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"Strong ion difference"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725827/comparison-of-a-new-simplified-acid-base-tool-to-the-original-stewart-figge-approach-a-study-on-cardiac-surgical-patients
#1
Michalis Agrafiotis, Dimitrios Mpliamplias, Maria Papathanassiou, Fotini Ampatzidou, Georgios Drossos
PURPOSE: To suggest a simplified method for strong ion gap ([SIG]) calculation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To simplify [SIG] calculation, we used the following assumptions: (1) the major determinants of apparent strong ion difference ([SIDa ]) are [Na+ ], [K+ ] and [Cl- ] (2) [Ca2+ ] and [Mg2+ ] do not contribute significantly to [SIDa ] variation and can be replaced by their reference concentrations (3) physiologically relevant pH variation is at the order of 10-2 and therefore we can assume a standard value of 7...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684990/acid-base-alterations-during-major-abdominal-surgery-6-hydroxyethyl-starch-infusion-versus-5-albumin
#2
Hyun Jeong Kwak, Oh Kyung Lim, Jae Myung Baik, Youn Yi Jo
Background: To compare the effects of intraoperative infusions of balanced electrolyte solution (BES)-based hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and saline-based albumin on metabolic acidosis and acid/base changes during major abdominal surgery conducted using Stewart's approach. Methods: Forty patients, aged 20-65 years, undergoing major abdominal surgery, were randomly assigned to the HES group (n = 20; received 500 ml of BES-based 6% HES 130/0.4) or the albumin group (n = 20; received 500 ml of normal saline-based 5% albumin)...
April 24, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589205/hyperchloraemia-in-sepsis
#3
REVIEW
Christos Filis, Ioannis Vasileiadis, Antonia Koutsoukou
Chloride represents-quantitatively-the most prevalent, negatively charged, strong plasma electrolyte. Control of chloride concentration is a probable major mechanism for regulating the body's acid-base balance and for maintaining homeostasis of the entire internal environment. The difference between the concentrations of chloride and sodium constitutes the major contributor to the strong ion difference (SID); SID is the key pH regulator in the body, according to the physicochemical approach. Hyperchloraemia resulting from either underlying diseases or medical interventions is common in intensive care units...
March 27, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506859/comparison-of-acid-base-and-electrolyte-changes-following-administration-of-6-hydroxyethyl-starch-130-0-42-in-a-saline-and-a-polyionic-solution-in-anaesthetized-dogs
#4
Katja N Adamik, Rafael Obrador, Judith Howard
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a 6% hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.42) in either a buffered, electrolyte-balanced (HES-BAL) or saline (HES-SAL) carrier solution on electrolyte concentrations and acid-base parameters in healthy anaesthetized dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomised clinical study. ANIMALS: A group of 40 client-owned dogs undergoing general anaesthesia for elective surgical procedures or diagnostic imaging. METHODS: During anaesthesia, dogs were intravenously administered 15 mL kg-1 of either HES-SAL (n = 20) or HES-BAL (n = 20) over 30-40 minutes...
May 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480030/physicochemical-determinants-of-ph-in-pectoralis-major-of-three-strains-of-laying-hens-housed-in-conventional-and-furnished-cages
#5
K M Frizzell, M J Jendral, I M Maclean, W T Dixon, C T Putman
1. Post-mortem decline in muscle pH has traditionally been attributed to glycogenolysis-induced lactate accumulation. However, muscle pH ([H+ ]) is controlled by complex physicochemical relationships encapsulated in the Stewart model of acid-base chemistry and is determined by three system-independent variables - strong ion difference ([SID]), total concentration of weak acids ([Atot ]) and partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2 ). 2. This study investigated these system-independent variables in post-mortem pectoralis major muscles of Shaver White, Lohmann Lite and Lohmann Brown laying hens housed in conventional cages (CC) or furnished cages (FC) and evaluated the model by comparing calculated [H+ ] with previously measured [H+ ] values...
March 23, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398022/establishing-blood-gas-ranges-in-healthy-bovine-neonates-differentiated-by-age-sex-and-breed-type
#6
Patrick Dillane, Lea Krump, Aideen Kennedy, Ríona G Sayers, Gearóid P Sayers
Calf mortality and morbidity commonly occurs within the first month of life postpartum. Standard health ranges are invaluable aids in diagnostic veterinary medicine to confirm normal or the degree and nature of abnormal parameters in (sub)clinically ill animals. Extensive research has indicated significant differences between the physiologies of neonate and adult cattle, particularly for blood parameters such as pH, base excess, anion gap, and bicarbonate (HCO3 - ). The objective of this research was to determine the influence of age, sex, and breed type, in addition to environmental factors, on the normal blood gas profiles of neonatal calves, and thus develop a scientifically validated reference range accounting for any significant factors...
April 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359573/retrospective-review-of-hydrochloric-acid-infusion-for-the-treatment-of-metabolic-alkalosis-in-surgical-intensive-care-unit-patients
#7
Jason D Guffey, Curtis E Haas, Amber Crowley, Kathryn A Connor, David C Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Older reports of use of hydrochloric acid (HCl) infusions for treatment of metabolic alkalosis document variable dosing strategies and risk. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize use of HCl infusions in surgical intensive care unit patients for the treatment of metabolic alkalosis. METHODS: This retrospective review included patients who received a HCl infusion for >8 hours. The primary end point was to evaluate the utility of common acid-base equations for predicting HCl dose requirements...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183573/age-dependent-physiological-dynamics-in-acid-base-balance-electrolytes-and-blood-metabolites-in-growing-goats
#8
S Redlberger, S Fischer, H Köhler, R Diller, P Reinhold
There is a paucity of published data reporting acid-base equilibrium in goats, and no information is available on how the acid-base complexity changes when suckling goat kids become ruminants. The aims of this study were to evaluate young healthy goats for age-related changes in serum proteins, metabolites, and electrolytes; differences in results when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation or strong ion approaches were used were also assessed. To assess biological variability and reproducibility, two consecutive long-term studies, each lasting from the 6th to 56th week of life (wl), were performed in 15 (Study 1) and 10 (Study 2) animals...
November 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144182/plasma-lyte-148-vs-hartmann-s-solution-for-cardiopulmonary-bypass-pump-prime-a-prospective-double-blind-randomized-trial
#9
Laurence Weinberg, Elizabeth Chiam, James Hooper, Frank Liskaser, Angela Kim Hawkins, Denise Massie, Andrew Ellis, Chong O Tan, David Story, Rinaldo Bellomo
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of acid-base changes during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that, when used as CPB pump prime solutions, Plasma-Lyte 148 (PL) and Hartmann's solution (HS) have differential mechanisms of action in their contribution to acid-base changes. METHODS: We performed a prospective, double-blind, randomized trial in adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with CPB. Participants received a CPB prime solution of 2000 mL, with either PL or HS...
November 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833697/effect-of-intravenously-administered-crystalloid-solutions-on-acid-base-balance-in-domestic-animals
#10
REVIEW
W Muir
Intravenous fluid therapy can alter plasma acid-base balance. The Stewart approach to acid-base balance is uniquely suited to identify and quantify the effects of the cationic and anionic constituents of crystalloid solutions on plasma pH. The plasma strong ion difference (SID) and weak acid concentrations are similar to those of the administered fluid, more so at higher administration rates and with larger volumes. A crystalloid's in vivo effects on plasma pH are described by 3 general rules: SID > [HCO3-] increases plasma pH (alkalosis); SID < [HCO3-] decreases plasma pH (alkalosis); and SID = [HCO3-] yields no change in plasma pH...
September 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814306/blood-acid-base-status-in-impala-aepyceros-melampus-immobilised-and-maintained-under-total-intravenous-anaesthesia-using-two-different-drug-protocols
#11
Gareth E Zeiler, Leith C R Meyer
BACKGROUND: In mammals, homeostasis and survival are dependent on effective trans-membrane movement of ions and enzyme function, which are labile to extreme acid-base changes, but operate efficiently within a narrow regulated pH range. Research in patients demonstrating a pH shifts outside the narrow regulated range decreased the cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance and altered the oxygen binding to haemoglobin. These cardiopulmonary observations may be applicable to the risks associated with anaesthesia and performance of wildlife ungulates on game farms...
August 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693594/the-impact-of-phosphate-balanced-crystalloid-infusion-on-acid-base-homeostasis-palance-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Judith-Irina Pagel, Nikolai Hulde, Tobias Kammerer, Michaela Schwarz, Daniel Chappell, Alexander Burges, Klaus Hofmann-Kiefer, Markus Rehm
BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the effects of a modified, balanced crystalloid including phosphate in a perioperative setting in order to maintain a stable electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis in the patient. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a single-centre, open-label, randomized controlled trial involving two parallel groups of female patients comparing a perioperative infusion regime with sodium glycerophosphate and Jonosteril® (treatment group) or Jonosteril® (comparator) alone...
July 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553873/does-fluid-resuscitation-with-balanced-solutions-induce-electrolyte-and-metabolic-abnormalities-an-in-vitro-assessment
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Łukasz J Krzych, Piotr F Czempik
BACKGROUND: Popular intravenous fluids in clinical use may have an impact on electrolyte concentration and metabolic balance and should be considered as powerful pharmacological agents. There is a growing body of evidence that fluid therapy should be more individualised and preferably based on balanced solutions. AIM: We sought to investigate the impact of three commonly used balanced fluids on electrolytes and metabolic equilibrium in an in vitro setting. METHODS: Study group comprised 32 healthy male volunteers (without history of any acute/chronic disorder or known metabolic abnormality), aged 21-35 (29 ± 4) years, weight 59-103 (81...
2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420042/determination-of-reference-intervals-of-acid-base-parameters-in-clinically-healthy-dogs
#14
Ivana Vanova-Uhrikova, Leona Rauserova-Lexmaulova, Kristina Rehakova, Peter Scheer, Jaroslav Doubek
OBJECTIVE: To establish reference intervals for traditionally- and Stewart's approach-determined acid-base parameters in a population of clinically healthy dogs. DESIGN: Prospective study (June 2011-September 2012). SETTING: Veterinary teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Two hundred twenty-four client-owned, clinically healthy dogs. INTERVENTIONS: Blood was collected from the jugular vein and the dorsal pedal artery...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380062/different-effects-of-fluid-loading-with-saline-gelatine-hydroxyethyl-starch-or-albumin-solutions-on-acid-base-status-in-the-critically-ill
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Angélique M E Spoelstra-de Man, Annemieke Smorenberg, A B Johan Groeneveld
INTRODUCTION: Fluid administration in critically ill patients may affect acid-base balance. However, the effect of the fluid type used for resuscitation on acid-base balance remains controversial. METHODS: We studied the effect of fluid resuscitation of normal saline and the colloids gelatine 4%, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 6%, and albumin 5% on acid-base balance in 115 clinically hypovolemic critically ill patients during a 90 minute filling pressure-guided fluid challenge by a post-hoc analysis of a prospective randomized clinical trial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298660/hyperlactatemia-and-cardiac-surgery
#16
REVIEW
Jonathon Minton, David A Sidebotham
The normal blood lactate level is 0-2 mmol/L, and a value above 3-5 mmol/L is variably used to define hyperlactatemia. In cardiac surgical patients, hyperlactatemia can arise from both hypoxic and non-hypoxic mechanisms. The major non-hypoxic mechanism is likely stress-induced accelerated aerobic metabolism, in which elevated lactate results from a mass effect on the lactate/pyruvate equilibrium. The lactate/pyruvate ratio is normal (<20) in this circumstance. Hyperlactatemia can also result from impaired global or regional oxygen delivery, in which case the lactate/pyruvate ratio is typically elevated (>20)...
March 2017: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289910/acid-base-disturbances-in-nephrotic-syndrome-analysis-using-the-co-2-hco-3-method-traditional-boston-model-and-the-physicochemical-method-stewart-model
#17
Tomomichi Kasagi, Hirokazu Imai, Naoto Miura, Keisuke Suzuki, Masabumi Yoshino, Hironobu Nobata, Takuhito Nagai, Shogo Banno
BACKGROUND: The Stewart model for analyzing acid-base disturbances emphasizes serum albumin levels, which are ignored in the traditional Boston model. We compared data derived using the Stewart model to those using the Boston model in patients with nephrotic syndrome. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with nephrotic syndrome and six patients without urinary protein or acid-base disturbances provided blood and urine samples for analysis that included routine biochemical and arterial blood gas tests, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone...
October 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078858/use-of-lactated-ringer%C3%A2-s-solution-does-not-eliminate-the-risk-of-strong-ion-difference-related-metabolic-acidosis-following-on-pump-cardiac-surgery
#18
LETTER
T Jovaisa, V Vicka, G Linkaitė, J Guseinovaitė, D Ringaitienė, I Norkienė
There is a growing interest in the effects of plasma sodium levels on postoperative outcomes. A trend of using balanced crystalloid solutions is based on the extensive data on chloride and the strong ion difference-related acidosis. However, effects of sodium are often overlooked in this context. The aim of the study was to establish the effects of the routine use of Lactated Ringer’s Solution (RL) on postoperative changes in sodium concentrations and whether these changes result in metabolic acidosis. We performed database analysis of 358 consecutive elective on-pump cardiac surgery cases in a tertiary referral university hospital...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028530/acid-base-and-hemodynamic-status-of-patients-with-intraoperative-hemorrhage-using-two-solution-types-crystalloid-ringer-lactate-and-1-3-sodium-bicarbonate-in-half-normal-saline-solution
#19
Sayed Jalal Hashemi, Sayed Morteza Heidari, Ahmad Yaraghi, Reza Seirafi
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hemorrhage is one of the problems during surgery and, if it happens in a high volume without an immediate action to control, it can be fatal. Nowadays, various injectable solutions are used. The aim of this study was to compare the acid-base and hemodynamic status of the patient using two solutions, Ringer lactate and 1.3% sodium bicarbonate, in half saline solution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This clinical trial was performed at the Al-Zahra Hospital in 2013 on 66 patients who were randomly selected and put in two studied groups at the onset of hemorrhage...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990831/-clinical-evaluation-of-acid-base-status-henderson-hasselbalch-or-stewart-fencl-approach
#20
REVIEW
Karel Matoušovic, Jan Havlín, Otto Schück
Two approaches have been used in clinical evaluation the acid-base status: traditional (bicarbonate-centered) is based on the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation complemented by calculation of the anion gap, and more recent quantitative approach proposed by Stewart and Fencl. The latter method defines the three independent variables, which regulate pH. These include: the difference between the sum of charges carried by strong plasma cations and anions termed the strong ion difference - SID (decrease causes acidosis, and vice versa); the total concentration of the weak non-volatile acids [Atot] (inorganic phosphate and albumin, decrease causes alkalosis and vice versa), and pCO2...
December 0: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
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