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NAD AND NADH ratio

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145079/microbial-transcript-and-metabolome-analysis-uncover-discrepant-metabolic-pathways-in-autotrophic-and-mixotrophic-anammox-consortia
#1
Ying Feng, Yunpeng Zhao, Yongzhao Guo, Sitong Liu
The ability of anammox bacteria to utilize organic matter has drawn extensive attention. However, the metabolic discrepancies between autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia need to be further explored. Here, microbial transcript and metabolomic analysis were conducted for the samples harvested in the reactors and batch assays to investigate the phenotype discrepancies and intrinsic causes in autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia. Results showed that metabolically active community structures did not show significant difference between autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia (C/N = 0...
October 31, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137352/maternal-high-calorie-diet-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-senescence-phenotype-in-subcutaneous-fat-of-newborn-mice
#2
Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Fabiana D'Angelo, Francesca Sciarretta, Giuseppe Tatulli, Flavia Tortolici, Maria Rosa Ciriolo, Katia Aquilano
Mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and senescence-like features are observed in adipose depots in aging and obesity. Herein, we evaluated how maternal high calorie diet (HCD) may impact on subcutaneous adipose tissue (sAT) of the newborn mice. Adult C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided in three groups: normal calorie diet (NCD), HCD and HCD supplemented with niacin 8 weeks before mating. Mothers and pups were then sacrificed and metabolic and molecular analyses were carried out on sAT. HCD induced mitochondria dysfunction in mothers without inflammation and senescence, whereas in pups we also revealed the occurrence of senescent phenotype...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123192/targeted-mitochondrial-therapy-using-mitoq-shows-equivalent-renoprotection-to-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-but-no-combined-synergy-in-diabetes
#3
Micheal S Ward, Nicole B Flemming, Linda A Gallo, Amelia K Fotheringham, Domenica A McCarthy, Aowen Zhuang, Peter H Tang, Danielle J Borg, Hannah Shaw, Benjamin Harvie, David R Briskey, Llion A Roberts, Manuel R Plan, Michael P Murphy, Mark P Hodson, Josephine M Forbes
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a pathological mediator of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Our objective was to test the mitochondrially targeted agent, MitoQ, alone and in combination with first line therapy for DKD. Intervention therapies (i) vehicle (D); (ii) MitoQ (DMitoQ;0.6 mg/kg/day); (iii) Ramipril (DRam;3 mg/kg/day) or (iv) combination (DCoAd) were administered to male diabetic db/db mice for 12 weeks (n = 11-13/group). Non-diabetic (C) db/m mice were followed concurrently. No therapy altered glycaemic control or body weight...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106036/inhibition-of-mitochondrial-complex-i-improves-glucose-metabolism-independently-of-ampk-activation
#4
Wo-Lin Hou, Jun Yin, Miriayi Alimujiang, Xue-Ying Yu, Li-Gen Ai, Yu-Qian Bao, Fang Liu, Wei-Ping Jia
Accumulating evidences showed metformin and berberine, well-known glucose-lowering agents, were able to inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain at complex I. In this study, we aimed to explore the antihyperglycaemic effect of complex I inhibition. Rotenone, amobarbital and gene silence of NDUFA13 were used to inhibit complex I. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed in db/db mice. Lactate release and glucose consumption were measured to investigate glucose metabolism in HepG2 hepatocytes and C2C12 myotubes...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104634/endogenous-nampt-upregulation-is-associated-with-diabetic-nephropathy-inflammatory-fibrosis-through-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-and-sirt1-pathway-nmn-alleviates-diabetic-nephropathy-inflammatory-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-endogenous-nampt
#5
Ye Chen, Yuzhen Liang, Tingting Hu, Riming Wei, Congjie Cai, Ping Wang, Lingyu Wang, Wei Qiao, Leping Feng
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) is a key enzyme in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthetic pathway. Exogenous extra cellular Nampt has been reported to increase the synthesis of pro-fibrotic molecules in various types of renal cells. However, the role of endogenous Namptenzymatic activity in diabetic renal cells, particularly those associated with inflammation and fibrosis through the nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) pathway is still unknown. In the present study, a possible mechanism by which endogenous Nampt upregulation affects the expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines in vivo and in vitro, is reported...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099858/effects-of-glucose-availability-in-lactobacillus-sakei-metabolic-change-and-regulation-of-the-proteome-and-transcriptome
#6
Anette McLeod, Ellen F Mosleth, Ida Rud, Filipe Branco Dos Santos, Lars Snipen, Kristian Hovde Liland, Lars Axelsson
Effects of glucose availability were investigated in Lactobacillus sakei strains 23K and LS25 cultivated in anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostats set at high (D = 0.357 h-1) and low (D = 0.045 h-1) dilution rates. We observed for both strains a shift from homolactic towards more mixed acid fermentation when comparing high to low growth rates. However, this change was more pronounced for LS25 than for 23K, where dominating products were lactate>formate>acetate≥ethanol at both conditions. A multivariate approach was used for analyzing proteome and transcriptome data from the bacterial cultures, where the predictive power of the omics data was used for identifying features that can explain the differences in the end-product profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095437/metformin-ameliorates-arsenic-trioxide-hepatotoxicity-via-inhibiting-mitochondrial-complex-i
#7
Sunbin Ling, Qiaonan Shan, Peng Liu, Tingting Feng, Xuanyu Zhang, Penghui Xiang, Kangchen Chen, Haiyang Xie, Penghong Song, Lin Zhou, Jimin Liu, Shusen Zheng, Xiao Xu
Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a well-accepted chemotherapy agent in managing promyelocytic leukemia. ATO often causes severe health hazards such as hepatotoxicity, dermatosis, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. The production of reactive oxygen species, (ROS) play a significant role in ATO-induced hepatotoxicity. The oral hypoglycemic drug, metformin, is considered to be a potential novel agent for chemoprevention in the treatment of cancer. Moreover, metformin has also been shown to have hepatoprotective effects...
November 2, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093766/generation-and-bioenergetic-profiles-of-cybrids-with-east-asian-mtdna-haplogroups
#8
Huaibin Zhou, Ke Nie, Ruyi Qiu, Jingting Xiong, Xiaoli Shao, Bingqian Wang, Lijun Shen, Jianxin Lyu, Hezhi Fang
Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants and haplogroups may contribute to susceptibility to various diseases and pathological conditions, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. To address this issue, we established a cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) system to investigate the role of mtDNA haplogroups in human disease; specifically, we examined the effects of East Asian mtDNA genetic backgrounds on oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). We found that mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms such as m.489T>C, m...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089150/hemin-reduces-hmgb1-release-by-uvb-in-an-ampk-ho-1-dependent-pathway-in-human-keratinocytes-hacat-cells
#9
Eun Jung Park, Young Min Kim, Ki Churl Chang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) plays an important role as a pro-inflammatory cytokine that regulates inflammation in various diseases. We hypothesized that hemin might reduce HMGB1 release through the induction of HO-1 in UVB-induced HaCaTs. METHODS: The effects of hemin on the release of HMGB1 in UVB exposure were evaluated. The mechanisms were investigated using various signal inhibitors and small interfering RNA techniques. RESULTS: Treatment with hemin inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) in UVB-induced HaCaTs in a dose-dependent manner...
October 28, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073779/mitochondrial-nad-nadh-redox-state-and-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#10
Jessica M Berthiaume, Jacob G Kurdys, Danina M Muntean, Mariana G Rosca
SIGNIFICANCE: Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a frequent complication occurring even in well-controlled asymptomatic diabetic patients, and may advance to heart failure. Recent advances: The diabetic heart is characterized by a state of "metabolic rigidity" involving enhanced rates of fatty acid uptake and mitochondrial oxidation as the predominant energy source, and exhibits mitochondrial electron transport chain defects. These alterations promote redox state changes evidenced by a decreased NAD+/NADH ratio associated with an increase in acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio...
October 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039506/hypothermic-machine-perfusion-ameliorates-inflammation-during-ischemia%C3%A2-reperfusion-injury-via-sirtuin%C3%A2-1%C3%A2-mediated-deacetylation-of-nuclear-factor%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-in-rat-livers-donated-after-circulatory-death
#11
Cheng Zeng, Xiaoyan Hu, Weiyang He, Yanfeng Wang, Ling Li, Yan Xiong, Qifa Ye
Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) effectively reduces ischemia‑reperfusion injury (IRI) in livers donated after circulatory death (DCD) when compared with cold storage (CS). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which HMP ameliorates the inflammatory response during IRI. Adult male Sprague‑Dawley rat livers were exposed to 30 min of warm ischemia following cardiac arrest and preserved by CS or HMP for 3 h (n=3 per group)...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032377/microrna-210-modulates-the-cellular-energy-metabolism-shift-during-h2o2-induced-oxidative-stress-by-repressing-iscu-in-h9c2-cardiomyocytes
#12
Wei Sun, Lei Zhao, Xianjing Song, Jichang Zhang, Yue Xing, Ning Liu, Youyou Yan, Zhibo Li, Yang Lu, Junduo Wu, Longbo Li, Yanlong Xiao, Xin Tian, Tianyi Li, Yinuo Guan, Yiran Wang, Bin Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The myocardial energy metabolism shift is one of the most important pathological features of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Although several microRNAs (miRs) are involved in the regulation of myocardial energy metabolism, their exact effects and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether microRNA(miR-210) regulates the energy metabolism shift during oxidative stress in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. METHODS: Cell survival was analyzed via CCK assay...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025729/live-cell-imaging-of-cytosolic-nadh-nad-ratio-in-hepatocytes-and-liver-slices
#13
Ricard Masia, William J McCarty, Carolina Lahmann, Jay Luther, Raymond T Chung, Martin L Yarmush, Gary Yellen
Fatty liver disease (FLD), the most common chronic liver disease in the US, may be caused by alcohol or the metabolic syndrome. Alcohol is oxidized in the cytosol of hepatocytes by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which generates NADH and increases cytosolic NADH/NAD(+) ratio. The increased ratio may be important for development of FLD, but our ability to examine this question is hindered by methodological limitations. To address this, we used the genetically-encoded fluorescent sensor Peredox to obtain dynamic, real-time measurements of cytosolic NADH/NAD(+) ratio in living hepatocytes...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978326/tracking-of-pigment-accumulation-and-secretion-in-extractive-fermentation-of-monascus-anka-gim-3-592
#14
Gong Chen, Qi Bei, Tao Huang, Zhenqiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Monascus pigments are promising sources for food and medicine due to their natural food-coloring functions and pharmaceutical values. The innovative technology of extractive fermentation is used to promote pigment productivity, but reports of pigment trans-membrane secretion mechanism are rare. In this study, tracking of pigment accumulation and secretion in extractive fermentation of Monascus anka GIM 3.592 was investigated. RESULTS: The increased vacuole size in mycelia correlated with fluorescence intensity (r > 0...
October 4, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978015/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1a1-increases-nadh-levels-and-promotes-tumor-growth-via-glutathione-dihydrolipoic-acid-dependent-nad-reduction
#15
Baiyun Wang, Xue Chen, Zixi Wang, Wei Xiong, Tao Xu, Xinyuan Zhao, Yang Cao, Yanru Guo, Lin Li, She Chen, Song Huang, Xiaodong Wang, Min Fang, Zhirong Shen
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) is a member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily that oxidizes aldehydes to their corresponding acids, reactions that are coupled to the reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. We report here that ALDH1A1 can also use glutathione (GSH) and dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) as electron donors to reduce NAD(+) to NADH. The GSH/DHLA-dependent NAD(+)-reduction activity of ALDH1A1 is not affected by the aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor or by mutation of the residues in its aldehyde-binding pocket...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972173/identification-of-the-signals-for-glucose-induced-insulin-secretion-in-ins1-832-13-%C3%AE-cells-using-metformin-induced-metabolic-deceleration-as-a-model
#16
Julien Lamontagne, Anfal Al-Mass, Christopher J Nolan, Barbara E Corkey, S R Murthy Madiraju, Erik Joly, Marc Prentki
Metabolic deceleration in pancreatic β-cells is associated with inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS), but only in the presence of intermediate/sub-maximal glucose concentrations. Here, we used acute metformin treatment as a tool to induce metabolic deceleration in INS1 (832/13) β-cells, with the goal of identifying key pathways and metabolites involved in GIIS. Metabolites and pathways previously implicated as signals for GIIS were measured in the cells at 2-25 mM glucose, with or without 5 mM metformin...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950020/thymoquinone-ameliorates-diabetic-phenotype-in-diet-induced-obesity-mice-via-activation-of-sirt-1-dependent-pathways
#17
Shpetim Karandrea, Huquan Yin, Xiaomei Liang, Angela L Slitt, Emma A Heart
Thymoquinone, a natural occurring quinone and the main bioactive component of plant Nigella sativa, undergoes intracellular redox cycling and re-oxidizes NADH to NAD+. TQ administration (20 mg/kg/bw/day) to the Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO) mice reduced their diabetic phenotype by decreasing fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin levels, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity as evaluated by oral glucose and insulin tolerance tests (OGTT and ITT). Furthermore, TQ decreased serum cholesterol levels and liver triglycerides, increased protein expression of phosphorylated Akt, decreased serum levels of inflammatory markers resistin and MCP-1, and decreased NADH/NAD+ ratio...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947253/metabolic-control-by-sirtuins-and-other-enzymes-that-sense-nad-nadh-or-their-ratio
#18
REVIEW
Kristin A Anderson, Andreas S Madsen, Christian A Olsen, Matthew D Hirschey
NAD(+) is a dinucleotide cofactor with the potential to accept electrons in a variety of cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. In its reduced form, NADH is a ubiquitous cellular electron donor. NAD(+), NADH, and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio have long been known to control the activity of several oxidoreductase enzymes. More recently, enzymes outside those participating directly in redox control have been identified that sense these dinucleotides, including the sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacylases...
December 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935892/bioenergetic-state-regulates-innate-inflammatory-responses-through-the-transcriptional-co-repressor-ctbp
#19
Yiguo Shen, David Kapfhamer, Angela M Minnella, Ji-Eun Kim, Seok Joon Won, Yanting Chen, Yong Huang, Ley Hian Low, Stephen M Massa, Raymond A Swanson
The innate inflammatory response contributes to secondary injury in brain trauma and other disorders. Metabolic factors such as caloric restriction, ketogenic diet, and hyperglycemia influence the inflammatory response, but how this occurs is unclear. Here, we show that glucose metabolism regulates pro-inflammatory NF-κB transcriptional activity through effects on the cytosolic NADH:NAD(+) ratio and the NAD(H) sensitive transcriptional co-repressor CtBP. Reduced glucose availability reduces the NADH:NAD(+) ratio, NF-κB transcriptional activity, and pro-inflammatory gene expression in macrophages and microglia...
September 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919254/palmitic-acid-stimulates-energy-metabolism-and-inhibits-insulin-pi3k-akt-signaling-in-differentiated-human-neuroblastoma-cells-the-role-of-mtor-activation-and-mitochondrial-ros-production
#20
Erika Calvo-Ochoa, Karina Sánchez-Alegría, Cecilia Gómez-Inclán, Patricia Ferrera, Clorinda Arias
The high consumption of saturated lipids has been largely associated with the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases. In particular, saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid (PA) have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. However, how neurons develop insulin resistance in response to lipid overload is not fully understood. Here, we used cultured rat cortical neurons and differentiated human neuroblastoma cells to demonstrate that PA blocks insulin-induced metabolic activation, inhibits the activation of the insulin/PI3K/Akt pathway and activates mTOR kinase downstream of Akt...
September 15, 2017: Neurochemistry International
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