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Strong ion difference

James C S Ho, Aftab Nadeem, Catharina Svanborg
HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is a tumoricidal protein-lipid complex with broad effects against cancer cells of different origin. The therapeutic potential is emphasized by a high degree of specificity for tumor tissue. Here we review early studies of HAMLET, in collaboration with the Orrenius laboratory, and some key features of the subsequent development of the HAMLET project. The early studies focused on the apoptotic response that accompanies death in HAMLET treated tumor cells and the role of mitochondria in this process...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kuduva R Vignesh, Stuart K Langley, Keith S Murray, Gopalan Rajaraman
The synthesis and magnetic and theoretical studies of three isostructural heterometallic [Co(III)2Ln(III)2(μ3-OH)2(o-tol)4(mdea)2(NO3)2] (Ln = Dy (1), Tb (2), Ho (3)) "butterfly" complexes are reported (o-tol = o-toluate, (mdea)(2-) = doubly deprotonated N-methyldiethanolamine). The Co(III) ions are diamagnetic in these complexes. Analysis of the dc magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the two Ln(III) ions for all three complexes. ac magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior for complex 1, in the absence of an external magnetic field, with an anisotropy barrier Ueff of 81...
February 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Leonid Gorb, Manoj K Shukla
A computational chemistry investigation was undertaken to shed light on the facilitatory role played by Fe(3+) and Al(3+) cations in the adsorption of anionic As(V) species by humic acids through the formation of so-called cationic bridges. Geometric and energetic parameters were obtained using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level in conjunction with the polarizable continuum model (to account for the influence of bulk water). We found that, despite their similar molecular geometries, the adsorption energies of the As(V) species AsO4(3-) and H2AsO(4-) differ when Fe(3+), FeOH(2+), Al(3+), and AlOH(2+) participate in the bridge...
March 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Stefan P Hau-Riege, Jon Weisheit
We use large-scale classical molecular dynamics to determine microfield properties for several dense plasma mixtures. By employing quantum statistical potentials (QSPs) to regularize the Coulomb interaction, our simulations follow motions of electrons as well as ions for times long enough to track relaxation phenomena involving both types of particles. Coulomb coupling, relative to temperature, of different pairs of species in the hot, dense matter being simulated ranges from weak to strong. We first study the effect of such coupling differences, along with composition and QSP differences, on the roles of electrons and various mixture components in determining probability distributions of instantaneous, total microfields experienced by the ions...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Ming Xuan Gao, Hong Yan Zou, Yuan Fang Li, Cheng Zhi Huang
Plasmonic resonance energy transfer (PRET), which occurs between the plasmonic nanoparticles and organic dyes, has significant potential in target sensing chemistry owing to its sensitivity at the single nanoparticle level. In this contribution, by using AuNPs, which has localized surface plasmonic resonance light scattering (LSPR-LS) around 550 nm, as the donor of PRET, a general sensitive detecting strategy of ions were developed. Targets can specifically react with a ring-close structured rhodamine spirolactam, which was prepared from rhodamines in the presence of different primary amine wherein the option of the primary amine is up to the targets, forming ring-open structured rhodamine spirolactam with the strong absorption around 550 nm...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Kimberly L Davidson, Matthew F Bush
Ion mobility (IM) separates ions based on their response to an electric field in the presence of a drift gas. Because of its speed and sensitivity, the integration of IM and mass spectrometry (MS) offers many potential advantages for the analysis of small molecules. To determine the effects that drift gas selection has on the information content of IM separations, absolute collision cross sections (Ω) with He, N2, Ar, CO2, and N2O were measured for the 20 common amino acids using low-pressure, ambient-temperature ion mobility experiments performed in a radio frequency-confining drift cell...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Sylwia Studzińska, Rafał Rola, Bogusław Buszewski
Present study highlights the usage of various ion-pairing agents and their impact on the process of separation and ionization of oligonucleotides in the fortified human serum samples. What is more, retention studies involved different stationary phases, including: octadecyl, phenyl, pentafluorophenyl groups and ligands with embedded polar groups. It was proved that retention of oligonucleotides strongly depends on the alkyl chain branching in the structure of ion pairing reagent. Furthermore ion-pairing agents build of straight alkyl chain are more easily adsorbed on the stationary phase modified with octadecyl groups, while branching of alkyl chain caused more effective adsorption of studied compounds at phenyl groups compared to octadecyl ones...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Jianqi Xi, Haixuan Xu, Yanwen Zhang, William J Weber
Due to lattice mismatch between epitaxial films and substrates, in-plane strain fields are produced in the thin films, with accompanying structural distortions, and ion implantation can be used to controllably engineer the strain throughout the film. Because of the strain profile, local defect energetics are changed. In this study, the effects of in-plane strain fields on the formation and migration of oxygen vacancies in KTaO3 are investigated using first-principles calculations. In particular, the doubly positive charged oxygen vacancy (V) is studied, which is considered to be the main charge state of the oxygen vacancy in KTaO3...
February 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xueqin Jiang, Peijun Tang, Panpan Gao, Yu Shrike Zhang, Changqing Yi, Jianhua Zhou
Ozone (O3) would be harmful to human skin for its strong oxidizing property, especially when stratum corneum or corneal epithelium is wounded. Imaging the penetration and distribution of ozone at depth is beneficial for studying the influence of ozone on skin or eyes. Here, we introduced a facile method for three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the penetration of O3 into the anterior chamber of an isolated crucian carp eye by using optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with gold triangular nanoprisms (GTNPs) as the contrast agent and molecular probe...
February 2, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Sarah S Steimer, Ivan Kourtchev, Markus Kalberer
A significant fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles is composed of organic material with a highly complex but poorly characterized composition. For a better understanding of aerosol effects and processes in the atmosphere, a more detailed knowledge of aerosol components at a molecular level is needed. Peroxy acids might play a significant role in particle toxicity, due to their oxidizing properties, and they were recently found to be involved in particle formation. Because of the lack of appropriate standards, the identification and quantification of peroxy acids is often highly uncertain...
February 10, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Lihua Li, Fenliang Fan, Alin Song, Chang Yin, Peiyuan Cui, Zhaojun Li, Yongchao Liang
The association between microbial communities and plant growth in long-term fertilization system has not been fully studied. In the present study, impacts of long-term fertilization have been determined on the size and activity of soil microbial communities and wheat performance in a red soil (Ultisol) collected from Qiyang Experimental Station, China. For this, different microbial communities originating from long-term fertilized pig manure (M), mineral fertilizer (NPK), pig manure plus mineral fertilizer (MNPK), and no fertilizer (CK) were used as inocula for the Ultisol tested...
February 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Canfang Niu, Peilong Yang, Huiying Luo, Huoqing Huang, Yaru Wang, Bin Yao
Strong resistance to proteolytic attack is important for feed enzymes. Here, we selected three predicted pepsin cleavage sites, L99, L162, and E230 (numbering from the initiator M of premature proteins), in pepsin-sensitive HAP phytases YkAPPA from Yersinia kristensenii and YeAPPA from Y. enterocolitica, which corresponded to L99, V162, and D230 in pepsin-resistant YrAPPA from Y. rohdei. We constructed mutants with different side chain structures at these sites using site-directed mutagenesis and produced all enzymes in Escherichia coli for catalytic and biochemical characterization...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jun'ichiro Ide, Mizue Ohashi, Katsutoshi Takahashi, Yuko Sugiyama, Sirpa Piirainen, Pirkko Kortelainen, Nobuhide Fujitake, Keitaro Yamase, Nobuhito Ohte, Mina Moritani, Miyako Hara, Leena Finér
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) strongly affects water quality within boreal forest ecosystems. However, how the quality of DOM itself changes spatially is not well understood. In this study, to examine how the diversity of DOM molecules varies in water moving through a boreal forest, the number of DOM molecules in different water samples, i.e., rainwater, throughfall, soil water, groundwater, and stream water was determined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands in eastern Finland during May and June 2010...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Dominik Metzler, Chen Li, Sebastian Engelmann, Robert L Bruce, Eric A Joseph, Gottlieb S Oehrlein
With the increasing interest in establishing directional etching methods capable of atomic scale resolution for fabricating highly scaled electronic devices, the need for development and characterization of atomic layer etching processes, or generally etch processes with atomic layer precision, is growing. In this work, a flux-controlled cyclic plasma process is used for etching of SiO2 and Si at the Angstrom-level. This is based on steady-state Ar plasma, with periodic, precise injection of a fluorocarbon (FC) precursor (C4F8 and CHF3) and synchronized, plasma-based Ar(+) ion bombardment [D...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Yong-Ming Huang, Ying-Ning Zou, Qiang-Sheng Wu
The Non-invasive Micro-test Technique (NMT) is used to measure dynamic changes of specific ions/molecules non-invasively, but information about hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) fluxes in different classes of roots by mycorrhiza is scarce in terms of NMT. Effects of Funneliformis mosseae on plant growth, H2O2, superoxide radical (O2(·-)), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, and H2O2 fluxes in the taproot (TR) and lateral roots (LRs) of trifoliate orange seedlings under well-watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) conditions were studied...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sheila Cabezas, Sylvia Ho, Uris Ros, María E Lanio, Carlos Alvarez, F Gisou van der Goot
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) form holes in membranes causing one of the most catastrophic damages to a target cell. Target organisms have evolved a regulated response against PFTs damage including cell membrane repair. This ability of cells strongly depends on the toxin concentration and the properties of the pores. It has been hypothesized that there is an inverse correlation between the size of the pores and the time required to repair the membrane, which has been for long a non-intuitive concept and far to be completely understood...
February 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Noah J J Johnson, Sha He, Shuo Diao, Emory M Chan, Hongjie Dai, Adah Almutairi
Luminescence quenching at high dopant concentrations generally limits the dopant concentration to less than 1-5 mol% in lanthanide-doped materials, and this remains a major obstacle in designing materials with enhanced efficiency/brightness. In this work, we provide direct evidence that the major quenching process at high dopant concentrations is the energy migration to the surface (i.e. surface quenching) as opposed to the common misconception of cross-relaxation between dopant ions. We show that after an inert epitaxial shell growth, erbium (Er3+) concentrations as high as 100 mol% in NaY(Er)F4/NaLuF4 core/shell nanocrystals enhance the emission intensity of both upconversion and downshifted luminescence across different excitation wavelengths (980, 800, and 658 nm), with negligible concentration quenching effects...
February 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
M Laurenti, M Castellino, D Perrone, A Asvarov, G Canavese, A Chiolerio
Vanadium doped ZnO (VZO) thin films were grown by RF magnetron sputtering, starting from a ZnO:V ceramic target. The crystal structure, chemical composition, electric and piezoelectric properties of the films were investigated either on the as-grown thin films or after a post-deposition rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment performed at 600 °C for different lengths of time (1 and 5 min) in an oxygen atmosphere. Substitutional doping of Zn(2+) with V(3+) and V(5+) ions strongly deteriorated the hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure of the as-grown thin films due to lattice distortion...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shicheng Jiang, Chao Yu, Guanglu Yuan, Tong Wu, Ruifeng Lu
Using quantum mechanics calculations, we theoretically study the dissociation and ionization dynamics of the hydrogen-molecule ion in strong laser fields. Having prepared the nuclear wave packet of H2(+) in a specific vibrational state, a pump laser is used to produce a vibrational excitation, leading to quasi-periodical vibration without ionization. Then, a time-delayed few-cycle laser is applied to trigger the dissociation or ionization of H2(+). Both the time delay and the intensity of the probe laser alter the competition between dissociation and ionization...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chengjian Xie, Liujie Hu, Yongzhu Yang, Dunxiu Liao, Xingyong Yang
Cadmium (Cd), one of the most toxic heavy-metal pollutants, has a strong and irreversible tendency to accumulate. Bioremediation is a promising technology to remedy and control heavy metal pollutants because of its low cost and ability to recycle heavy metals. Coprinus atramentarius is recognized as being able to accumulate heavy metal ions. In this work, C. atramentarius is cultivated on a solid medium containing Cd(2+) ions to analyze its ability to tolerate different concentrations of the heavy metal ion...
March 2017: Microbiological Research
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