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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530304/visualization-of-structural-evolution-and-phase-distribution-of-a-lithium-vanadium-oxide-li1-1v3o8-electrode-via-an-operando-and-in-situ-energy-dispersive-x-ray-diffraction-technique
#1
Qing Zhang, Andrea M Bruck, David C Bock, Jing Li, Varun Sarbada, Robert Hull, Eric A Stach, Kenneth J Takeuchi, Esther S Takeuchi, Amy C Marschilok
Li1+nV3O8 (n = 0-0.2) has been extensively investigated as a cathode material for Li ion batteries because of its superior electrochemical properties including high specific energy and good rate capability. In this paper, a synchrotron based energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) technique was employed to profile the phase transitions and the spatial phase distribution of a Li1.1V3O8 electrode during electrochemical (de)lithiation in situ and operando. As annealing temperature during the preparation of the Li1...
May 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522242/monitoring-the-surface-quality-of-silver-plasmon-waveguides-with-nonlinear-photoemission-electron-microscopy-and-in-situ-ion-sputtering
#2
Kellie Pearce, Francis Schuknecht, Christian Späth, Benjamin Duschner, Florian Richter, Ulf Kleineberg
We use photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) with single- and two-photon excitation to study the properties of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in tapered silver stripe waveguides. Arrays of waveguides with different widths, grating coupler geometries, and taper angles are fabricated using electron beam lithography (EBL) on Si and indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-covered glass substrates. The presence of propagating SPP modes is indicated by modulations of the non-linear photoemission intensity which run along the length of the waveguide - the result of interfering SPPs reflected from the edges...
May 10, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522166/development-and-validation-of-a-simplified-titration-method-for-monitoring-volatile-fatty-acids-in-anaerobic-digestion
#3
Hao Sun, Jianbin Guo, Shubiao Wu, Fang Liu, Renjie Dong
The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration has been considered as one of the most sensitive process performance indicators in anaerobic digestion (AD) process. However, the accurate determination of VFAs concentration in AD processes normally requires advanced equipment and complex pretreatment procedures. A simplified method with fewer sample pretreatment procedures and improved accuracy is greatly needed, particularly for on-site application. This report outlines improvements to the Nordmann method, one of the most popular titrations used for VFA monitoring...
May 15, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513645/electrode-potential-dependent-desolvation-and-resolvation-of-germanium-100-in-contact-with-aqueous-perchlorate-electrolytes
#4
Fang Niu, Rainer Schulz, Arcesio Castañeda Medina, Rochus Schmid, Andreas Erbe
The electrode potential dependence of the hydration layer on an n-Ge(100) surface was studied by a combination of in situ and operando electrochemical attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy and real space density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Constant-potential DFT calculations were coupled to a modified generalised Poisson-Boltzmann ion distribution model and applied within an ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) scheme. As a result, potential-dependent vibrational spectra of surface species and surface water were obtained, both experimentally and by simulations...
May 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508892/high-precision-hyperfine-measurements-in-bismuth-challenge-bound-state-strong-field-qed
#5
Johannes Ullmann, Zoran Andelkovic, Carsten Brandau, Andreas Dax, Wolfgang Geithner, Christopher Geppert, Christian Gorges, Michael Hammen, Volker Hannen, Simon Kaufmann, Kristian König, Yuri A Litvinov, Matthias Lochmann, Bernhard Maaß, Johann Meisner, Tobias Murböck, Rodolfo Sánchez, Matthias Schmidt, Stefan Schmidt, Markus Steck, Thomas Stöhlker, Richard C Thompson, Christian Trageser, Jonas Vollbrecht, Christian Weinheimer, Wilfried Nörtershäuser
Electrons bound in highly charged heavy ions such as hydrogen-like bismuth (209)Bi(82+) experience electromagnetic fields that are a million times stronger than in light atoms. Measuring the wavelength of light emitted and absorbed by these ions is therefore a sensitive testing ground for quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects and especially the electron-nucleus interaction under such extreme conditions. However, insufficient knowledge of the nuclear structure has prevented a rigorous test of strong-field QED...
May 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508595/silver-nanoparticle-deposited-implants-to-treat-osteomyelitis
#6
Samit Kumar Nandi, Anish Shivaram, Susmita Bose, Amit Bandyopadhyay
In this study, electrolytically deposited strongly adherent silver nanoparticles on stainless-steel (SS) implants were used for in situ osteomyelitis treatment. Samples were heat treated to enhance adhesion of silver on 316 L SS. Ex vivo studies were performed to measure silver-release profiles from the 316 L SS screws inserted in equine cadaver bones. No change in the release profiles of silver ions were observed in vitro between the implanted screws and the control. In vivo studies were performed using osteomyelitic rabbit model with 3 mm diameter silver-deposited 316 L SS pins at two different doses of silver: high and low...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507697/regulating-the-active-species-of-ni-oh-2-using-ceo2-3d-ceo2-ni-oh-2-carbon-foam-as-an-efficient-electrode-for-the-oxygen-evolution-reaction
#7
Zhengqing Liu, Na Li, Hongyang Zhao, Yi Zhang, Yunhui Huang, Zongyou Yin, Yaping Du
Three dimensional (3D) N, O and S doped carbon foam (NOSCF) is prepared as a substrate for in situ vertically grown Ni(OH)2 nanosheets. As designed Ni(OH)2/NOSCF possesses strong electrostatic interactions with OH(-) ions due to many C 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 O groups existing in NOSCF, which can facilitate the formation of crucial NiOOH intermediates during the OER process...
April 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504292/microstructure-degradation-of-ni-cgo-anodes-for-solid-oxide-fuel-cells-after-long-operation-time-using-3d-reconstructions-by-fib-tomography
#8
Atef Zekri, Martin Knipper, Jürgen Parisi, Thorsten Plaggenborg
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical conversion devices, which essentially consist of two porous electrodes separated by a dense, oxide ion conducting electrolyte. The performance and the durability of SOFCs strongly depend on the electrode microstructure. In this paper, the impact of a relatively long exposure time (up to 20 000 h) under realistic operation terms (temperature (T) = 850 °C, current density (J) = 190-250 mA cm(-2)) in the kinetics of microstructural degradation are investigated for porous nickel (Ni)/ceria gadolinium oxide (CGO) anodes, to understand the microstructural evolution in SOFC cermet anodes...
May 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501396/analysis-of-copy-number-variations-in-holstein-friesian-cow-genomes-based-on-whole-genome-sequence-data
#9
M Mielczarek, M Frąszczak, R Giannico, G Minozzi, John L Williams, K Wojdak-Maksymiec, J Szyda
Thirty-two whole genome DNA sequences of cows were analyzed to evaluate inter-individual variability in the distribution and length of copy number variations (CNV) and to functionally annotate CNV breakpoints. The total number of deletions per individual varied between 9,731 and 15,051, whereas the number of duplications was between 1,694 and 5,187. Most of the deletions (81%) and duplications (86%) were unique to a single cow. No relation between the pattern of variant sharing and a family relationship or disease status was found...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494363/reductive-solidification-stabilization-of-chromate-in-municipal-solid-waste-incineration-fly-ash-by-ascorbic-acid-and-blast-furnace-slag
#10
Xian Zhou, Min Zhou, Xian Wu, Yi Han, Junjun Geng, Teng Wang, Sha Wan, Haobo Hou
Fly ash is a hazardous byproduct of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). Cementitious material that is based on ground-granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) has been tested and proposed as a binder to stabilize Pb, Cd, and Zn in MSWI fly ash (FA). Cr, however, still easily leaches from MSWI FA. Different reagents, such as ascorbic acid (VC), NaAlO2, and trisodium salt nonahydrate, were investigated as potential Cr stabilizers. The results of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) showed that VC significantly improved the stabilization of Cr via the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III)...
April 21, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494246/catalytic-hydrodechlorination-of-triclosan-using-a-new-class-of-anion-exchange-resin-supported-palladium-catalysts
#11
Bing Han, Wen Liu, Jingwen Li, Jin Wang, Dongye Zhao, Rui Xu, Zhang Lin
We prepared a new class of anion-exchange-resin supported Pd catalysts for efficient hydrodechlorination of triclosan in water. The catalysts were prepared through an initial ion-exchange uptake of PdCl4(2-) and subsequent reduction of Pd(II) to Pd(0) nanoparticles at ambient temperature. Two standard strong-base anion exchange resins (IRA-900 and IRA-958) with different matrices (polystyrene and polyacrylic) were chosen as the supports. SEM and TEM images showed that Pd(0) nanoparticles were evenly attached on the resin surface with a mean size of 3-5 nm...
April 26, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493516/single-walled-carbon-nanotube-based-ultrafast-high-capacity-al-ion-battery
#12
Preeti Bhauriyal, Arup Mahata, Biswarup Pathak
Exploring a suitable electrode material is a fundamental step in the direction of the development of Al-ion battery for enhanced performance. In this work, we have explored the feasibility of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as a cathode material for Al-ion batteries using the density functional theory calculations. Carbon nanotubes with the hollow structures and large surface area overcome the difficulty of activating the opening of interlayer spaces as observed in graphite electrode during the first intercalation cycle...
May 11, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492474/fabrication-of-silicon-nanobelts-and-nanopillars-by-soft-lithography-for-hydrophobic-and-hydrophilic-photonic-surfaces
#13
Estela Baquedano, Ramses V Martinez, José M Llorens, Pablo A Postigo
Soft lithography allows for the simple and low-cost fabrication of nanopatterns with different shapes and sizes over large areas. However, the resolution and the aspect ratio of the nanostructures fabricated by soft lithography are limited by the depth and the physical properties of the stamp. In this work, silicon nanobelts and nanostructures were achieved by combining soft nanolithography patterning with optimized reactive ion etching (RIE) in silicon. Using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanopatterned layers with thicknesses ranging between 14 and 50 nm, we obtained silicon nanobelts in areas of square centimeters with aspect ratios up to ~1...
May 11, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486799/cucurbit-10-uril-based-2-rotaxane-preparation-and-supramolecular-assembly-induced-fluorescence-enhancement
#14
Yang Yu, Yawen Li, Xiaoqing Wang, Hao Nian, Le Wang, Jie Li, Yanxia Zhao, Xiran Yang, Simin Liu, Liping Cao
As the cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) homologue with the largest cavity size, cucurbit[10]uril (CB[10]) can encapsulate big guests to form interesting host-guest complexes/assemblies. Herein, we report the preparation and fluorescence properties of CB[10]-based [2]rotaxane (CB[10]·1) formed from cucurbit[10]uril and dumbbell-like guest 1. This [2]rotaxane (CB[10]·1) is assembled by C═O···N(+) ion-dipole interactions between oxygen atoms of the carbonyl fringed portals of CB[10] and the positively charged pyridinium units of 1 via the slipping method under heating at 95 °C in DMSO...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485949/elucidation-and-comparison-of-the-effect-of-litfsi-and-lino3-salts-on-discharge-chemistry-in-nonaqueous-li-o2-batteries
#15
Merve Iliksu, Abhishek Khetan, Shuo Yang, Ulrich Simon, Heinz Pitsch, Dirk Uwe Sauer
The role of lithium salts in determining the discharge capacity of Li-O2 batteries has been highlighted in several recent studies, however, questions pertaining to their effect on the cathode surface and in the solution phase still remain unanswered. We conducted galvanostatic discharge experiments with different compositions of a binary mixture of 1M of LiNO3 and LiTFSI in tetraglyme (TEGDME) as the electrolyte and analyzed the discharge products using techniques such as FT-IR, Raman Spectroscopy and SEM. It was observed that there is a non-linear correlation between the electrolyte composition and the first discharge capacity, with the highest discharge capacity achieved with the electrolyte composition as 0...
May 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485833/a-near-infrared-dye-that-undergoes-multiple-interconversions-through-acid-base-equilibrium-and-reversible-redox-processes
#16
Kengo Asai, Aiko Fukazawa, Shigehiro Yamaguchi
A near-infrared (NIR) polymethine dye (1), consisting of a cyclohepta[1,2-b;4,3-b']dithiophene and two phenol moieties, was synthesized. This dye exhibited pH-responsive changes in its photophysical properties due to a two-step acid-base equilibrium that produced a protonated cation (1H(+) ) and an anion (1(-) ). While 1H(+) showed an intense fluorescence in the red region of the visible spectrum, 1(-) exhibited a strong absorption in the NIR region. The tropylium ion character in 1H(+) induces high pKa1 and pKa2 values for 1...
May 9, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485485/structural-observations-and-biomechanical-measurements-of-clarinet-reeds-made-from-arundo-donax
#17
Masahiro Kawasaki, Tadashi Nobuchi, Yuta Nakafushi, Masateru Nose, Masateru Shibata, Peng Li, Makoto Shiojiri
Plant anatomy was examined for two clarinet reeds made out of Arundo donax by different means of microscopy: light microscopy, low-energy secondary electron scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron SEM, and helium ion microscopy (HiM). The local indentation hardness HIT and Young's modulus EIT of different tissues on their cross sections were measured. A vascular bundle (Vb) (HIT  = 60-100 MPa, EIT  = 1,500-2,000 MPa) that includes soft tissues of phloem and xylem and a vascular bundle sheath (Bs) (HIT  = 300-500 MPa, EIT  = ∼7,000 MPa) form a pipe of the strong string along the longitudinal direction of the cane...
May 9, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484763/electron-stimulated-desorption-from-condensed-pyrimidine-and-pyridazine
#18
L Ellis-Gibbings, A D Bass, P Cloutier, G García, L Sanche
Low energy electron (LEE) interactions and the formation of transient negative ions play a dominant role in radiation-induced dissociation of condensed-phase biomolecules (e.g. in radiotherapy). Here we present data on the LEE-induced dissociation and desorption of the DNA/RNA-base and radiosensitizing agent analogues pyrimidine and pyridazine. Vapors of each molecule were condensed on either a Pt or Ar substrate to form a multilayer film or a submonolayer molecular target, respectively. These were irradiated with electrons of 0-80 eV and the desorbing anionic and cationic fragments analysed via time of flight mass spectrometry...
May 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478727/local-upregulation-of-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-and-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-ion-channels-in-rectosigmoid-deep-infiltrating-endometriosis
#19
Noémi Bohonyi, Krisztina Pohóczky, Bálint Szalontai, Anikó Perkecz, Krisztina Kovács, Béla Kajtár, Lajos Orbán, Tamás Varga, Sarolta Szegedi, József Bódis, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Miklós Koppán
Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) expressed mainly by primary sensory neurons function as major nociceptive integrators. They are also present on the rat endometrium in an oestrogen-regulated manner. TRPV1 is upregulated in peritoneal and ovarian endometriosis patients, but there is no information about TRPA1 and their pathophysiological significances. In this study, patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery were investigated: severe dysmenorrhoea due to rectosigmoid deep infiltrating endometriosis ( n = 15), uterine fibroid-induced moderate dysmenorrhoea ( n = 7) and tubal infertility with no pain ( n = 6)...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473200/thermal-desorption-comprehensive-two-dimensional-gas-chromatography-coupled-to-variable-energy-electron-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-for-monitoring-subtle-changes-in-volatile-organic-compound-profiles-of-human-blood
#20
Lena M Dubois, Katelynn A Perrault, Pierre-Hugues Stefanuto, Stefan Koschinski, Matthew Edwards, Laura McGregor, Jean-François Focant
Blood is a matrix with high potential for forensic investigations and human rescue. Its volatile signature can be used in search exercises to locate injured or deceased individuals. Little is known, however, about the volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of blood, except that it is complex and varies while blood ages. In the present study, we used thermal desorption (TD) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) coupled to variable-energy electron ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) to monitor VOC signatures of human blood...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
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