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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910594/quantitative-low-energy-ion-beam-characterization-by-beam-profiling-and-imaging-via-scintillation-screens
#1
S Germer, F Pietag, J Polak, T Arnold
This study presents the imaging and characterization of low-current ion beams in the neutralized state monitored via single crystal YAG:Ce (Y3Al5O12) scintillators. To validate the presented beam diagnostic tool, Faraday cup measurements and test etchings were performed. Argon ions with a typical energy of 1.0 keV were emitted from an inductively coupled radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) ion beam source with total currents of some mA. Different beam properties, such as, lateral ion current density, beam divergence angle, and current density in pulsed ion beams have been studied to obtain information about the spatial beam profile and the material removal rate distribution...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910528/compact-and-multi-view-solid-state-neutral-particle-analyzer-arrays-on-national-spherical-torus-experiment-upgrade
#2
D Liu, W W Heidbrink, K Tritz, E D Fredrickson, G Z Hao, Y B Zhu
A compact and multi-view solid state neutral particle analyzer (SSNPA) diagnostic based on silicon photodiode arrays has been successfully tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade. The SSNPA diagnostic provides spatially, temporally, and pitch-angle resolved measurements of fast-ion distribution by detecting fast neutral flux resulting from the charge exchange (CX) reactions. The system consists of three 16-channel subsystems: t-SSNPA viewing the plasma mid-radius and neutral beam (NB) line #2 tangentially, r-SSNPA viewing the plasma core and NB line #1 radially, and p-SSNPA with no intersection with any NB lines...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907125/identification-of-a-highly-conserved-hypothetical-protein-ton_0340-as-a-probable-manganese-dependent-phosphatase
#3
Young-Sik Sohn, Seong-Gyu Lee, Kwang-Hoon Lee, Bonsu Ku, Ho-Chul Shin, Sun-Shin Cha, Yeon-Gil Kim, Hyun Sook Lee, Sung-Gyun Kang, Byung-Ha Oh
A hypothetical protein TON_0340 of a Thermococcus species is a protein conserved in a variety of organisms including human. Herein, we present four different crystal structures of TON_0340, leading to the identification of an active-site cavity harboring a metal-binding site composed of six invariant aspartate and glutamate residues that coordinate one to three metal ions. Biochemical and mutational analyses involving many phosphorous compounds show that TON_0340 is a Mn2+-dependent phosphatase. Mg2+ binds to TON_0340 less tightly and activates the phosphatase activity less efficiently than Mn2+...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906474/tuning-the-energy-transfer-efficiency-between-ce-3-and-ln-3-ions-ln-tm-sm-tb-dy-by-controlling-the-crystal-phase-of-nayf4-nanocrystals
#4
Venkata N K B Adusumalli, Heramba V S R M Koppisetti, Sagar Ganguli, Shyam Sarkar, Venkataramanan Mahalingam
NaYF4 is a superior host matrix to study the luminescence properties of lanthanide (Ln(3+) ) ions. Ln(3+) ions in hexagonal-phase NaYF4 (β-phase) nanocrystals (NCs) exhibit strong luminescence via an upconversion process compared to cubic NaYF4 (α-phase) NCs. However, in Ce(3+) /Ln(3+) -doped NaYF4 NCs (Ln=Tm, Tb, Sm, Dy) the α-phase NaYF4 NCs shows strong luminescence compared to their counterpart β-phase NCs despite the latter being much larger in size. This is attributed to comparatively large overlap between Ce(3+) ions emission band with excited energy levels of those Ln(3+) ions in α-phase compared to β-phase NCs...
December 1, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905602/achieving-enhanced-ionic-mobility-in-nanoporous-silica-by-controlled-surface-interactions
#5
Mounesha Nagendrachar Garaga, Luis Aguilera, Negin Yaghini, Aleksandar Matic, Michael Persson, Anna Martinelli
We report a strategy to enhance the ionic mobility in an emerging class of gels, based on robust nanoporous silica micro-particles, by chemical functionalization of the silica surface. Two very different ionic liquids are used to fill the nano-pores of silica at varying pore filling factors, namely one aprotic imidazolium based (1-methyl-3-hexylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, C6C1ImTFSI), and one protic ammonium based (diethylmethylammonium methanesulfonate, DEMAOMs) ionic liquid. Both these ionic liquids display higher ionic mobility when confined in functionalized silica as compared to untreated silica nano-pores, an improvement that is more pronounced at low pore filling factors (i...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901080/block-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-by-philanthotoxins-is-strongly-dependent-on-their-subunit-composition
#6
Hamid S Kachel, Rohit N Patel, Henrik Franzyk, Ian R Mellor
Philanthotoxin-433 (PhTX-433) is an active component of the venom from the Egyptian digger wasp, Philanthus triangulum. PhTX-433 inhibits several excitatory ligand-gated ion channels, and to improve selectivity two synthetic analogues, PhTX-343 and PhTX-12, were developed. Previous work showed a 22-fold selectivity of PhTX-12 over PhTX-343 for embryonic muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in TE671 cells. We investigated their inhibition of different neuronal nAChR subunit combinations as well as of embryonic muscle receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900060/effects-of-fabrication-methods-on-spin-relaxation-and-crystallite-quality-in-tm-doped-y3ai5o12-powders-studied-using-spectral-hole-burning
#7
Thomas Lutz, Lucile Veissier, Charles W Thiel, Philip J T Woodburn, Rufus L Cone, Paul E Barclay, Wolfgang Tittel
High-quality rare-earth-ion (REI) doped materials are a prerequisite for many applications such as quantum memories, ultra-high-resolution optical spectrum analyzers and information processing. Compared to bulk materials, REI doped powders offer low-cost fabrication and a greater range of accessible material systems. Here we show that crystal properties, such as nuclear spin lifetime, are strongly affected by mechanical treatment, and that spectral hole burning can serve as a sensitive method to characterize the quality of REI doped powders...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896346/visible-light-driven-mesoporous-ag-embedded-zno-nanocomposites-reactive-oxygen-species-enhanced-photocatalysis-bacterial-inhibition-and-photodynamic-therapy
#8
Jagriti Gupta, Jeotikanta Mohapatra, D Bahadur
We present here the multitasking capabilities of Ag-embedded ZnO nanocomposites (Ag-ZnO NCs), which include the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes, bacterial inhibition, and cancer therapeutics. Ag-embedded ZnO nanocomposites (Ag-ZnO NCs) of mesoporous spherical morphology (size ∼ 150 ± 50 nm) are successfully synthesized by a facile and single step soft-chemical approach. To understand the effect of Ag loading on multitasking properties, Ag-ZnO NCs are synthesized with different wt% of Ag. It was found that Ag5-ZnO NCs (5 wt% of Ag) showed excellent solar light-induced photocatalytic degradation properties against both cationic as well as anionic dyes...
November 29, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894021/toxicity-of-silver-ions-and-differently-coated-silver-nanoparticles-in-allium-cepa-roots
#9
Petra Cvjetko, Anita Milošić, Ana-Marija Domijan, Ivana Vinković Vrček, Sonja Tolić, Petra Peharec Štefanić, Ilse Letofsky-Papst, Mirta Tkalec, Biljana Balen
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the dominating nanomaterial in consumer products due to their well-known antibacterial and antifungal properties. To enhance their properties, different surface coatings may be used, which affect physico-chemical properties of AgNPs. Due to their wide application, there has been concern about possible environmental and health consequences. Since plants play a significant role in accumulation and biodistribution of many environmentally released substances, they are also very likely to be influenced by AgNPs...
November 25, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885629/glutaminases
#10
Javier Márquez, José M Matés, José A Campos-Sandoval
Mammalian glutaminases catalyze the stoichiometric conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamate and ammonium ions. In brain, glutaminase is considered the prevailing pathway for synthesis of the neurotransmitter pool of glutamate. Besides neurotransmission, the products of glutaminase reaction also fulfill crucial roles in energy and metabolic homeostasis in mammalian brain. In the last years, new functional roles for brain glutaminases are being uncovered by using functional genomic and proteomic approaches. Glutaminases may act as multifunctional proteins able to perform different tasks: the discovery of multiple transcript variants in neurons and glial cells, novel extramitochondrial localizations, and isoform-specific proteininteracting partners strongly support possible moonlighting functions for these proteins...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884415/uniformly-active-phase-loaded-selective-catalytic-reduction-catalysts-v2o5-tnts-with-superior-alkaline-resistance-performance
#11
Haiqiang Wang, Penglu Wang, Xiongbo Chen, Zhongbiao Wu
In this work, protonated titanate nanotubes was performed as a potential useful support and different vanadium precursors (NH4VO3 and VOSO4) were used to synthesize deNOx catalysts. The results showed that VOSO4 exhibited better synergistic effect with titanate nanotubes than NH4VO3, which was caused by the ion-exchange reaction. Then high loading content of vanadium, uniformly active phase distribution, better dispersion of vanadium, more acid sites, better V(5+)/V(4+) redox cycles and superior oxygen mobility were achieved...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877850/turning-an-organic-semiconductor-into-a-low-resistance-material-by-ion-implantation
#12
Beatrice Fraboni, Alessandra Scidà, Piero Cosseddu, Yongqiang Wang, Michael Nastasi, Silvia Milita, Annalisa Bonfiglio
We report on the effects of low energy ion implantation on thin films of pentacene, carried out to investigate the efficacy of this process in the fabrication of organic electronic devices. Two different ions, Ne and N, have been implanted and compared, to assess the effects of different reactivity within the hydrocarbon matrix. Strong modification of the electrical conductivity, stable in time, is observed following ion implantation. This effect is significantly larger for N implants (up to six orders of magnitude), which are shown to introduce stable charged species within the hydrocarbon matrix, not only damage as is the case for Ne implants...
December 2015: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865419/gpr39-is-region-specifically-expressed-in-mouse-oviduct-correlating-with-the-zn-2-distribution
#13
Jingqiao Qiao, Huashan Zhao, Ying Zhang, Hongying Peng, Qi Chen, He Zhang, Xueying Zheng, Yaping Jin, Hemin Ni, Enkui Duan, Yong Guo
G-protein-coupled receptor 39 (GPR39) plays a role in cellular and physiological processes, including insulin secretion, cell death inhibition, wound healing, and obesity. Increasing evidence suggests that GPR39 is potently stimulated by zinc ions (Zn(2+)) and is therefore considered a putative Zn(2+) receptor. Given the importance of Zn(2+) in the reproductive system, we proposed that GPR39 might have a functional role in the reproductive system. However, the localization of GPR39 in the reproductive system remains unknown...
January 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862415/hydrated-and-solvated-tin-ii-ions-in-solution-and-the-solid-state-and-a-coordination-chemistry-overview-of-the-d-10-s-2-metal-ions
#14
Ingmar Persson, Paola D'Angelo, Daniel Lundberg
The coordination chemistry of d(10) s(2) metal ions is strongly affected by an (at least partially) occupied d(10) s(2) metal ion-ligand atom antibonding orbital, which may cause a void in the coordination sphere due to repulsion between the electrons in the antibonding orbital on the metal ion and those on the ligands. The character of the formed d(10) s(2) metal ion-ligand atom bond plays an important role in the electron density in the antibonding orbital and thereby also in the coordination chemistry. The hydrated tin(II) ion, [Sn(H2 O)3 ](2+) , and the trihydroxidostannate ion, [Sn(OH)3 ](-) , have very different mean Sn-O bond lengths (2...
November 10, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856739/fluorine-19-nmr-and-computational-quantification-of-isoflurane-binding-to-the-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-nachbac
#15
Monica N Kinde, Vasyl Bondarenko, Daniele Granata, Weiming Bu, Kimberly C Grasty, Patrick J Loll, Vincenzo Carnevale, Michael L Klein, Roderic G Eckenhoff, Pei Tang, Yan Xu
Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) play an important role in general anesthesia. Electrophysiology measurements suggest that volatile anesthetics such as isoflurane inhibit NaV by stabilizing the inactivated state or altering the inactivation kinetics. Recent computational studies suggested the existence of multiple isoflurane binding sites in NaV, but experimental binding data are lacking. Here we use site-directed placement of (19)F probes in NMR experiments to quantify isoflurane binding to the bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel NaChBac...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854272/impact-of-dendrimer-terminal-group-chemistry-on-blockage-of-the-anthrax-toxin-channel-a-single-molecule-study
#16
Goli Yamini, Nnanya Kalu, Ekaterina M Nestorovich
Nearly all the cationic molecules tested so far have been shown to reversibly block K⁺ current through the cation-selective PA63 channels of anthrax toxin in a wide nM-mM range of effective concentrations. A significant increase in channel-blocking activity of the cationic compounds was achieved when multiple copies of positively charged ligands were covalently linked to multivalent scaffolds, such as cyclodextrins and dendrimers. Even though multivalent binding can be strong when the individual bonds are relatively weak, for drug discovery purposes we often strive to design multivalent compounds with high individual functional group affinity toward the respective binding site on a multivalent target...
November 15, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849077/encumbrance-in-desilylation-triggered-fluorogenic-detection-of-the-fluoride-ion-a-kinetic-approach
#17
Raghupathy Suresh, Senthil Kumar Thiyagarajan, Perumal Ramamurthy
Highly selective fluorogenic detection of the fluoride ion becomes viable due to its propensity towards cleaving Si-O and Si-C bonds, the key reactive elements in fluoride selective chemodosimeters. Herein, acridinedione derived, two novel fluorescent probes bearing tertiarybutyldiphenylsilyloxy (TBDPS) and tertiarybutyldimethylsilyloxy (TBDMS) groups were synthesized and their fluoride selective dosimetric action in organic solvents and in mixed aqueous medium was established through steady state and time resolved fluorescence techniques...
November 30, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837419/genetics-of-ion-homeostasis-in-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#18
Roberto Teggi, Laura Zagato, Simona Delli Carpini, Lorena Citterio, Claudia Cassandro, Roberto Albera, Wen-Yi Yang, Jan A Staessen, Mario Bussi, Paolo Manunta, Chiara Lanzani
Aim of this work was to assess the role of polymorphisms belonging to genes involved in the regulation of ionic homeostasis in Caucasian patients with Ménière Disease (MD). We recruited 155 patients with definite Ménière Disease and 186 controls (Control Group 1) without a lifetime history of vertigo, overlapping with patients for age and rate of hypertension. We validated the positive results on 413 Caucasian subjects selected from a European general population (Control Group 2). The clinical history for migraine and hypertension was collected; genomic DNA was characterized for a panel of 33 SNPs encoding proteins involved in ionic transport...
November 11, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836643/contributions-of-the-membrane-dipole-potential-to-the-function-of-voltage-gated-cation-channels-and-modulation-by-small-molecule-potentiators
#19
Robert A Pearlstein, Callum J Dickson, Viktor Hornak
The membrane dipole potential (Ψd) constitutes one of three electrical potentials generated by cell membranes. Ψd arises from the unfavorable parallel alignment of phospholipid and water dipoles, and varies in magnitude both longitudinally and laterally across the bilayer according to membrane composition and phospholipid packing density. In this work, we propose that dynamic counter-balancing between Ψd and the transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) governs the conformational state transitions of voltage-gated ion channels...
November 9, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836281/magnetically-recoverable-fe3o4-graphene-nanocomposite-towards-efficient-removal-of-triazine-pesticides-from-aqueous-solution-investigation-of-the-adsorption-phenomenon-and-specific-ion-effect
#20
Purna K Boruah, Bhagyasmeeta Sharma, Najrul Hussain, Manash R Das
Spillage of effluents containing high concentration levels of pesticides into water has been considered as one of the serious environmental problems. In this study Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite has been efficiently utilized for the adsorption of five harmful pesticides namely ametryn, prometryn, simazine, simeton and atrazine in an aqueous medium. Electrostatic interaction between the pesticides and Fe3O4/rGO nanocomposite was analyzed by the zeta potential analysis, which is strongly related to the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent...
November 8, 2016: Chemosphere
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