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Strong ion difference

Stefanie Dukorn, Timo Littmann, Max Keller, Kilian Konrad Kuhn, Chiara Cabrele, Paul Baumeister, Günther Bernhardt, Armin Buschauer
The neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y4 receptor (Y4R) is involved in energy homeostasis and considered as a potential drug target for the treatment of obesity. Only a few molecular tools, i. e., radiolabeled and fluorescent ligands, for the investigation of the Y4R were reported. Previously, [Lys(4)]hPP proved to be an appropriate full-length PP analog to prepare a fluorescent ligand by derivatization at the ε-amino group. To preclude oxidation upon long-term storage, we replaced the two methionine residues in [Lys(4)]hPP by norleucine and prepared the corresponding [(3)H]propionylated ([(3)H]12) and cyanine labeled (13) peptides, which were characterized and compared with a set of reference compounds in binding (Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptors) and functional (luciferase gene reporter, β-arrestin-1, -2) Y4R assays...
March 27, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Bartlomiej Wiendlocha, SunPhil Kim, Yeseul Lee, Bin He, Gloria Lehr, Mercouri G Kanatzidis, Donald T Morelli, Joseph P Heremans
The Eu atoms in Pb1-xEuxSe have long been assumed to be divalent. We show that p-type doping of this magnetic semiconductor alloy with Na can modify the effective Eu valence: a mixed, Eu(2+)-Eu(3+) state appears in Pb1-x-yEuxNaySe at particular values of y. Magnetization, carrier concentration, resistivity, and thermopower of Pb1-x-yEuxNaySe are reported for a number of samples with different x and y. A pronounced increase in thermopower at a given carrier concentration was identified and attributed to the presence of enhanced ionized impurity scattering...
March 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Firozeh Saberzadeh Sarvestani, Hossein Esmaeili, Bahman Ramavandi
In this paper, a new and facile approach for molybdate loading in the brown algae of Sargassum angustifolium is introduced. The molybdate ions were entered into the algae body during a short cultivation to produce algae-Mo as a novel adsorbent for eliminating phosphate ions from synthetic and real wastewaters. Results of the surface analysis showed that molybdate loading onto the algae was successfully performed. Herein, basic variables, such as initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, phosphate concentration, and temperature, were investigated in detail to assess the phosphate adsorption performance of algae-Mo...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
Kiransinh N Rajput, Kamlesh C Patel, Ujjval B Trivedi
Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC. produced using new alkaliphile Microbacterium terrae KNR 9 has been purified to homogeneity in a single step by the starch adsorption method. The specific activity of the purified CGTase was 45 U/mg compared to crude 0.9 U/mg. This resulted in a 50-fold purification of the enzyme with 33 % yield. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was found to be 27.72 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. Non-denaturing gel electrophoresis and activity staining confirmed the presence of CGTase in crude and the ammonium sulfate precipitate fraction...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
Verena Muhr, Christian Würth, Marco Kraft, Markus Buchner, Ute Resch-Genger, Antje J Baeumner, Thomas Hirsch
Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are attractive candidates for energy transfer-based analytical applications. In contrast to classical donor-acceptor pairs, these particles contain many emitting lanthanide ions together with numerous acceptor dye molecules at different distances to each other, strongly depending on the particle diameter. UCNPs with precisely controlled sizes between 10 and 43 nm were prepared and functionalized with rose bengal and sulforhodamine B by a ligand exchange procedure. Time-resolved studies of the upconversion luminescence of the UCNP donor revealed a considerable shortening of the donor lifetime as a clear hint for Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)...
March 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Tomislav Vinković, Ondrej Novák, Miroslav Strnad, Walter Goessler, Darija Domazet Jurašin, Nada Parađiković, Ivana Vinković Vrček
The increasing development of different nanomaterials, such as silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and their practical use in agriculture and biotechnology has created a strong need for elucidations of biological effects and risk assessments of AgNPs in plants. This study was aimed to investigate AgNPs effects on metal uptake and their biodistribution in pepper plants as well as on morphological parameters and hormonal responses of the isoprenoid cytokinin (CK) family. In addition, the comparison of effects silver form, nanoparticles vs...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Research
Lijun Liu, Issei Nakamura
We illustrate the effects of chain connectivity on the solvation energy of ions immersed in polymer liquids by developing a new coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation. Our theory accounts for the dielectric response of the polymers through the connection of dipolar, monomeric units with nonlinear springs. In stark contrast to the standard Born solvation energy of ions, our results depend substantially on the chain length of the polymers. We also demonstrate the marked difference in the solvation energies of the ions immersed in non-polymeric particle mixtures, single-component polymers, polymer blends, and block copolymers...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Kenneth J Laszlo, Eleanor B Munger, Matthew F Bush
The fidelity between the structures of proteins in solution and protein ions in the gas phase is critical to experiments that use gas-phase measurements to infer structures in solution. Here we generate ions of lysozyme, a 129-residue protein whose native tertiary structure contains four internal disulfide bonds, from three solutions that preserve varying extents of the original native structure. We then use cation-to-anion proton-transfer reactions (CAPTR) to reduce the charge states of those ions in the gas phase and ion mobility to probe their structures...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
In Jung Jung, Jung Eun Hwang, Sung Min Han, Dong Sub Kim, Joon-Woo Ahn, Hong-Il Choi, Soon-Jae Kwon, Si-Yong Kang, Jin-Baek Kim
PURPOSE: Exposure to ionizing radiation induces plant defenses by regulating the expression of response genes. The systemic acquired resistance deficient 1 (SARD1) is a key gene in plant defense response. In this study, the function of Oryza sativa SARD1 (OsSARD1) was investigated after exposure of seeds/plants to ionizing radiation, jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rice seeds exposed to two types of ionizing radiations (gamma ray [GR] and ion beam [IB]) were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to identify the genes that are altered in response to ionizing radiation...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Jonathon Minton, David A Sidebotham
The normal blood lactate level is 0-2 mmol/L, and a value above 3-5 mmol/L is variably used to define hyperlactatemia. In cardiac surgical patients, hyperlactatemia can arise from both hypoxic and non-hypoxic mechanisms. The major non-hypoxic mechanism is likely stress-induced accelerated aerobic metabolism, in which elevated lactate results from a mass effect on the lactate/pyruvate equilibrium. The lactate/pyruvate ratio is normal (<20) in this circumstance. Hyperlactatemia can also result from impaired global or regional oxygen delivery, in which case the lactate/pyruvate ratio is typically elevated (>20)...
March 2017: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Yifei Mao, Yun Zheng, Can Li, Lin Guo, Yini Pan, Rui Zhu, Jun Xu, Weihua Zhang, Wengang Wu
3D structures with characteristic lengths ranging from nanometer to micrometer scale often exhibit extraordinary optical properties, and have been becoming an extensively explored field for building new generation nanophotonic devices. Albeit a few methods have been developed for fabricating 3D optical structures, constructing 3D structures with nanometer accuracy, diversified materials, and perfect morphology is an extremely challenging task. This study presents a general 3D nanofabrication technique, the focused ion beam stress induced deformation process, which allows a programmable and accurate bidirectional folding (-70°-+90°) of various metal and dielectric thin films...
March 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
J Everaerts, B Verlinden, M Wevers
In the very high cycle fatigue regime, internal crack initiation can occur in Ti-6Al-4V because of the formation of facets, which are α grains that have fractured in a transcrystalline and planar manner. Because this crack initiation phase occupies most of the fatigue life, it is essential to understand which mechanisms lead to facet formation. Fatigue tests have been performed on drawn and heat-treated Ti-6Al-4V wires, and the facets at internal crack initiation sites have been analysed in detail in terms of their appearance, their spatial orientation and their crystallographic orientation...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
Neel Kamal Koju, Xin Song, Qing Wang
Cadmium (Cd), one of the hazardous elements in groundwater, is a severe threat to human health and ecological systems even at low concentrations. This study explores the effectiveness of commercial and self-synthesized nano-scale magnesia (NMgO) for remediating low-concentration Cd in groundwater as well as their associated removal mechanisms. The sorption kinetic data for both NMgOs were well fitted to the pseudo-second-order model and the calculated q e values matched the experimental q e values for both commercial and self-synthesized NMgOs...
March 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tomomichi Kasagi, Hirokazu Imai, Naoto Miura, Keisuke Suzuki, Masabumi Yoshino, Hironobu Nobata, Takuhito Nagai, Shogo Banno
BACKGROUND: The Stewart model for analyzing acid-base disturbances emphasizes serum albumin levels, which are ignored in the traditional Boston model. We compared data derived using the Stewart model to those using the Boston model in patients with nephrotic syndrome. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with nephrotic syndrome and six patients without urinary protein or acid-base disturbances provided blood and urine samples for analysis that included routine biochemical and arterial blood gas tests, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone...
March 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Alan R Baggio, Daniel F S Machado, Valter H Carvalho-Silva, Leonardo G Paterno, Heibbe Cristhian B de Oliveira
In the present contribution, we develop an adapted theoretical approach based on DFT calculations (B3LYP functional) and solution of the nuclear Schrödinger equation by using the Discrete Variable Representation method to model the interaction of ammonia with metallo-phthalocyanines (MPcs, where M = Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+) or Zn(2+)). This approach is intended to be a general protocol for the rational design of chemical sensors. The as-obtained binding energy curves, obtained from ab initio points, permitted us to calculate rovibrational energies and spectroscopic constants, as well as to establish the relative population of rovibrational states in different types of MPc-NH3 thermodynamic systems...
March 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Krisjanis Smits, Dags Olsteins, Aleksejs Zolotarjovs, Katrina Laganovska, Donats Millers, Reinis Ignatans, Janis Grabis
Zirconia is a relatively new material with many promising practical applications in medical imaging, biolabeling, sensors, and other fields. In this study we have investigated lanthanide and niobium doped zirconia by luminescence and XRD methods. It was proven that charge compensation in different zirconia phases determines the incorporation of intrinsic defects and activators. Thus, the structure of zirconia does not affect the Er luminescence directly; however, it strongly affects the defect distribution around lanthanide ions and the way in which activator ions are incorporated in the lattice...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
P H Santschi, C Xu, S Zhang, K A Schwehr, P Lin, C M Yeager, D I Kaplan
Among the key environmental factors influencing the fate and transport of radionuclides in the environment is natural organic matter (NOM). While this has been known for decades, there still remains great uncertainty in predicting NOM-radionuclide interactions because of lack of understanding of radionuclide interactions with the specific organic moieties within NOM. Furthermore, radionuclide-NOM studies conducted using modelled organic compounds or elevated radionuclide concentrations provide compromised information related to true environmental conditions...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Pierre A J Mourier, Olivier Y Guichard, Fréderic Herman, Philippe Sizun, Christian Viskov
Low Molecular Weight Heparins (LMWH) are complex anticoagulant drugs that mainly inhibit the blood coagulation cascade through indirect interaction with antithrombin. While inhibition of the factor Xa is well described, little is known about the polysaccharide structure inhibiting thrombin. In fact, a minimal chain length of 18 saccharides units, including an antithrombin (AT) binding pentasaccharide, is mandatory to form the active ternary complex for LMWH obtained by alkaline β-elimination (e.g., enoxaparin)...
March 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chang Liu, J C Yves Le Blanc, Bradley B Schneider, Jefry Shields, James J Federico, Hui Zhang, Justin G Stroh, Gregory W Kauffman, Daniel W Kung, Christian Ieritano, Evan Shepherdson, Mitch Verbuyst, Luke Melo, Moaraj Hasan, Dalia Naser, John S Janiszewski, W Scott Hopkins, J Larry Campbell
The microsolvated state of a molecule, represented by its interactions with only a small number of solvent molecules, can play a key role in determining the observable bulk properties of the molecule. This is especially true in cases where strong local hydrogen bonding exists between the molecule and the solvent. One method that can probe the microsolvated states of charged molecules is differential mobility spectrometry (DMS), which rapidly interrogates an ion's transitions between a solvated and desolvated state in the gas phase (i...
February 22, 2017: ACS Central Science
Katsuki Kimura, Yasumitsu Oki
In recent studies on membrane fouling in microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) for drinking water production, hydrophilic macromolecular organics referred to as biopolymers have been shown to be major players in the fouling. In this study, various pretreatments were compared to maximize removal of biopolymers and to control membrane fouling efficiently. Multiple water samples were collected from different drinking water sources and were used in this study. Coagulation using polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was carried out under conditions of different dosages and different pHs and was also carried out in combination with the use of powdered activated carbon (PAC) or magnetic ion exchange (MIEX(®)) resin...
February 20, 2017: Water Research
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