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NAD AND NADH ratio

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646144/using-fractional-intensities-of-time-resolved-fluorescence-to-sensitively-quantify-nadh-nad-with-genetically-encoded-fluorescent-biosensors
#1
Mengfang Chang, Lei Li, Hanyang Hu, Qingxun Hu, Aoxue Wang, Xiaodan Cao, Xiantong Yu, Sanjun Zhang, Yuzheng Zhao, Jinquan Chen, Yi Yang, Jianhua Xu
In this paper, we propose a novel and sensitive ratiometric analysis method that uses the fractional intensities of time-resolved fluorescence of genetically encoded fluorescent NADH/NAD(+) biosensors, Peredox, SoNar, and Frex. When the conformations of the biosensors change upon NADH/NAD(+) binding, the fractional intensities (α i τ i ) have opposite changing trends. Their ratios could be exploited to quantify NADH/NAD(+) levels with a larger dynamic range and higher resolution versus commonly used fluorescence intensity and lifetime methods...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631845/mild-metabolic-perturbations-alter-succinylation-of-mitochondrial-proteins
#2
Huanlian Chen, Hui Xu, Samuel Potash, Anatoly Starkov, Vsevolod V Belousov, Dmitry S Bilan, Travis T Denton, Gary E Gibson
Succinylation of proteins is widespread, modifies both the charge and size of the molecules, and can alter their function. For example, liver mitochondrial proteins have 1,190 unique succinylation sites representing multiple metabolic pathways. Succinylation is sensitive to both increases and decreases of the NAD(+) -dependent desuccinylase, SIRT5. Although the succinyl group for succinylation is derived from metabolism, the effects of systematic variation of metabolism on mitochondrial succinylation are not known...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578808/real-time-monitoring-of-intracellular-redox-changes-in-methylococcus-capsulatus-bath-for-efficient-bioconversion-of-methane-to-methanol
#3
Masahito Ishikawa, Yuya Tanaka, Risa Suzuki, Kota Kimura, Kenya Tanaka, Kazuhide Kamiya, Hidehiro Ito, Souichiro Kato, Toshiaki Kamachi, Katsutoshi Hori, Shuji Nakanishi
This study aimed to develop a novel method for real-time monitoring of the intracellular redox states in a methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus, using Peredox as a genetically encoded fluorescent sensor of the NADH:NAD(+) ratio. As expected, the fluorescence derived from the Peredox-expressing M. capsulatus transformant increased by supplementation of electron donor compounds (methane and formate), while it decreased by specifically inhibiting the methanol oxidation reaction. Electrochemical measurements confirmed that the Peredox fluorescence reliably represents the intracellular redox changes...
May 19, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554565/antioxidant-mechanism-of-mitochondria-targeted-plastoquinone-skq1-is-suppressed-in-aglycemic-hepg2-cells-dependent-on-oxidative-phosphorylation
#4
Jan Ježek, Hana Engstová, Petr Ježek
Previously suggested antioxidant mechanisms for mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone SkQ1 included: i) ion-pairing of cationic SkQ1(+) with free fatty acid anions resulting in uncoupling; ii) SkQ1H2 ability to interact with lipoperoxyl radical; iii) interference with electron flow at the inner ubiquinone (Q) binding site of Complex III (Qi), involving the reduction of SkQ1 to SkQ1H2 by ubiquinol. We elucidated SkQ1 antioxidant properties by confocal fluorescence semi-quantification of mitochondrial superoxide (Jm) and cytosolic H2O2 (Jc) release rates in HepG2 cells...
May 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537923/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1a1-increases-nadh-levels-and-promotes-tumor-growth-via-glutathione-dihydrolipoic-acid-dependent-nad-reduction
#5
Baiyun Wang, Xue Chen, Zixi Wang, Wei Xiong, Tao Xu, Xinyuan Zhao, Yang Cao, Yanru Guo, Lin Li, She Chen, Song Huang, Xiaodong Wang, Min Fang, Zhirong Shen
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) is a member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily that oxidizes aldehydes to their corresponding acids, reactions that are coupled to the reduction of NAD+ to NADH. We report here that ALDH1A1 can also use glutathione (GSH) and dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) as electron donors to reduce NAD+ to NADH. The GSH/DHLA-dependent NAD+-reduction activity of ALDH1A1 is not affected by the aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor or by mutation of the residues in its aldehyde-binding pocket...
May 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528294/isoliquiritigenin-reduces-oxidative-damage-and-alleviates-mitochondrial-impairment-by-sirt1-activation-in-experimental-diabetic-neuropathy
#6
Veera Ganesh Yerra, Anil Kumar Kalvala, Ashutosh Kumar
Sirtuin (SIRT1) inactivation underlies the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia-associated vascular complications, but its role in diabetic neuropathy (DN) has not been yet explored. We have evaluated hyperglycaemia-induced alteration of SIRT1 signalling and the effect of isoliquiritigenin (ILQ) on SIRT1-directed AMP kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) signalling in peripheral nerves of streptozotocin (STZ) (55 mg/kg, ip)-induced diabetic rats and in high glucose (30 mM)-exposed neuro2a (N2A) cells...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516115/a-modified-chromogenic-assay-for-determination-of-the-ratio-of-free-intracellular-nad-nadh-in-streptococcus-mutans
#7
Jonathon L Baker, Roberta C Faustoferri, Robert G Quivey
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is a coenzyme present in all kingdoms of life and exists in two forms: oxidized (NAD(+)) and reduced (NADH). NAD(H) is involved in a multitude of essential metabolic redox reactions, providing oxidizing or reducing equivalents. The ratio of free intracellular NAD(+)/NADH is fundamentally important in the maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis (Ying, 2008). Various chromogenic cycling assays have been used to determine the ratio of NAD(+)/NADH in both bacterial and mammalian cells for more than forty years (Bernofsky and Swan, 1973; Nisselbaum and Green, 1969)...
August 20, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514055/caveolin-1-deficiency-induces-premature-senescence-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#8
Dong-Min Yu, Seung Hee Jung, Hyoung-Tae An, Sungsoo Lee, Jin Hong, Jun Sub Park, Hyun Lee, Hwayeon Lee, Myeong-Suk Bahn, Hyung Chul Lee, Na-Kyung Han, Jesang Ko, Jae-Seon Lee, Young-Gyu Ko
Paradoxical observations have been made regarding the role of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) during cellular senescence. For example, caveolin-1 deficiency prevents reactive oxygen species-induced cellular senescence despite mitochondrial dysfunction, which leads to senescence. To resolve this paradox, we re-addressed the role of caveolin-1 in cellular senescence in human diploid fibroblasts, A549, HCT116, and Cav-1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cav-1 deficiency (knockout or knockdown) induced cellular senescence via a p53-p21-dependent pathway, downregulating the expression level of the cardiolipin biosynthesis enzymes and then reducing the content of cardiolipin, a critical lipid for mitochondrial respiration...
May 17, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504706/the-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-is-essential-for-haematopoietic-stem-cell-function
#9
Elena Ansó, Samuel E Weinberg, Lauren P Diebold, Benjamin J Thompson, Sébastien Malinge, Paul T Schumacker, Xin Liu, Yuannyu Zhang, Zhen Shao, Mya Steadman, Kelly M Marsh, Jian Xu, John D Crispino, Navdeep S Chandel
Adult and fetal haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) display a glycolytic phenotype, which is required for maintenance of stemness; however, whether mitochondrial respiration is required to maintain HSC function is not known. Here we report that loss of the mitochondrial complex III subunit Rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP) in fetal mouse HSCs allows them to proliferate but impairs their differentiation, resulting in anaemia and prenatal death. RISP-null fetal HSCs displayed impaired respiration resulting in a decreased NAD(+)/NADH ratio...
June 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497978/extraction-and-quantitation-of-nad-p-h
#10
Wenyun Lu, Lin Wang, Li Chen, Sheng Hui, Joshua D Rabinowitz
AIMS: Accurate analysis of dinucleotide redox cofactors NADPH, NADP+, NADH, and NAD+ from biological samples is important to understanding cellular redox homeostasis. Here we aim to develop a simple protocol for quenching metabolism and extracting NADPH that avoids interconversion among the reduced forms and the oxidized forms. RESULTS: We compared seven different solvents for quenching and extraction of cultured mammalian cells and mouse tissues. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)...
May 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476035/rewiring-carbohydrate-catabolism-differentially-affects-survival-of-pancreatic-cancer-cell-lines-with-diverse-metabolic-profiles
#11
Tiziana Tataranni, Francesca Agriesti, Vitalba Ruggieri, Carmela Mazzoccoli, Vittorio Simeon, Ilaria Laurenzana, Rosella Scrima, Valerio Pazienza, Nazzareno Capitanio, Claudia Piccoli
An increasing body of evidence suggests that targeting cellular metabolism represents a promising effective approach to treat pancreatic cancer, overcome chemoresistance and ameliorate patient's prognosis and survival. In this study, following whole-genome expression analysis, we selected two pancreatic cancer cell lines, PANC-1 and BXPC-3, hallmarked by distinct metabolic profiles with specific concern to carbohydrate metabolism. Functional comparative analysis showed that BXPC-3 displayed a marked deficit of the mitochondrial respiratory and oxidative phosphorylation activity and a higher production of reactive oxygen species and a reduced NAD+/NADH ratio, indicating their bioenergetic reliance on glycolysis and a different redox homeostasis as compared to PANC-1...
June 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458540/surface-ligand-controls-silver-ion-release-of-nanosilver-and-its-antibacterial-activity-against-escherichia-coli
#12
Yan-Min Long, Li-Gang Hu, Xue-Ting Yan, Xing-Chen Zhao, Qun-Fang Zhou, Yong Cai, Gui-Bin Jiang
Understanding the mechanism of nanosilver-dependent antibacterial activity against microorganisms helps optimize the design and usage of the related nanomaterials. In this study, we prepared four kinds of 10 nm-sized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with dictated surface chemistry by capping different ligands, including citrate, mercaptopropionic acid, mercaptohexanoic acid, and mercaptopropionic sulfonic acid. Their surface-dependent chemistry and antibacterial activities were investigated. Owing to the weak bond to surface Ag, short carbon chain, and low silver ion attraction, citrate-coated AgNPs caused the highest silver ion release and the strongest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, when compared to the other tested AgNPs...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449380/the-pas-domains-of-the-major-sporulation-kinase-in-bacillus-subtilis-play-a-role-in-tetramer-formation-that-is-essential-for-the%C3%A2-autokinase-activity
#13
Brittany Kiehler, Lindsey Haggett, Masaya Fujita
Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is induced upon starvation. In a widely accepted model, an N-terminal "sensor" domain of the major sporulation kinase KinA recognizes a hypothetical starvation signal(s) and autophosphorylates a histidine residue to activate the master regulator Spo0A via a multicomponent phosphorelay. However, to date no confirmed signal has been found. Here, we demonstrated that PAS-A, the most N-terminal of the three PAS domains (PAS-ABC), is dispensable for the activity, contrary to a previous report...
April 27, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446174/a-scalable-metabolite-supplementation-strategy-against-antibiotic-resistant-pathogen-chromobacterium-violaceum-induced-by-nad-nadh-imbalance
#14
Deepanwita Banerjee, Dharmeshkumar Parmar, Nivedita Bhattacharya, Avinash D Ghanate, Venkateswarlu Panchagnula, Anu Raghunathan
BACKGROUND: The leading edge of the global problem of antibiotic resistance necessitates novel therapeutic strategies. This study develops a novel systems biology driven approach for killing antibiotic resistant pathogens using benign metabolites. RESULTS: Controlled laboratory evolutions established chloramphenicol and streptomycin resistant pathogens of Chromobacterium. These resistant pathogens showed higher growth rates and required higher lethal doses of antibiotic...
April 26, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433189/synergic-regulation-of-redox-potential-and-oxygen-uptake-to-enhance-production-of-coenzyme-q10-in-rhodobacter-sphaeroides
#15
Yongqiang Zhu, Lidan Ye, Zhaofeng Chen, Weijiang Hu, Yanghui Shi, Jianbo Chen, Chenfei Wang, Yong Li, Weifeng Li, Hongwei Yu
The physiological role of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as an electron carrier suggests its association with redox potential. Overexpression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase type I (gapA-1) in Rhodobacter sphaeroides elevated the NADH/NAD(+) ratio and meanwhile enhanced the CoQ10 content by 58%, but at the sacrifice of biomass. On the other hand, Vitreoscilla hemoglobin was heterologously expressed to enhance the oxygen uptake ability of the cells, leading to 127% improvement of biomass. Subsequent coexpression of gapA-1 and vgb resulted in a CoQ10 titer of 83...
June 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420001/nicotinamide-n-methyltransferase-suppression-participates-in-nickel-induced-histone-h3-lysine9-dimethylation-in-beas-2b-cells
#16
Qian Li, Min-Di He, Lin Mao, Xue Wang, Yu-Lin Jiang, Min Li, Yong-Hui Lu, Zheng-Ping Yu, Zhou Zhou
BACKGROUND: Nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens with weak mutagenic activity. Histone methylation has been proposed to play an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) decreases histone methylation in several cancer cells by altering the cellular ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). However, the role of NNMT in nickel-induced histone methylation remains unclear. METHODS: BEAS-2B cells were exposed to different concentrations of nickel chloride (NiCl2) for 72 h or 200 μM NiCl2 for different time periods...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315453/defects-in-mitochondrial-energetic-function-compels-fanconi-anaemia-cells-to-glycolytic-metabolism
#17
Enrico Cappelli, Paola Cuccarolo, Giorgia Stroppiana, Maurizio Miano, Roberta Bottega, Vanessa Cossu, Paolo Degan, Silvia Ravera
Energetic metabolism plays an essential role in the differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC). In Fanconi Anaemia (FA), DNA damage is accumulated during HSC differentiation, an event that is likely associated with bone marrow failure (BMF). One of the sources of the DNA damage is altered mitochondrial metabolism and an associated increment of oxidative stress. Recently, altered mitochondrial morphology and a deficit in the energetic activity in FA cells have been reported. Considering that mitochondria are the principal site of aerobic ATP production, we investigated FA metabolism in order to understand what pathways are able to compensate for this energy deficiency...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261868/in-vivo-assessment-of-intracellular-redox-state-in-rat-liver-using-hyperpolarized-1-13-c-alanine
#18
Jae Mo Park, Chalermchai Khemtong, Shie-Chau Liu, Ralph E Hurd, Daniel M Spielman
PURPOSE: The intracellular lactate to pyruvate concentration ratio is a commonly used tissue assay biomarker of redox, being proportional to free cytosolic [NADH]/[NAD(+) ]. In this study, we assessed the use of hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]alanine and the subsequent detection of the intracellular products of [1-(13) C]pyruvate and [1-(13) C]lactate as a useful substrate for assessing redox levels in the liver in vivo. METHODS: Animal experiments were conducted to measure in vivo metabolism at baseline and after ethanol infusion...
March 5, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258794/brain-bioenergetics-and-redox-state-measured-by-31-p-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-unaffected-siblings-of-patients-with-psychotic-disorders
#19
Virginie-Anne Chouinard, Sang-Young Kim, Linda Valeri, Cagri Yuksel, Kyle P Ryan, Guy Chouinard, Bruce M Cohen, Fei Du, Dost Öngür
BACKGROUND: Brain bioenergetic anomalies and redox dysregulation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders. The present study examined brain energy-related metabolites and the balance between nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolites (oxidized NAD+ and reduced NADH) using (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) in unaffected siblings, compared to first episode psychosis (FEP) patients and healthy controls. METHODS: 21 unaffected siblings, 32 FEP patients (including schizophrenia spectrum and affective psychoses), and 21 controls underwent (31)P-MRS in the frontal lobe (6×6×4cm(3)) on a 4T MR scanner, using custom-designed dual-tuned surface coil with outer volume suppression...
March 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230641/peritransplant-energy-changes-and-their-correlation-to-outcome-after-human-liver-transplantation
#20
Bote G Bruinsma, James H Avruch, Gautham V Sridharan, Pepijn D Weeder, Marie Louise Jacobs, Kerry Crisalli, Beth Amundsen, Robert J Porte, James F Markmann, Korkut Uygun, Heidi Yeh
BACKGROUND: The ongoing shortage of donor livers for transplantation and the increased use of marginal livers necessitate the development of accurate pretransplant tests of viability. Considering the importance energy status during transplantation, we aimed to correlate peritransplant energy cofactors to posttransplant outcome and subsequently model this in an ex vivo setting. METHODS: Sequential biopsies were taken from 19 donor livers postpreservation, as well as 30 minutes after portal venous reperfusion and hepatic arterial reperfusion and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for energetic cofactors (adenosine triphosphate [ATP]/adenosine diphosphate [ADP]/adenosine monophosphate [AMP], nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide /NAD, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate / nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate , flavin adenine dinucleotide , glutathione disulfide/glutathione)...
July 2017: Transplantation
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