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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447895/compensatory-function-of-the-diaphragm-following-high-cervical-hemisection-in-the-rat
#1
Kun-Ze Lee, Shih-Hui Hsu
Unilateral high cervical spinal hemisection (i.e., C2Hx) interrupts the respiratory bulbospinal pathway and results in paralysis of the hemidiaphragm. The ipsilateral diaphragmatic activity can partially recover over weeks to months; however, its contribution to the tidal volume generation is less than 20 %. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the contralateral diaphragm exert a compensatory function to maintain the essential ventilation following cervical spinal cord hemisection. The cardiorespiratory pattern and bilateral diaphragm electromyogram (EMG) were measured in urethane-anesthetized and spontaneously breathing adult rats at 1 day, 2 or 8 weeks post-C2Hx or C2 laminectomy...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447184/electromyographic-evaluation-of-high-intensity-elastic-resistance-exercises-for-lower-extremity-muscles-during-bed-rest
#2
Jonas Vinstrup, Sebastian Skals, Joaquin Calatayud, Markus Due Jakobsen, Emil Sundstrup, Matheus Daros Pinto, Mikel Izquierdo, Yuling Wang, Mette K Zebis, Lars Louis Andersen
PURPOSE: Prolonged hospital bed rest after severe injury or disease leads to rapid muscle atrophy and strength loss. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lower extremity strengthening exercises using elastic resistance that can be performed while lying in a hospital bed. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 22 healthy individuals performed three consecutive repetitions of 14 different lower extremity exercises using elastic resistance, with a perceived intensity corresponding to 8 on the Borg CR-10 scale...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446586/muscle-synergies-obtained-from-comprehensive-mapping-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-forelimb-representation-using-high-frequency-long-duration-icms
#3
Sommer L Amundsen Huffmaster, Gustaf M Van Acker, Carl W Luchies, Paul D Cheney
Simplifying neuromuscular control for movement has previously been explored by extracting muscle synergies from voluntary movement electromyography (EMG) patterns. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle synergies represented in EMG recordings associated with direct electrical stimulation of single sites in primary motor cortex (M1). We applied single electrode high-frequency, long-duration intracortical microstimulation (HFLD-ICMS) to the forelimb region of M1 in two rhesus macaques using parameters previously found to produce forelimb movements to stable spatial endpoints (90-150 Hz, 90-150 μA, 1000 ms stimulus train lengths)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446181/a-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-nmes-and-robot-hybrid-system-for-multi-joint-coordinated-upper-limb-rehabilitation-after-stroke
#4
Wei Rong, Waiming Li, Mankit Pang, Junyan Hu, Xijun Wei, Bibo Yang, Honwah Wai, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Xiaoling Hu
BACKGROUND: It is a challenge to reduce the muscular discoordination in the paretic upper limb after stroke in the traditional rehabilitation programs. METHOD: In this study, a neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and robot hybrid system was developed for multi-joint coordinated upper limb physical training. The system could assist the elbow, wrist and fingers to conduct arm reaching out, hand opening/grasping and arm withdrawing by tracking an indicative moving cursor on the screen of a computer, with the support from the joint motors and electrical stimulations on target muscles, under the voluntary intention control by electromyography (EMG)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445110/normobaric-hypoxia-increases-the-growth-hormone-response-to-maximal-resistance-exercise-in-trained-men
#5
Dean Filopoulos, Stuart J Cormack, Douglas G Whyte
This study examined the effect of hypoxia on growth hormone (GH) release during an acute bout of high-intensity, low-volume resistance exercise. Using a single-blinded, randomised crossover design, 16 resistance-trained males completed two resistance exercise sessions in normobaric hypoxia (HYP; inspiratory oxygen fraction, (FiO2) 0.12, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) 82 ± 2%) and normoxia (NOR; FiO2 0.21, SpO2 98 ± 0%). Each session consisted of five sets of three repetitions of 45° leg press and bench press at 85% of one repetition maximum...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443786/characterization-of-volitional-electromyographic-signals-in-the-lower-extremity-after-motor-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Elizabeth Heald, Ronald Hart, Kevin Kilgore, P Hunter Peckham
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of intact axons across a spinal cord lesion, even in those clinically diagnosed with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). These axons may allow volitional motor signals to be transmitted through the injury, even in the absence of visible muscle contraction. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the presence of volitional electromyographic (EMG) activity below the lesion in motor complete SCI and to characterize this activity to determine its value for potential use as a neuroprosthetic command source...
April 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442359/emg-biofeedback-training-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-an-active-control-training
#7
Beatrix Barth, Kerstin Mayer, Ute Strehl, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at revealing neurophysiological effects induced by electromyography (EMG) based biofeedback, considered as a semi-active control condition in neurofeedback studies, in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. METHODS: 20 adult ADHD patients trained their muscle activity in the left and right supraspinatus muscle over the course of 30 EMG biofeedback sessions. Changes induced by the EMG feedback were evaluated at a clinical and neurophysiological level; additionally, the relation between changes in EEG activity recorded at the vertex over the training course and changes of symptom severity over the treatment course were assessed in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying clinical effects of EMG biofeedback...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442302/facial-twitches-in-adcy5-associated-disease-myokymia-or-myoclonus-an-electromyography-study
#8
Sinem Tunc, Norbert Brüggemann, Magdalena K Baaske, Corinna Hartmann, Karen Grütz, Ana Westenberger, Christine Klein, Alexander Münchau, Tobias Bäumer
OBJECTIVE: A clinical feature in patients with ADCY5 gene mutations are perioral muscle twitches initially described as facial myokymia. METHODS: Five patients with ADCY5-associated disease with facial twitches and truncal jerks underwent electrophysiological investigations of the orbicularis oris and trapezius muscles to delineate neurophysiological characteristics of these phenomena. RESULTS: Electromyography (EMG) recordings showed a complex electrophysiological pattern with brief bursts of less than 100 ms and longer bursts with a duration of 100-300 ms up to several seconds in keeping with myoclonus and chorea, respectively, as key findings...
April 20, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436879/study-on-interaction-between-temporal-and-spatial-information-in-classification-of-emg-signals-in-myoelectric-prostheses
#9
Radhika Menon, Gaetano Di Caterina, Heba Lakany, Lykourgos Petropoulakis, Bernard Conway, John Soraghan
Advanced forearm prosthetic devices employ classifiers to recognize different electromyography (EMG) signal patterns, in order to identify the user's intended motion gesture. The classification accuracy is one of the main determinants of real-time controllability of a prosthetic limb and hence the necessity to achieve as high an accuracy as possible. In this paper, we study the effects of the temporal and spatial information provided to the classifier on its offline performance and analyze their inter-dependencies...
April 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434465/therapeutic-singing-as-an-early-intervention-for-swallowing-in-persons-with-parkinson-s-disease
#10
E L Stegemöller, P Hibbing, H Radig, J Wingate
OBJECTIVE: For persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), secondary motor symptoms such as swallow impairment impact the quality of life and are major contributors to mortality. There is a present need for therapeutic interventions aimed at improving swallow function during the early stages of PD. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a group therapeutic singing intervention on swallowing in persons with PD with no significant dysphagia symptoms. DESIGN: Cohort study...
April 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433870/automated-detection-of-premature-delivery-using-empirical-mode-and-wavelet-packet-decomposition-techniques-with-uterine-electromyogram-signals
#11
U Rajendra Acharya, Vidya K Sudarshan, Soon Qing Rong, Zechariah Tan, Choo Min Lim, Joel Ew Koh, Sujatha Nayak, Sulatha V Bhandary
An accurate detection of preterm labor and the risk of preterm delivery before 37 weeks of gestational age is crucial to increase the chance of survival rate for both mother and the infant. Thus, the uterine contractions measured using uterine electromyogram (EMG) or electro hysterogram (EHG) need to have high sensitivity in the detection of true preterm labor signs. However, visual observation and manual interpretation of EHG signals at the time of emergency situation may lead to errors. Therefore, the employment of computer-based approaches can assist in fast and accurate detection during the emergency situation...
April 18, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433389/comparison-of-methodologies-to-assess-muscle-co-contraction-during-gait
#12
H Souissi, R Zory, J Bredin, P Gerus
The aim of this study was to compare co-contraction index (CCI) computed from muscle moments to different co-activation indexes (Co-Act) derived from EMG data at the ankle and the knee joint during gait. An EMG-driven model was used to estimate muscle moments during over-ground walking gait at a self-selected velocity from twelve healthy subjects. The CCI calculated from muscle moments was compared with three Co-Acts estimated from the normalized EMG data. The co-activation methods produced lower values than the CCI during the first double-support and the swing phase at the ankle joint and during the stance phase at the knee joint...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433001/principal-cell-types-of-sleep-wake-regulatory-circuits
#13
REVIEW
Barbara E Jones
Electrophysiological recordings indicate that neurons which discharge maximally in association with distinct sleep-wake states are distributed through the brain, albeit in differing proportions. As studied using juxtacellular recording and labeling within the basal forebrain, four functional principal cell types are distinguished as: wake/paradoxical sleep (W/PS)-, slow wave sleep (SWS)-, W- and PS-max active. They are each comprised by both GABA and glutamate neurons, in addition to acetylcholine neurons belonging to the W/PS group...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431164/low-activity-microstates-during-sleep
#14
Hiroyuki Miyawaki, Yazan N Billeh, Kamran Diba
Study Objectives: To better understand the distinct activity patterns of the brain during sleep, we observed and investigated periods of diminished oscillatory and population spiking activity lasting for seconds during non-REM sleep, which we call "LOW" activity sleep. Methods: We analyzed spiking and local field potential (LFP) activity of hippocampal CA1 region alongside neocortical electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in 19 sessions from four male Long-Evans rats (262-363g) during natural wake/sleep across the 24-hr cycle, as well as data from other brain regions obtained from http://crcns...
April 18, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428836/muscle-function-and-fatigability-of-trunk-flexors-in-males-and-females
#15
Rita E Deering, Jonathon W Senefeld, Tatyana Pashibin, Donald A Neumann, Sandra K Hunter
BACKGROUND: Optimal function of the abdominal muscles is necessary for several life functions including lifting and carrying tasks. Sex differences in strength and fatigability are established for many limb muscles and back extensor muscles, but it is unknown if sex differences exist for the abdominal muscles despite their functional importance. METHODS: Eighteen females (24.3 ± 4.8 years) and 15 males (24.1 ± 6.6 years) performed (1) isometric trunk flexion maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in a range of trunk positions to establish a torque-angle curve and (2) submaximal (50% MVC), intermittent isometric contraction (6 s on, 4 s off) until task failure to determine fatigability of the trunk flexor muscles...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427691/spastic-paretic-hemifacial-contracture-as-a-presenting-feature-of-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Georgios Koutsis, Marianthi Breza, Maria-Eleftheria Evangelopoulos, Maria Anagnostouli, Elisavet Andreadou, Georgios Karagiorgis, Panagiotis Kokotis, Costas Kilidireas, Nikolaos Karandreas
BACKGROUND: Spastic paretic hemifacial contracture (SPHC) is characterized by sustained unilateral contraction of the facial muscles associated with mild ipsilateral facial paresis. Rarely described in the context of multiple sclerosis (MS), it has never been reported as presenting symptom of MS. CASE REPORTS: Two patients developed SPHC within the context of a clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of MS. EMG revealed continuous resting activity of irregularly firing motor unit potentials, associated with impaired recruitment upon voluntary contraction...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427305/neuromechanical-adaptations-during-a-robotic-powered-exoskeleton-assisted-walking-session
#17
Arvind Ramanujam, Christopher M Cirnigliaro, Erica Garbarini, Pierre Asselin, Rakesh Pilkar, Gail F Forrest
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gait parameters and neuromuscular profiles of exoskeleton-assisted walking under Max Assist condition during a single-session for; (i) able bodied (AB) individuals walking assisted with (EXO) and without (non-EXO) a powered exoskeleton, (ii) non-ambulatory SCI individuals walking assisted with a powered exoskeleton. DESIGN: Single-session. SETTING: Motion analysis laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Four AB individuals and four individuals with SCI...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427290/a-real-time-method-for-decoding-the-neural-drive-to-muscles-using-single-channel-intra-muscular-emg-recordings
#18
Saeed Karimimehr, Hamid Reza Marateb, Silvia Muceli, Marjan Mansourian, Miguel Angel Mañanas, Dario Farina
The neural command from motor neurons to muscles - sometimes referred to as the neural drive to muscle - can be identified by decomposition of electromyographic (EMG) signals. This approach can be used for inferring the voluntary commands in neural interfaces in patients with limb amputations. This paper proposes for the first time an innovative method for fully automatic and real-time intramuscular EMG (iEMG) decomposition. The method is based on online single-pass density-based clustering and adaptive classification of bivariate features, using the concept of potential measure...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426509/log-transformed-emg-amplitude-power-output-relationship-single-leg-knee-extensor-versus-single-leg-cycle-ergometry
#19
Eric B Noble, Joshua M Pilarski, Harshal K Vora, Jorge M Zuniga, Moh H Malek
Comparing and contrasting motor unit recruitment and activation for the same muscles for multiple versus single-joint exercise may provide a better understanding of neuromuscular fatigue. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to compare the slope and y-intercept terms for the three superficial quadriceps femoris (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and vastus medialis) muscles derived from the log-transformed EMG amplitude-power output relationship between the single-leg knee-extensor ergometry and the single-leg cycle ergometry...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426263/using-contingent-reinforcement-to-augment-muscle-activation-after-perinatal-brachial-plexus-injury-a-pilot-study
#20
S V Duff, B Sargent, J J Kutch, J Berggren, B E Leiby, L Fetters
AIM: Examine the feasibility of increasing muscle activation with electromyographically (EMG)-triggered musical-video as reinforcement for children with perinatal brachial plexus injury (PBPI). METHODS: Six children with PBPI (9.3 ± 6.3 months; 5 female, 1 male) and 13 typically developing (TD) controls (7.8 ± 3.5 months; 4 female, 9 males) participated. The left arm was affected in 5/6 children with PBPI. We recorded the integral (Vs) of biceps activation with surface EMG during two conditions per arm in one session: (1) 100 second (s) baseline without reinforcement and (2) 300 s reinforcement (musical-video triggered to play with biceps activation above threshold [V])...
April 20, 2017: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
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