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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226066/instrumental-variable-analyses-in-pharmacoepidemiology-what-target-trials-do-we-emulate
#1
REVIEW
Sonja A Swanson
Purpose of review: When leveraging observational data to estimate treatment effects, it is useful to explicitly specify the "target trial" the investigators aspire to emulate. One concern is whether a proposed analysis plan can address the realities of the differences between the available non-randomized observational study and the target trial. When large or unknown sources of unmeasured confounding are suspected, investigators might consider turning to instrumental variable (IV) methods...
2017: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225939/mapping-global-policy-discourse-on-antimicrobial-resistance
#2
Didier Wernli, Peter S Jørgensen, Chantal M Morel, Scott Carroll, Stephan Harbarth, Nicolas Levrat, Didier Pittet
The rising importance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to the global health agenda is associated with a growing number of parties voicing their concern about the issue. With more recommendations and policies appearing, understanding the policy process requires making sense of the views, values, interests and goals of each participant. Policy frame analysis provides a method to understand both the scientific view and the actions advocated by global health actors to tackle AMR. Here we review and refine policy frame analyses of AMR using a deductive approach...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222994/supportive-environments-for-physical-activity-in-deprived-communities-in-the-united-kingdom-a-qualitative-study-using-photo-elicitation
#3
Alexia Sawyer, Marcella Ucci, Russell Jones, Lee Smith, Abi Fisher
The health benefits of regular physical activity are substantial and well-established. However, population activity levels are insufficient to obtain health benefits in the United Kingdom (UK), and strategies to increase activity, particularly in income-deprived communities, are sought. Socioecological models of physical activity posit that activity levels are influenced by social, physical and wider environmental factors. In line with a growing evidence base, there is a need to understand the factors that contribute to an activity-supportive neighbourhood within deprived settings within the UK...
December 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222179/hpv-vaccination-rate-in-french-adolescent-girls-an-example-of-vaccine-distrust
#4
Hervé Lefèvre, Cécile Schrimpf, Marie Rose Moro, Jonathan Lachal
OBJECTIVES: To explore the clinical issues of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to develop explanatory hypotheses for the low level of vaccination among adolescent girls in France where the full course coverage is low (<15%). DESIGN: We used semistructured interviews. Our qualitative and phenomenological procedure applied interpretative phenomenological analysis. PARTICIPANTS: 16 physicians regularly faced with the prescription of HPV vaccine, represented several medical specialties (paediatrics, general practice, internal medicine, gynaecology), with hospitalist or private practices...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219248/-my-mother-told-me-that-i-should-not-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-restrictions-placed-on-adolescent-girls-living-with-hiv-in-zambia
#5
Constance Rs Mackworth-Young, Virginia Bond, Alison Wringe, Katongo Konayuma, Sue Clay, Chipo Chiiya, Mutale Chonta, Kirsty Sievwright, Anne L Stangl
INTRODUCTION: Adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by HIV due to a range of social and structural factors. As they transition to adulthood, they are recipients of increasing blame for HIV infection and 'improper' sex, as well as increasing scrutiny, restrictions and surveillance. This study used a qualitative and participatory approach to explore the messaging and restrictions imposed on adolescent girls living with HIV in Zambia. METHODS: Thirty-four in-depth interviews and four participatory workshops were carried out with 24 adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 years old living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218788/alternative-solutions-to-a-language-design-problem-the-role-of-adjectives-and-gender-marking-in-efficient-communication
#6
Melody Dye, Petar Milin, Richard Futrell, Michael Ramscar
A central goal of typological research is to characterize linguistic features in terms of both their functional role and their fit to social and cognitive systems. One long-standing puzzle concerns why certain languages employ grammatical gender. In an information theoretic analysis of German noun classification, Dye, Milin, Futrell, and Ramscar (2017) enumerated a number of important processing advantages gender confers. Yet this raises a further puzzle: If gender systems are so beneficial to processing, what does this mean for languages that make do without them? Here, we compare the communicative function of gender marking in German (a deterministic system) to that of prenominal adjectives in English (a probabilistic one), finding that despite their differences, both systems act to efficiently smooth information over discourse, making nouns more equally predictable in context...
December 8, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206008/mental-hygiene-in-early-francoism-from-racial-hygiene-to-the-prevention-of-mental-illness-1939-1960
#7
Ricardo Campos, Enric Novella
In this paper, we study the ideological bases of mental hygiene, understood as racial and moral hygiene, during the first years of Franco's regime and their evolution until 1960. First, we discuss the conceptualization of mental hygiene in the 1940s and its role as a tool for the legitimization of dictatorship, revealing the involvement of orthodox Catholicism and its links with moral and racial hygiene. Second, we assess the transformation of mental hygiene during the 1950s towards modernization and a stronger linkage with the dominant trends of contemporary psychiatry without ever leaving the ideological background of Catholicism...
2017: Dynamis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202316/drug-law-reform-performativity-and-the-politics-of-childhood
#8
Simon Jonathan Flacks
Children are critical to debates about drug law reform. For both advocates of liberalisation and, especially, defenders of prohibition, the protection of children is an important rhetorical device in pressing for, or resisting, change. However, the privileged position of minors within such discussions, or talk about drugs in general, has rarely been explored in any depth in either drug and alcohol studies or legal research. Drawing on scholarship on performativity, and particularly John Law's work on 'collateral realities', this article will consider how constructs such as childhood and drugs are 'produced' and '(re)made' in such discourses...
December 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199907/gaydar-marriage-and-rip-roaring-homosexuals-discourses-about-homosexuality-in-dear-abby-and-ann-landers-advice-columns-1967-1982
#9
Patrick M Johnson, Kwame A Holmes
Over the past 70 years, the history of acceptance of the Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) community within the United States has seen much change and fluctuation. One of the places that this dialogue has been preserved is through the syndicated advice columns of Dear Abby and Ann Landers, in which individuals in the United States were writing in for advice to deal with their anxiety over a newly emerging and highly visible new community of individuals once considered to be mentally ill and dangerous. Using discourse analysis, this article traces the evolution of public and scientific opinions about the LGBT community during the years leading up to the Stonewall riots all the way to right before the AIDs epidemic...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199762/m-resist-a-complete-m-health-solution-for-patients-with-treatmentresistant-schizophrenia-a-qualitative-study-of-user-needs-and-acceptability-in-the-barcelona-metropolitan-area
#10
Elena Huerta-Ramos, Silvia Marcó-García, Maria Soledad Escobar-Villegas, Elena Rubio-Abadal, Susana Ochoa, Eva M Grasa Bello, Anna Alonso Solís, Mireia Rabella, Jesús Berdun, Margarita Hospedales, Group M-Resist, Iluminada Corripio, Judith Usall
BACKGROUND: Despite the theoretical potential of m-health solutions in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, there remains a lack of technological solutions in daily practice. The aim of this study was to measure the receptivity of patients, informal carers, and clinicians to an integral intervention model focused on patients with persistent positive symptoms: Mobile Therapeutic Attention for Patients with Treatment Resistant Schizophrenia (m-RESIST). METHODS: A qualitative study of the needs and acceptability of outpatients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia was carried out in Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu (Barcelona)...
November 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198153/how-do-men-s-magazines-talk-about-penises
#11
Craig Owen, Christine Campbell
Constructions of masculinity have shifted and changed but the central role of the penis has remained firm. Yet, despite the implications for sexual health, there has been very little research on discourses around penises. The messages men receive about their manhood is apparent in articles in men's magazines. We conducted a discursive analysis of the ways in which penises were discussed in four market leading UK titles: Loaded, Men's Health, GQ and Attitude. Two broad discourses were identified, termed Laddish and Medicalised, both of which create fear-ridden spaces where men are bombarded with unachievable masculine ideals and traumatic examples of mutilated members...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183223/-just-as-canadian-as-anyone-else-experiences-of-second-class-citizenship-and-the-mental-health-of-young-immigrant-and-refugee-men-in-canada
#12
Carla T Hilario, John L Oliffe, Josephine P Wong, Annette J Browne, Joy L Johnson
In recet years, the experiences of immigrant and refugee young men have drawn attention worldwide. Human-induced environmental disasters, local and global conflicts, and increasingly inequitable distributions of wealth have shaped transnational migration patterns. Canada is home to a large immigrant and refugee population, particularly in its urban areas, and supporting the mental health and well-being of these communities is of critical importance. The aim of this article is to report findings from a qualitative study on the social context of mental health among immigrant and refugee young men, with a focus on their migration and resettlement experiences...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182962/the-possible-worlds-of-global-health-research-an-ethics-focused-discourse-analysis
#13
Ben Brisbois, Katrina Plamondon
Representations of the world enable global health research (GHR), discursively constructing sites in which studies can legitimately take place. Depoliticized portrayals of the global South frequently obscure messy legacies of colonialism and motivate technical responses to health problems with political and economic root causes. Such problematic representations of the world have not yet been rigorously examined in relation to global health ethics, a major site of scholarly effort towards GHR that promotes justice and fairness...
November 23, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179830/categorising-patients-mental-illness-by-medical-surgical-nurses-in-the-general-hospital-ward-a-focus-group-study
#14
REVIEW
Scott Brunero, Niels Buus, Sandra West
AIM: To gain insight into medical surgical nurses' process(es) of categorising mental illness in general hospitals. BACKGROUND: Categorising patients is a daily social practice that helps medical surgical nurses understand their work and actions. Medical surgical nurses' categorising of mentally ill patients in general hospitals is a means in which they articulate their understanding of mental illness and perform their clinical practice. How medical surgical nurses categorise, and the impact that categorising can have on their work practices is poorly understood...
December 2017: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179570/a-narrow-view-the-conceptualization-of-sexual-problems-in-human-sexuality-textbooks
#15
Monika Stelzl, Brittany Stairs, Hannah Anstey
This study examined the ways in which the meaning of 'sexual problems' is constructed and defined in undergraduate human sexuality textbooks. Drawing on feminist and critical discourse frameworks, the dominant as well as the absent/marginalized discourses were identified using critical discourse analysis. Sexual difficulties were largely framed by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Thus, medical discourse was privileged. Alternative conceptualizations and frameworks, such as the New View of Women's Sexual Problems, were included marginally and peripherally...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177816/frames-of-reference-and-antecedentless-anaphora-in-spanish-conversation
#16
Sarah E Blackwell
This study examines native Spanish speakers' use of anaphoric pronouns and null subjects in conversational discourse in the absence of coreferential antecedents. It also considers the adequacy of Gundel et al.'s proposal  (Language 69(2):274-307, 1993) that the cognitive status "in focus" corresponds with speakers' use of minimal referring expressions (i.e., unstressed pronouns and zeros). Analysis of naturally occurring Spanish conversation shows how the felicitous use and interpretation of non-canonical (antecedentless) anaphoric pronouns and null subjects are possible due to the activation of underlying cognitive frames that are shared by the interlocutors...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177512/-the-lesser-of-two-evils-versus-medicines-not-smarties-constructing-antipsychotics-in-dementia
#17
Dilbagh Gill, Saleh Almutairi, Parastou Donyai
Background and Objectives: Because antipsychotics are associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, they should only be prescribed in dementia in limited circumstances. But antipsychotics are prescribed to a large proportion of residents in formal care settings despite guidance and warnings to the contrary, justifying a study into how professionals define and in turn create realities about antipsychotic usage in dementia. Research Design and Methods: Twenty-eight professionals with a role in the care and management of patients with dementia in care homes were recruited and interviewed in this qualitative study...
November 21, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173510/understanding-functional-ability-perspectives-of-nurses-and-older-people-living-in-long-term-care
#18
Vilhelmiina Lehto, Outi Jolanki, Jaakko Valvanne, Lauri Seinelä, Marja Jylhä
The functional ability of older people has come to play a significant role in their care. Policies and public debate promote active aging and the need to maintain functioning in old age, including among older people living in long-term care. This study explores the meanings given to functional ability in the interview talk of long-term care nurses (n=24) and older people living in long-term care (n=16). The study is based on discourse analysis and positioning theory. In this study, accounts of functioning differed between nurses and older residents...
December 2017: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173509/virtuous-aging-and-existential-vulnerability
#19
Hanne Laceulle
In its efforts to overcome problematic views that associate aging with inevitable decline, contemporary gerontology shows a tendency to focus predominantly on age-related vulnerabilities that science may try to remedy and control. However, gerontology should also offer languages to address vulnerabilities that cannot be remedied because they intrinsically belong to the human condition. After all, these are increasingly radically encountered in later life and should therefore be reflected upon in the study of aging...
December 2017: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173083/between-butch-femme-on-the-performance-of-race-gender-and-sexuality-in-a-youtube-web-series
#20
Faithe Day
Drawing on a legacy of Black television and film production, Black web series remediate earlier media forms in order to usher in a twenty-first-century revival of indie Black cultural production. Specifically, video sharing and social media platforms operate as a sphere in which content creators and users are afforded unique opportunities to engage with video content and each other on a variety of levels. Focusing on the YouTube media sphere, one can also observe the myriad ways in which the performance of race, gender, and sexuality influences the types of discourse that circulate within these sites...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Lesbian Studies
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