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NAD AND NADH ratio

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773670/high-%C3%AE-tocopherol-dosing-increases-lipid-metabolism-by-changing-redox-state-in-damaged-rat-gastric-mucosa-and-liver-after-ethanol-treatment
#1
Marisela Olguín-Martínez, Diego R Hernández-Espinosa, Rolando Hernández-Muñoz
Regeneration of ethanol-injured rat gastric mucosa must undergo changes in major metabolic pathways to achieve DNA replication and cell proliferation. These events are highly dependent on glucose utilization and inhibited by vitamin E (α-tocopherol) administration. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing lipid metabolism in the gastric mucosa and ethanol-induced gastric damage and the effect of α-tocopherol administration. For this, rates of fatty acid β-oxidation and lipogenesis were tested in gastric mucosa samples...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751795/inhibition-of-glutamate-oxaloacetate-transaminase-1-in-cancer-cell-lines-results-in-altered-metabolism-with-increased-dependency-of-glucose
#2
Xiaoshan Zhou, Sophie Curbo, Fuqiang Li, Shuba Krishnan, Anna Karlsson
BACKGROUND: Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT1) regulates cellular metabolism through coordinating the utilization of carbohydrates and amino acids to meet nutrient requirements. KRAS mutated cancer cells were recently shown to rely on GOT1 to support long-term cell proliferation. The aim of the present study was to address the role of GOT1 in the metabolic adaption of cancer cells. METHODS: GOT1-null and knockdown cell lines were established through CRISPR/Cas9 and shRNA techniques...
May 11, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721150/p66-shc-inactivation-modifies-rns-production-regulates-sirt3-activity-and-improves-mitochondrial-homeostasis-delaying-the-aging-process-in-mouse-brain
#3
Hernán Pérez, Paola Vanesa Finocchietto, Yael Alippe, Inés Rebagliati, María Eugenia Elguero, Nerina Villalba, Juan José Poderoso, María Cecilia Carreras
Programmed and damage aging theories have traditionally been conceived as stand-alone schools of thought. However, the p66Shc adaptor protein has demonstrated that aging-regulating genes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely interconnected, since its absence modifies metabolic homeostasis by providing oxidative stress resistance and promoting longevity. p66Shc(-/-) mice are a unique opportunity to further comprehend the bidirectional relationship between redox homeostasis and the imbalance of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics during aging...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710809/anti-oxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-ketogenic-diet-new-perspectives-for-neuroprotection-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Alessandro Pinto, Alessio Bonucci, Elisa Maggi, Mariangela Corsi, Rita Businaro
The ketogenic diet, originally developed for the treatment of epilepsy in non-responder children, is spreading to be used in the treatment of many diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. The main activity of the ketogenic diet has been related to improved mitochondrial function and decreased oxidative stress. B-Hydroxybutyrate, the most studied ketone body, has been shown to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), improving mitochondrial respiration: it stimulates the cellular endogenous antioxidant system with the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), it modulates the ratio between the oxidized and reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD⁺/NADH) and it increases the efficiency of electron transport chain through the expression of uncoupling proteins...
April 28, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682906/profiles-of-streptococcus-thermophilus-mn-zlw-002-nutrient-requirements-in-controlled-ph-batch-fermentations
#5
Gefei Liu, Yali Qiao, Yanjiao Zhang, Cong Leng, Jiahui Sun, Hongyu Chen, Yan Zhang, Aili Li, Zhen Feng
This study aimed to evaluate the profiles of Streptococcus thermophilus nutrient requirements to guide the design of media for high cell density culturing. The growth kinetics, physiological state, and nutrient requirement profiles of S. thermophilus were analyzed in chemically defined media. The results showed that the intracellular ATP concentration, H+ -ATPase activity, NADH/NAD+ , and NH3 concentrations varied with intracellular pH. The nutrient components with the highest amounts required were Leu and Asp; ascorbic acid and p-amino benzoic acid; K+ and PO4 3- ; and guanine and uracil...
April 22, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680869/metabolic-analyses-of-the-improved-%C3%AE%C2%B5-poly-l-lysine-productivity-using-a-glucose-glycerol-mixed-carbon-source-in-chemostat-cultures
#6
Jian-Hua Zhang, Xin Zeng, Xu-Sheng Chen, Zhong-Gui Mao
The glucose-glycerol mixed carbon source remarkably reduced the batch fermentation time of ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) production, leading to higher productivity of both biomass and ε-PL, which was of great significance in industrial microbial fermentation. Our previous study confirmed the positive influence of fast cell growth on the ε-PL biosynthesis, while the direct influence of mixed carbon source on ε-PL production was still unknown. In this work, chemostat culture was employed to study the capacity of ε-PL biosynthesis in different carbon sources at a same dilution rate of 0...
April 21, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672321/metabolic-plasticity-enables-circadian-adaptation-to-acute-hypoxia-in-zebrafish-cells
#7
Adolf M Sandbichler, Bianca Jansen, Bettina A Peer, Monika Paulitsch, Bernd Pelster, Margit Egg
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Reduced oxygen availability, hypoxia, is frequently encountered by organisms, tissues and cells, in aquatic environments as well as in high altitude or under pathological conditions such as infarct, stroke or cancer. The hypoxic signaling pathway was found to be mutually intertwined with circadian timekeeping in vertebrates and, as reported recently, also in mammals. However, the impact of hypoxia on intracellular metabolic oscillations is still unknown. METHODS: For determination of metabolites we used Multilabel Reader based fluorescence and luminescence assays, circadian levels of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 alpha and oxidized peroxiredoxins were semi quantified by Western blotting and ratiometric quantification of cytosolic and mitochondrial H2O2 was achieved with stable transfections of a redox sensitive green fluorescent protein sensor into zebrafish fibroblasts...
April 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651644/the-effects-of-ionic-liquid-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-trifluoromethanesulfonate-on-the-production-of-1-3-propanediol-from-crude-glycerol-by-microbial-consortium
#8
Lili Jiang, Jianying Dai, Yaqin Sun, Zhilong Xiu
Ionic liquids (ILs) as "green" solvents have been widely used owing to their excellent properties, e.g., for biodiesel production. Crude glycerol as a by-product in biodiesel production is an ideal feedstock for the microbial production of 1,3-propanediol (PDO), which is a versatile bulk chemical. PDO can be produced by microbial consortium with the advantages of high substrate tolerance and narrow by-product profile. In the present study, the effect of IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([Emim][TfO]) was evaluated on the capacity of PDO production from crude glycerol by microbial consortium DL38-BH...
April 12, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627745/sorting-cells-alters-their-redox-state-and-cellular-metabolome
#9
Elizabeth M Llufrio, Lingjue Wang, Fuad J Naser, Gary J Patti
A growing appreciation of the metabolic artifacts of cell culture has generated heightened enthusiasm for performing metabolomics on populations of cells purified from tissues and biofluids. Fluorescence activated cell sorting, or FACS, is a widely used experimental approach to purify specific cell types from complex heterogeneous samples. Here we show that FACS introduces oxidative stress and alters the metabolic state of cells. Compared to unsorted controls, astrocytes subjected to FACS prior to metabolomic analysis showed altered ratios of GSSG to GSH, NADPH to NADP+ , and NAD+ to NADH...
March 9, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614366/contributions-of-ferric-uptake-regulator-fur-to-the-sensitivity-and-oxidative-response-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-to-antibiotics
#10
T O Ajiboye, E Skiebe, G Wilharm
Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is important in the regulation of bacterial iron metabolism and uptake of Fe from the environment. We evaluated the contribution of fur to the sensitivity and oxidative response of A. baumannii to antibiotics. Deletion of fur increased the sensitivity of A. baumannii AB5075 to colistin, gentamicin, rifampicin and tigecycline. Furthermore, activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in Δfur mutant decreased significantly compared to the parental strain. Conversely, •O2 - and H2 O2 accumulate in colistin, gentamicin, rifampicin or tigecycline-treated Δfur mutant compared to the parental strain...
March 31, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600522/studies-on-the-effects-of-lps-%C3%A3-glucan-and-metabolic-inhibitors-on-the-respiratory-burst-and-gene-expression-in-atlantic-salmon-macrophages
#11
J S Ulvestad, J Kumari, T Seternes, H Chi, R A Dalmo
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in macrophage-like cells is induced as an antimicrobial defence against invading pathogens. In this study, we have explored how different stimuli and metabolic inhibitors affect the level of respiratory burst in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) head kidney macrophage-like cells. Cells stimulated in vitro by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ß-glucan showed increased production of ROS compared to unstimulated cells. Both stimulation and costimulation by curdlan (ß-glucan) induced a higher production of ROS compared to stimulation and costimulation by LPS...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594560/rate-limiting-steps-in-the-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-ergosterol-pathway-towards-improved-ergosta-5-7-dien-3%C3%AE-ol-accumulation-by-metabolic-engineering
#12
Bin-Xiang Ma, Xia Ke, Xiao-Ling Tang, Ren-Chao Zheng, Yu-Guo Zheng
Ergosterol is the predominant nature sterol constituent of plasma membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Herein, the biosynthetic pathway of ergosterol was proposed to be metabolically engineered for the efficient production of ergosta-5,7-dien-3β-ol, which is the precursor of vitamin D4. By target disruption of erg5, involved in the end-steps of post-squalene formation, predominantly accumulated ergosta-5,7-dien-3β-ol (4.12 mg/g dry cell weight). Moreover, the rate-limiting enzymes of ergosta-5,7-dien-3β-ol biosynthesis were characterized...
March 28, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568399/ctbp1-and-metabolic-syndrome-induce-an-mrna-and-mirna-expression-profile-critical-for-breast-cancer-progression-and-metastasis
#13
Paula L Farré, Georgina D Scalise, Rocío B Duca, Guillermo N Dalton, Cintia Massillo, Juliana Porretti, Karen Graña, Kevin Gardner, Paola De Luca, Adriana De Siervi
Metastatic breast cancer (BrCa) is still one of the main causes of cancer death in women. Metabolic syndrome (MeS), a risk factor for BrCa, is associated to high grade tumors, increased metastasis and recurrence of this disease. C-terminal binding protein 1 (CTBP1) is a co-repressor of tumor suppressor genes that is activated by low NAD+ /NADH ratio. Previously, we demonstrated that CTBP1 hyperactivation by MeS increased tumor growth in MDA-MB-231-derived xenografts regulating several genes and miRNAs. In this work, our aim was to elucidate the role of CTBP1 and MeS in BrCa metastasis...
March 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562167/oncogenic-idh1-mutations-promote-enhanced-proline-synthesis-through-pycr1-to-support-the-maintenance-of-mitochondrial-redox-homeostasis
#14
Kate E R Hollinshead, Haydn Munford, Katherine L Eales, Chiara Bardella, Chunjie Li, Cristina Escribano-Gonzalez, Alpesh Thakker, Yannic Nonnenmacher, Katarina Kluckova, Mark Jeeves, Robert Murren, Federica Cuozzo, Dan Ye, Giulio Laurenti, Wei Zhu, Karsten Hiller, David J Hodson, Wei Hua, Ian P Tomlinson, Christian Ludwig, Ying Mao, Daniel A Tennant
Since the discovery of mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) in gliomas and other tumors, significant efforts have been made to gain a deeper understanding of the consequences of this oncogenic mutation. One aspect of the neomorphic function of the IDH1 R132H enzyme that has received less attention is the perturbation of cellular redox homeostasis. Here, we describe a biosynthetic pathway exhibited by cells expressing mutant IDH1. By virtue of a change in cellular redox homeostasis, IDH1-mutated cells synthesize excess glutamine-derived proline through enhanced activity of pyrroline 5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1), coupled to NADH oxidation...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546497/improvement-of-sulfamethoxazole-smx-elimination-and-inhibition-of-formations-of-hydroxylamine-smx-and-n4-acetyl-smx-by-membrane-bioreactor-systems
#15
Min-Hui Tang, Nan Gao, Jiao Zhou, Yan Zhao, Jing-Sheng Cheng, Wen-Kun Su, Ying-Jin Yuan
Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) has frequently been detected in aquatic environments. In natural environment, not only individual microorganism but also microbial consortia are involved in some biotransformation of pollutants. The competition for space under consortia causing cell-cell contact inhibition changes the cellular behaviors. Herein, the membrane bioreactor system (MBRS) was applied to improve SMX elimination thorough exchanging the cell-free broths (CFB). The removal efficiency of SMX was increased by more than 24% whether under the pure culture of A...
June 2018: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540639/different-metabolomic-responses-to-carbon-starvation-between-light-and-dark-conditions-in-the-purple-photosynthetic-bacterium-rhodopseudomonas-palustris
#16
Nanako Kanno, Katsumi Matsuura, Shin Haruta
Purple photosynthetic bacteria utilize light energy for growth. We previously demonstrated that light energy contributed to prolonging the survival of multiple purple bacteria under carbon-starved conditions. In order to clarify the effects of illumination on metabolic states under carbon-starved, non-growing conditions, we herein compared the metabolic profiles of starved cells in the light and dark using the purple bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The metabolic profiles of starved cells in the light were markedly different from those in the dark...
March 29, 2018: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535691/serine-hydroxymethyltransferase-shra-pa2444-controls-rugose-small-colony-variant-formation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Mingming Pu, Lili Sheng, Sooyeon Song, Ting Gong, Thomas K Wood
Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes many biofilm infections, and the rugose small-colony variants (RSCVs) of this bacterium are important for infection. We found here that inactivation of PA2444, which we determined to be a serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), leads to the RSCV phenotype of P. aeruginosa PA14. In addition, loss of PA2444 increases biofilm formation by two orders of magnitude, increases exopolysaccharide by 45-fold, and abolishes swarming. The RSCV phenotype is related to higher cyclic diguanylate concentrations due to increased activity of the Wsp chemosensory system, including diguanylate cyclase WspR...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524882/phenolic-acids-potentiate-colistin-mediated-killing-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-by-inducing-redox-imbalance
#18
Taofeek O Ajiboye, Evelyn Skiebe, Gottfried Wilharm
Phenolic acids with catechol groups are good prooxidants because of their low redox potential. In this study, we provided data showing that phenolic acids, caffeic acid, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid, enhanced colistin-mediated bacterial death by inducing redox imbalance. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of these phenolic acids against Acinetobacter baumannii AB5075 were considerably lowered for ΔsodB and ΔkatG mutants. Checkerboard assay shows synergistic interactions between colistin and phenolic acids...
May 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524843/regulation-of-the-mechanism-of-type-ii-nadh-quinone-oxidoreductase-from-s-aureus
#19
Filipa V Sena, Filipe M Sousa, A Sofia F Oliveira, Cláudio M Soares, Teresa Catarino, Manuela M Pereira
Type-II NADH:quinone oxidoreductases (NDH-2s) are membrane proteins involved in respiratory chains and the only enzymes with NADH:quinone oxidoreductase activity expressed in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), one of the most common causes of clinical infections. NDH-2s are members of the two-Dinucleotide Binding Domains Flavoprotein (tDBDF) superfamily, having a flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD, as prosthetic group and NAD(P)H as substrate. The establishment of a Charge-Transfer Complex (CTC) between the isoalloxazine ring of the reduced flavin and the nicotinamide ring of NAD+ in NDH-2 was described, and in this work we explored its role in the kinetic mechanism using different electron donors and electron acceptors...
June 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514978/spatiotemporal-compartmentalization-of-hepatic-nadh-and-nadph-metabolism
#20
Russell P Goodman, Sarah Calvo, Vamsi K Mootha
Compartmentalization is a fundamental design principle of eukaryotic metabolism.  Here, we review the compartmentalization of NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH with a focus on the liver, an organ that experiences the extremes of biochemical physiology each day.  Historical studies of the liver, using classical biochemical  measurements of redox-coupled metabolites, have given rise to the view that mitochondrial NAD(H) pools tend to be oxidized and important for energy homeostasis, whereas cytosolic NADP(H) pools tend to be highly reduced for reductive biosynthesis...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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