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Donald B Sanders, Janice M Massey
OBJECTIVE: To determine if single-fiber EMG (SFEMG) jitter accurately reflects change in severity in myasthenia gravis (MG). METHODS: We reviewed jitter and outcome data from all MG patients in our clinic who had at least 2 jitter measurements in the extensor digitorum (ED) or frontalis muscle. RESULTS: Change in all parameters of jitter measured with SFEMG electrodes predicted clinical change with acceptable accuracy. Absolute and percentage change in mean MCD were equally accurate in predicting clinical change and were more accurate than change in the proportion of fiber pairs with blocking or normal jitter...
October 19, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Suma Babu, Erik P Pioro, Jianbo Li, Yuebing Li
INTRODUCTION: We compared the yield of limb and thoracic paraspinal muscles for revealing lower motor neuron (LMN) dysfunction on electromyography (EMG) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: A retrospective review of 354 patients with clinically definite or probable ALS was performed. Seventeen limb muscles and thoracic paraspinal muscles were evaluated for the presence of both active and chronic denervation. RESULTS: Distal limb muscles showed the highest electrodiagnostic sensitivities of LMN dysfunction in ALS regardless of onset region and diagnostic certainty at the time of diagnosis...
October 19, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Saul Wilson, Kingsley O Abode-Iyamah, John W Miller, Chandan G Reddy, Sina Safayi, Douglas C Fredericks, Nicholas D Jeffery, Nicole A DeVries-Watson, Sara K Shivapour, Stephanus Viljoen, Brian D Dalm, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Michael D Johnson, George T Gillies, Matthew A Howard
OBJECTIVE: To develop a large animal model of spinal cord injury (SCI), for use in translational studies of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in the treatment of spasticity. We seek to establish thresholds for the SCS parameters associated with reduction of post-SCI spasticity in the pelvic limbs, with implications for patients. STUDY DESIGN: The weight-drop method was used to create a moderate SCI in adult sheep, leading to mild spasticity in the pelvic limbs. Electrodes for electromyography (EMG) and an epidural spinal cord stimulator were then implanted...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Ryan E Stafford, Rafeef Aljuraifani, François Hug, Paul W Hodges
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether increases in stiffness can be detected in the anatomical region associated with the striated urethral sphincter during voluntary activation using shear wave elastography; to identify the location and area of the stiffness increase relative to the point of greatest dorsal displacement of the mid urethra (i.e. striated urethral sphincter); and to determine the relationship between muscle stiffness and contraction intensity. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ten healthy men participated...
October 18, 2016: BJU International
Qing Yue, Tyson Hale, Aaron Knecht, Jennifer Laidacker
BACKGROUND: Foot drop secondary to L5 root injury is a rare complication associated with lumbar surgery. To date, it is still not clear whether intraoperative neuromonitoring can detect such an injury. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 54-year-old man who had had bilateral chronic L5 radiculopathy underwent L4-S1 lumbosacral decompression and fusion. During the surgery, the patient lose transcranial electrical motor evoked potential (tceMEPs) from left tibialis anterior (TA) at the time of L5-S1 intervertebral cage placement...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Miha Lucovnik, Linda R Chambliss, Richard Blumrick, James Balducci, Ksenija Gersak, Robert E Garfield
OBJECTIVE: It has been shown that noninvasive uterine electromyography (EMG) can identify true preterm labor more accurately than methods available to clinicians today. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the accuracy of uterine EMG in predicting preterm delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Predictive values of uterine EMG for preterm delivery were compared in obese versus overweight/normal BMI patients. Hanley-McNeil test was used to compare receiver operator characteristics curves in these groups...
October 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
D Lelic, I W D Fischer, A E Olesen, C D Mørch, F G Arguissain, J A B Manresa, A Dahan, A M Drewes
Severe pain is often treated with opioids. Antidepressants that inhibit serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake (SNRI) have also shown a pain relieving effect, but for both SNRI and opioids the specific mode of action in humans remains vague. This study investigated how oxycodone and venlafaxine affect spinal and supraspinal pain processing. Twenty volunteers were included in this randomized cross-over study comparing five-day treatment with venlafaxine, oxycodone and placebo. As a proxy of the spinal pain transmission, the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) to electrical stimulation on the sole of the foot was recorded at the tibialis anterior muscle before and after five days of treatment...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
E K Greska, N Cortes, S I Ringleb, J A Onate, B L Van Lunen
Previous studies have shown conflicting information regarding leg dominance as an etiological factor for the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. It remains unclear if lower extremity neuromechanical limb asymmetries exist in experienced athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate lower extremity neuromechanical effects of leg dominance in female collegiate soccer athletes during an unanticipated side-step cutting task. Twenty female collegiate soccer players completed an unanticipated side-step cutting task, using their dominant and non-dominant legs...
October 17, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Luca Mesin, Davide Dardanello, Alberto Rainoldi, Gennaro Boccia
During fatiguing contractions, many adjustments in motor units behaviour occur: decrease in muscle fibre conduction velocity; increase in motor units synchronisation; modulation of motor units firing rate; increase in variability of motor units inter-spike interval. We simulated the influence of all these adjustments on synthetic EMG signals in isometric/isotonic conditions. The fractal dimension of the EMG signal was found mainly influenced by motor units firing behaviour, being affected by both firing rate and synchronisation level, and least affected by muscle fibre conduction velocity...
October 12, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
Afshin Samani, Divya Srinivasan, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Pascal Madeleine
The spatio-temporal distribution of muscle activity has been suggested to be a determinant of fatigue development. Pursuing this hypothesis, we investigated the pattern of muscular activity in the shoulder and arm during a repetitive dynamic task performed until participants' rating of perceived exertion reached 8 on Borg's CR-10 scale. We collected high-density surface electromyogram (HD-EMG) over the upper trapezius, as well as bipolar EMG from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, deltoideus anterior, serratus anterior, upper and lower trapezius from 21 healthy women...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
A Spallone, M Çelniku
A 49 years-old man came to our attention with severe flaccid paraparesis occurring 10 days before, almost immediately after he had immerged his legs in boiling water for treating his severe left lombo-crural pain. This was known to be due to a right L3-L4 herniated disk diagnosed by MRI. At the examination he showed severe motor paresis and absent reflexes of his lower limbs, whilst crural pain was very mild and sensation and urinary function were unaffected. The results of his neurological examination led us to suspect an acute motor axon degeneration related to the heating shock...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Ross A Bogey, Lee A Barnes
The force of a single muscle is not directly measurable without invasive methods. Yet invasive techniques are not appropriate for clinical use, thus a non-invasive technique that combined the electromyographic (EMG) signal and a neuromuscular model was developed to determine in vivo active muscle forces at the hip. The EMG-to-force processing (EFP) model included active and passive moment components, and the net EFP moment was compared with the hip moment obtained with standard inverse dynamics techniques ("gold standard")...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Miriam Schrafl-Altermatt, Volker Dietz, Marc Bolliger
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a continuous locomotor training on leg muscle EMG exhaustion during assisted stepping movements in a patient with motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI). EMG exhaustion and loss of potentials starts to develop in non-trained patients usually around six months after injury. In the trained patient examined in this study exhaustion was also observed but occurred with a delay of several months. In contrast to a non-trained patient no more EMG exhaustion was observed in a very chronic stage...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Vinícius Yan Santos Nacimento, Rafaela Joyce Barbosa Torres, Natália Barros Beltrão, Priscila Soares Dos Santos, André Luiz Torres Pirauá, Valéria Mayaly Alves de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Rodarti Pitangui, Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo
This study evaluated the effects of instability on the EMG activity of scapular stabilizing and upper limb muscles during exercises with axial and rotational load. 20 male volunteers (20.9 ± 1.8 years, 174.1 ± 0.04 cm, 73.17 ± 8.77 kg) experienced in strength training participated in a crossover design. Muscle activation of anterior deltoid (AD), posterior deltoid (PD), pectoralis major (PM), biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii (TB), upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) were determined on both conditions...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Biranchi Narayan Mohapatra, Sujit Kumar Lenka, Manoranjan Acharya, Chakradhar Majhi, Gouri Oram, Khetra Mohan Tudu
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical profile of hypokalemic flaccid paralysis (HKFP) and to evaluate its causes. METHODS: Fifty cases of hypokalemic flaccid paralysis (HKFP) admitted between November 2012 to October 2014 were taken up in the study. Serum potassium level < 3.5 mmol/ltr has been taken as hypokalemia. All cases were studied for spot and/or 24 hour urinary sodium / potassium, serum potassium / calcium / magnesium. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) were diagnosed if there was spot/24 hour urine potassium excretion < 20mmol/ltr in presence of hypokalemia and flaccid weakness without other causes...
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
N M Giannantoni, M Minisci, V Brunetti, E Scarano, E Testani, C Vollono, E De Corso, G Bastanza, L D'Alatri, G Della Marca
Oro-pharyngeal dysphagia is frequently present during the acute phase of stroke. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the recording of surface EMG using a nasopharyngeal (NP) electrode could be applied to evaluation of pharyngeal muscle activity in acute stroke patients and if this neurophysiological measure is related with clinical assessment of swallowing. Patients were examined and clinical severity was assessed with the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score; dysphagia was evaluated through bedside screening test using the Gugging Swallowing Scale (GUSS)...
August 2016: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
Gavin A McKenzie, Stephen M Broski, Benjamin M Howe, Robert J Spinner, Kimberly K Amrami, Angela Dispenzieri, Michael D Ringler
OBJECTIVE: To highlight the MRI characteristics of pathologically proven amyloidosis involving the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and determine the utility of MRI in directing targeted biopsy for aiding diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed for patients with pathologically proven PNS amyloidosis who also underwent MRI of the biopsied or excised nerve. MRI signal characteristics, nerve morphology, associated muscular denervation changes, and the presence of multifocal involvement were detailed...
October 12, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Atif S Khan, Susan K Patrick, Francois D Roy, Monica A Gorassini, Jaynie F Yang
The neural plasticity of spinal reflexes after two contrasting forms of walking training was determined in individuals with chronic, motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Endurance Training involved treadmill walking for as long as possible, and Precision Training involved walking precisely over obstacles and onto targets overground. Twenty participants started either Endurance or Precision Training for 2 months and then crossed over after a 2-month rest period to the other form of training for 2 months...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Hiroshi Endo, Shuichi Ino, Waka Fujisaki
Elderly individuals whose ability to chew and swallow has declined are often restricted to unpleasant diets of very soft food, leading to a poor appetite. To address this problem, we aimed to investigate the influence of altered auditory input of chewing sounds on the perception of food texture. The modified chewing sound was reported to influence the perception of food texture in normal foods. We investigated whether the perceived sensations of nursing care foods could be altered by providing altered auditory feedback of chewing sounds, even if the actual food texture is dull...
October 5, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Terry Trinh, Christine T Shiner, Angelica G Thompson-Butel, Penelope A McNulty
PURPOSE: Post-stroke hemiparesis may manifest as asymmetric gait, poor balance, and inefficient movement patterns. We investigated improvements in lower-limb muscle activation and function during Wii-based Movement Therapy (WMT), a rehabilitation program specifically targeting upper-limb motor-function. METHODS: Electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from tibialis anterior (TA) in 20 stroke patients during a 14-day WMT program. EMG amplitude and burst duration were analyzed during stereotypical movement sequences of WMT activities...
October 9, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
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