of cholesterol-lowering drugs have been tested and approved for patients with hypercholesterolemia that are not well controlled by conventional therapy (ezetimibe, bile-acid sequestrants, and statins)...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463548/effects-of-oolonghomobisflavan-a-on-oxidation-of-low-density-lipoprotein
#17
Enkhtsetseg Sukhbold, Shogo Sekimoto, Emiko Watanabe, Akane Yamazaki, Lifeng Yang, Mikako Takasugi, Koji Yamada, Ryota Hosomi, Kenji Fukunaga, Hirofumi Arai
Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) has been suggested to be involved in the onset of atherosclerosis. Oolong tea contains unique polyphenols including oolonghomobisflavan A (OFA). In this study, the effects of OFA on LDL oxidation by ROS and RNS were investigated in vitro. OFA suppressed formation of cholesterol ester hydroperoxides in LDL oxidized by peroxyl radical and peroxynitrite, and formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in LDL oxidized by Cu(2+)...
August 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379594/pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-enhance-alcohol-induced-hepatocytotoxicity-in-vitro-in-normal-human-hepatocytes
#18
M G Neuman, L B Cohen, V Steenkamp
OBJECTIVE: Herbal remedies containing pyrrilidozine alkaloids (PA)s can induce liver damage, including hepato-sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) or veno-occlusive liver disease (VOD). Some individuals misusing alcohol consume also teas and/or herbal remedies containing PA. The interaction or additive toxicity of alcohol to PA toxicity needs to be addressed. The objectives of this study are 1) to review the scientific literature on the PA-induced liver toxicity; 2) identify possible mechanism(s) involved in PA-induced hepatocytotoxicity in the presence or absence of ethanol (EtOH) in vitro in normal human hepatocytes (NHH) in primary culture...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356880/cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-7-13-years-old-children-from-vojvodina-serbia
#19
Darko D Dželajlija, Slavica S Spasić, Jelena M Kotur-Stevuljevic, Nataša B Bogavac-Stanojevic
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which starts early in life and depends on many factors, an important one being dyslipoproteinemia. According to several studies, atherosclerotic plaques or their precursors could be seen in children younger than 10 years. During later life, interaction with a sedentary way of life, as well as unhealthy nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and family history of cardiovascular disease cause the burden of atherosclerotic disease...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280493/t-cells-specific-for-a-self-peptide-of-apob-100-exacerbate-aortic-atheroma-in-murine-atherosclerosis
#20
Michael K Shaw, Kevin Y Tse, Xiaoqing Zhao, Kathryn Welch, Daniel T Eitzman, Raghavendar R Thipparthi, Paul C Montgomery, Ryan Thummel, Harley Y Tse
On the basis of mouse I-A(b)-binding motifs, two sequences of the murine apolipoprotein B-100 (mApoB-100), mApoB-1003501-3515 (designated P3) and mApoB-100978-992 (designated P6), were found to be immunogenic. In this report, we show that P6 is also atherogenic. Immunization of Apoe(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with P6 resulted in enhanced development of aortic atheroma as compared to control mice immunized with an irrelevant peptide MOG35-55 or with complete Freund's adjuvant alone. Adoptive transfer of lymph node cells from P6-immunized donor mice to recipients fed an HFD caused exacerbated aortic atheromas, correlating P6-primed cells with disease development...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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