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Strong ion difference

Mingming Wang, Habtamu Admassu Tessema, Mohammed A A Gasmalla, Xiao Hua, Ruijin Yang
BACKGROUND: Lactulose, a valuable lactose-originated "bifidus factor" product, is exclusively produced by chemical-based isomerization commercially. Complexing agent of sodium aluminate exhibited high conversion efficiency and strong recyclable stability is more practical for industrial applications. In this study, efficient purification of high-purity lactulose through recycling of sodium aluminate and further desalination by nanofiltration (NF) was implemented in a pilot scale...
April 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
J Squire, E Quataert, M W Kunz
In collisionless and weakly collisional plasmas, such as hot accretion flows onto compact objects, the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can differ significantly from the standard (collisional) MRI. In particular, pressure anisotropy with respect to the local magnetic-field direction can both change the linear MRI dispersion relation and cause nonlinear modifications to the mode structure and growth rate, even when the field and flow perturbations are very small. This work studies these pressure-anisotropy-induced nonlinearities in the weakly nonlinear, high-ion-beta regime, before the MRI saturates into strong turbulence...
December 2017: Journal of Plasma Physics
Konstantin Chingin, Konstantin Barylyuk
Native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is nowadays widely used for the direct and sensitive determination of protein complex stoichiometry and binding affinity constants (Ka). A common yet poorly understood phenomenon in native ESI-MS is the difference between the charge state distributions (CSDs) of the bound protein-ligand complex (PL) and unbound protein (P) signals. This phenomenon is typically attributed to experimental artefacts such as non-specific binding or in-source dissociation and is considered highly undesirable because the determined Ka values display strong variation with charge state...
April 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Rikkert J Nap, Estefania Gonzalez Solveyra, Igal Szleifer
When engineering nanomaterials for application in biological systems, it is important to understand how multivalent ions, such as calcium, affect the structural and chemical properties of polymer-modified nanoconstructs. In this work, a recently developed molecular theory was employed to study the effect of surface curvature on the calcium-induced collapse of end-tethered weak polyelectrolytes. In particular, we focused on cylindrical and spherical nanoparticles coated with poly(acrylic acid) in the presence of different amounts of Ca2+ ions...
April 13, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Marcileia Zanatta, Jairton Dupont, Gabriela Negruni Wentz, Francisco P Dos Santos
The role of small amounts of water in ionic liquids (ILs), namely, 1-n-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium imidazolate (BMMI·Im), 2-methylimidazolate (BMMI·MeIm), and pyrazolate (BMMI·Pyr), is examined using NMR spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) indicates that a water molecule is trapped inside the ionic network, keeping the ion pair in contact through strong H-bonds involving the hydrogen atoms of water and the nitrogen atoms of the IL anions to give a guest@host supramolecular structure...
April 13, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Weiguang Ran, Hyeon Mi Noh, Sung Heum Park, Byung Kee Moon, Jung Hyun Jeong, Jung Hwan Kim, Jinsheng Shi
Eu3+ doped CdMoO4 super red emission phosphors with charge compensation were prepared by the traditional high temperature solid-state reaction method in air atmosphere. The interrelationships between photoluminescence properties and crystalline environments were investigated in detail. The 3D network structure which composed by CdO8 and MoO4 polyhedra can collect and efficiently transmit energy to Eu3+ luminescent centers. The relative distance between Eu3+ ions decreased and energy interaction increased sharply with the appearance of interstitial occupation of O2- ions ([Formula: see text])...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Irene U Wacker, Lisa Veith, Waldemar Spomer, Andreas Hofmann, Marlene Thaler, Stefan Hillmer, Ulrich Gengenbach, Rasmus R Schröder
Targeting specific cells at ultrastructural resolution within a mixed cell population or a tissue can be achieved by hierarchical imaging using a combination of light and electron microscopy. Samples embedded in resin are sectioned into arrays consisting of ribbons of hundreds of ultrathin sections and deposited on pieces of silicon wafer or conductively coated coverslips. Arrays are imaged at low resolution using a digital consumer like smartphone camera or light microscope (LM) for a rapid large area overview, or a wide field fluorescence microscope (fluorescence light microscopy (FLM)) after labeling with fluorophores...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Manjit Dosanjh, Ugo Amaldi, Ramona Mayer, Richard Poetter
The European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy (ENLIGHT) was established in 2002 following various European particle therapy network initiatives during the 1980s and 1990s (e.g. EORTC task group, EULIMA/PIMMS accelerator design). ENLIGHT started its work on major topics related to hadron therapy (HT), such as patient selection, clinical trials, technology, radiobiology, imaging and health economics. It was initiated through CERN and ESTRO and dealt with various disciplines such as (medical) physics and engineering, radiation biology and radiation oncology...
April 3, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Kazuhiko Kandori, Ryuya Murata, Yuto Yamaguchi, Ayano Yoshioka
Fundamental experiments on the adsorption behaviors of proteins onto plate-like and rod-like manganese-doped calcium hydroxyapatite particle (abbreviated as MnHAp) were examined. All of the obtained adsorption isotherms of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LSZ) in a 1 × 10-4  mol/dm3 KCl solution were of the Langmuirian type. We found that the saturated amounts of the adsorbed BSA (ns BSA ) increased with the increase in Mn/(Ca + Mn) atomic ratio (abbreviated as XMn ) of the plate-like MnHAp, while the saturated amounts of adsorbed LSZ (ns LCZ ) decreased...
March 30, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Mengxiao Liu, Guannan Zhang, Nilkamal Mahanta, Youngbok Lee, Christian Hilty
Paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) conjoint with hyperpolarized NMR reveals structural information on the enzyme-product complex in an on-going metalloenzyme catalyzed reaction. Substrates of pseudouridine monophosphate glycosidase are hyperpolarized using the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) method. Time series of13 C NMR spectra are subsequently measured with the enzyme containing diamagnetic Mg2+ or paramagnetic Mn2+ ions in the active site. The differences of the signal evolution and line widths in the Mg2+ vs...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Mario Špadina, Simon Gourdin-Bertin, Goran Dražić, Atiđa Selmani, Jean-François Dufrêche, Klemen Bohinc
Charging of material surfaces in aqueous electrolyte solutions is one of the most important processes in the interactions between biomaterials and surrounding tissue. Other than a biomaterial, titania nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) represent a versatile material for numerous applications such as heavy metal adsorption or photocatalysis. In this article, the surface charge properties of titania NTs in NaNO3 solution were investigated through electrophoretic mobility and polyelectrolyte colloid titration measuring techniques...
April 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nicholas J Brooks, Franca Castiglione, Cara M Doherty, Andrew Dolan, Anita J Hill, Patricia A Hunt, Richard P Matthews, Michele Mauri, Andrea Mele, Roberto Simonutti, Ignacio J Villar-Garcia, Cameron C Weber, Tom Welton
The formation of ionic liquid (IL) mixtures has been proposed as an approach to rationally fine-tune the physicochemical properties of ILs for a variety of applications. However, the effects of forming such mixtures on the resultant properties of the liquids are only beginning to be understood. Towards a more complete understanding of both the thermodynamics of mixing ILs and the effect of mixing these liquids on their structures and physicochemical properties, the spatial arrangement and free volume of IL mixtures containing the common [C4 C1 im]+ cation and different anions have been systematically explored using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and129 Xe NMR techniques...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Ye Zhengqin, Ye Zhongbin, Huang Lei, Bai Yun, Li Lili, Zhang Jie, Qu Chentun, Chen Gang
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that a number of traditional shale inhibitors have been utilized widely in drilling operations, the same additive may be unfavorable for different drilling due to environmental protection requirements which limit scales of use. Hence, a series of polyammonium compounds was prepared from dimethylamine, epichlorohydrin, and melamine (DEM). METHODS: To concentrate our efforts, we used both standard and extra methods to investigate the inhibitive properties of a melamine crosslinking agent using mud balls immersion tests, linear expansion measurements, laser particle distribution measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy...
January 2018: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Xiong Li, Chang Zhu, Zengqiang Jia, Gang Yang
Owing to the ubiquity, critical importance and special properties, confined microenvironments have recently triggered overwhelming interest. In this work, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted to address the confinement effects and ion-specific effects for electrolyte solutions within montmorillonite nanopores, where the pore widths vary with a wide range. The adsorption number, structure, dynamics and stability of inner- and outer-sphere metal ions are affected by the change of pore widths (confinement effects), while the extents are significantly dependent on the type of adsorbed species...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Anna Frank, Rasa Changizi, Christina Scheu
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a widely used tool to characterize materials. The required samples need to be electron transparent which should be achieved without changing the microstructure. This work describes different TEM sample preparation techniques of nanostructured CuInS2 thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates, synthesized solvothermally using l-cysteine as sulfur source. Focused ion beam lamellae, conventional cross section samples and scratch samples have been prepared and investigated...
March 23, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Yuxi Pan, Ruijie Yang, Jun Li, Xile Zhang, Lu Liu, Junjie Wang
Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, as the most accurate dose calculation algorithm, is available in the MultiPlan treatment planning system for Cyberknife. The main purpose of this work was to perform experiments to thoroughly investigate the accuracy of the MC dose calculation algorithm. Besides the basic MC beam commissioning, two test scenarios were designed. First, single beam tests were performed with a solid water phantom to verify the MC source model in simple geometry. Then, a lung treatment plan on a CIRS thorax phantom was created to mimic the clinical patient treatment...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Xi Li, Zheng Li, Ying-Wei Yang
A luminescent conjugated macrocycle polymer (CMP) with strong two-photon fluorescence property, namely, P[5]-TPE-CMP, is constructed from ditriflate-functionalized pillar[5]arene and a 1,1,2,2-tetrakis(4-ethynylphenyl)ethylene (TPE) linker through a Sonogashira-Hagihara cross-coupling reaction. Significantly, in sharp contrast with the corresponding conjugated microporous polymer without synthetic macrocycles, P[5]-TPE-CMP shows an outstanding stability against photobleaching and exhibits highly selective cation sensing capability toward Fe3+ at different excitation wavelengths (both UV and red-near-infrared regions)...
March 30, 2018: Advanced Materials
Gang Wang, Minghao Yu, Jungang Wang, Debao Li, Deming Tan, Markus Löffler, Xiaodong Zhuang, Klaus Müllen, Xinliang Feng
Developing high-power cathodes is crucial to construct next-generation quick-charge batteries for electric transportation and grid applications. However, this mainly relies on nanoengineering strategies at the expense of low scalability and high battery cost. Another option is provided herein to build high-power cathodes by exploiting inexpensive bulk graphite as the active electrode material, where anion intercalation is involved. With the assistance of a strong alginate binder, the disintegration problem of graphite cathodes due to the large volume variation of >130% is well suppressed, making it possible to investigate the intrinsic electrochemical behavior and to elucidate the charge storage kinetics of graphite cathodes...
March 30, 2018: Advanced Materials
Jean R N Haler, Denis Morsa, Philippe Lecomte, Christine Jérôme, Johann Far, Edwin De Pauw
Ion Mobility (IM) coupled to Mass Spectrometry (MS) has been used for several decades, bringing a fast separation dimension to the MS detection. IM-MS is a convenient tool for structural elucidation. The folding of macromolecules is often assessed with the support of computational chemistry. However, this strategy is strongly dependent on computational initial guesses. Here, we propose the analysis of the Collision Cross-Section (CCS) trends of synthetic homopolymers based on a fitting method which does not rely on computational chemistry a prioris of the three-dimensional structures...
March 27, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Yingnan Liu, Hanyue Xue, Jinghan Liu, Qinzhi Wang, Li Wang
The authors describe a simple and economical fluorescence method for the determination of nitrite by utilizing the fact that nitrite possesses strong oxidation in acidic solution and is capable to transform iron(II) into iron(III) ions. The latter quenches the fluorescence of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) based on the fluorescence static and dynamic quenching effect. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters are investigated to enhance the sensitivity of the method. At the excitation wavelength of 360 nm, this probe has a linear response in the 10 to 400 μM nitrite concentration range, with a correlation coefficient of R2  = 0...
January 25, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
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