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socio cultural learning theories

Stanka A Fitneva, Elizabeth Pile Ho, Misako Hatayama
Children do not know everything that adults know, nor do adults know everything that children know. The present research examined the universality of beliefs about child and adult knowledge and their development with 4- and 7-year-old Canadian and Japanese children (N = 96). In both countries, all children were able to identify adult-specific knowledge and only older children displayed beliefs about child-specific knowledge. However, Japanese and Canadian children differed in whether they used their own knowledge in deciding whether a person who knew an item was a child or an adult...
2016: PloS One
Christopher Watling, Kori A LaDonna, Lorelei Lingard, Stephane Voyer, Rose Hatala
CONTEXT: Direct observation promises to strengthen both coaching and assessment, and calls for its increased use in medical training abound. Despite its apparent potential, the uptake of direct observation in medical training remains surprisingly limited outside the formal assessment setting. The limited uptake of observation raises questions about cultural barriers to its use. In this study, we explore the influence of professional culture on the use of direct observation within medical training...
October 2016: Medical Education
(no author information available yet)
This edited collection of innovative research on work-based learning makes essential reading for nurse researchers who want to enhance their knowledge research practice. While it mainly concerns clinical education, it also describes how socio-cultural perspectives give shape to the process of inquiry. The book therefore illuminates the translation of theory to methodology, and so has much to offer nurse researchers.
July 2016: Nurse Researcher
Caragh Brosnan, Erica Southgate, Sue Outram, Heidi Lempp, Sarah Wright, Troy Saxby, Gillian Harris, Anna Bennett, Brian Kelly
CONTEXT: Students from backgrounds of low socio-economic status (SES) or who are first in family to attend university (FiF) are under-represented in medicine. Research has focused on these students' pre-admission perceptions of medicine, rather than on their lived experience as medical students. Such research is necessary to monitor and understand the potential perpetuation of disadvantage within medical schools. OBJECTIVES: This study drew on the theory of Bourdieu to explore FiF students' experiences at one Australian medical school, aiming to identify any barriers faced and inform strategies for equity...
August 2016: Medical Education
Jennifer Cleland, Kenneth G Walker, Michael Gale, Laura G Nicol
OBJECTIVE: The focus of simulation-based education (SBE) research has been limited to outcome and effectiveness studies. The effect of social and cultural influences on SBE is unclear and empirical work is lacking. Our objective in this study was to explore and understand the complexity of context and social factors at a surgical boot camp (BC). METHODS: A rapid ethnographic study, employing the theoretical lenses of complexity and activity theory and Bourdieu's concept of 'capital', to better understand the socio-cultural influences acting upon, and during, two surgical BCs, and their implications for SBE...
August 2016: Medical Education
Justin Mausz, Walter Tavares
The changing nature of healthcare education and delivery is such that clinicians will increasingly find themselves practicing in contexts that are physically and/or conceptually different from the settings in which they were trained, a practice that conflicts on some level with socio-cultural theories of learning that emphasize learning in context. Our objective was therefore to explore learning in 'professionally distant' contexts. Using paramedic education, where portions of training occur in hospital settings despite preparing students for out-of-hospital work, fifty-three informants (11 current students, 13 recent graduates, 16 paramedic program faculty and 13 program coordinators/directors) took part in five semi-structured focus groups...
June 13, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Marion Baschin, Elisabeth Dietrich-Daum, Iris Ritzmann
How can these finings be interpreted in conclusion? Analysis has revealed firstly that, depending on the chosen period, the socio-geographical situation and the profile of the individual doctor's practice, the clientele varied widely in terms of gender, age and social rank. The consultation behaviour of men and women changed noticeably. Findings overall suggest that up until t8o the gender distribution varied in the individual practices. There was a trend for women to be overrepresented in urban practices during the earlier period...
2016: Clio Medica: Acta Academiae Internationalis Historiae Medicinae
Angus McMurtry, Shanta Rohse, Kelly N Kilgour
CONTEXT: Interprofessional teamwork and collaboration have become important parts of health care practice and education. Most of the literature on interprofessional learning, however, assumes that learning is something acquired by individuals and readily transferred to other contexts. This assumption severely limits the ways in which interprofessional educators and researchers can conceptualise and support learning related to collaborative interprofessional health care. Socio-material theories provide an alternative to individualistic, acquisition-oriented notions by reconceiving learning in terms of collective dynamics, participation in social communities and active engagement with material contexts...
February 2016: Medical Education
Chris Roberts, Koshila Kumar
Student learning in interprofessional practice-based environments has garnered significant attention in the last decade, and is reflected in a corresponding increase in published literature on the topic. We review the current empirical literature with specific attention to the theoretical frameworks that have been used to illustrate how and why student learning occurs in interprofessional practice-based environments. Our findings show there are relatively few theoretical-based studies available to guide educators and researchers alike...
2015: BMC Medical Education
Chris Sinha
Niche construction theory is a relatively new approach in evolutionary biology that seeks to integrate an ecological dimension into the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection. It is regarded by many evolutionary biologists as providing a significant revision of the Neo-Darwinian modern synthesis that unified Darwin's theory of natural and sexual selection with 20th century population genetics. Niche construction theory has been invoked as a processual mediator of social cognitive evolution and of the emergence and evolution of language...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
T Clement, J Brown, J Morrison, D Nestel
General practice registrars in Australia undertake most of their vocational training in accredited general practices. They typically see patients alone from the start of their community-based training and are expected to seek timely ad hoc support from their supervisor. Such ad hoc encounters are a mechanism for ensuring patient safety, but also provide an opportunity for learning and teaching. Wenger's (Communities of practice: learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1998) social theory of learning ('communities of practice') guided a secondary analysis of audio-recordings of ad hoc encounters...
May 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Maja Hojer Bruun, Jakob Krause-Jensen, Margit Saltofte
Anthropology attempts to gain insight into people's experiential life-worlds through long-term fieldwork. The quality of anthropological knowledge production, however, does not depend solely on the duration of the stay in the field, but also on a particular way of seeing social situations. The anthropological perspective is grounded in socio-cultural theory and forged by a distinct relativist or contextualist epistemological stance. The point is to understand events, concepts and phenomena from the insiders' point of view and to show how this view relates to the particular social and cultural context...
2015: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Fernando Zamudio, Norma I Hilgert
BACKGROUND: Not long ago Eugene Hunn suggested using a combination of cognitive, linguistic, ecological and evolutionary theories in order to account for the dynamic character of ethnoecology in the study of folk classification systems. In this way he intended to question certain homogeneity in folk classifications models and deepen in the analysis and interpretation of variability in folk classifications. This paper studies how a rural culturally mixed population of the Atlantic Forest of Misiones (Argentina) classified honey-producing stingless bees according to the linguistic, cognitive and ecological dimensions of folk classification...
2015: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Huon Snelgrove, Yuriy Kuybida, Mark Fleet, Greg McAnulty
BACKGROUND: European health systems depend increasingly on the services of health professionals who obtained their primary medical qualification from other countries. There has been a significant increase recently in fully qualified specialist doctors arriving from the European Union to provide short term or longer-term solutions to health human resources needs in the UK National Health System. These doctors often take up senior consultant positions. As a result, the NHS has had to learn to deal with both expatriation and repatriation of EU doctors as a constant dynamic characteristic of its own ability to deliver services...
2015: BMC Medical Education
Sarah Yardley, Elizabeth Cottrell, Eliot Rees, Joanne Protheroe
BACKGROUND: People are increasingly living for longer with multimorbidity. Medical education and healthcare delivery must be re-orientated to meet the societal and individual patient needs that multimorbidity confers. The impact of multimorbidity on the educational needs of doctors is little understood. There has been little critique of how learning alongside healthcare provision is negotiated by patients, general practitioners and trainee doctors. This study asked 'what is known about how and why concurrent healthcare delivery and professional experiential learning interact to generate outcomes, valued by patients, general practitioners and trainees, for patients with multimorbidity in primary care?' METHODS: This realist synthesis is reported using RAMESES standards...
2015: BMC Family Practice
Rika van den Berg
The paper describes a programme for disadvantaged children with learning problems (due to factors other than cognitive deficits), at the University of Cape Town (UCT) Child Guidance Clinic, developed in the absence of subsidised services for children in need of remediation of scholastic skills. In collaboration with teacher trainees from the Cape Technikon, the programme intervenes on a cognitive and an emotional level. The learning problem is conceptualised in the context of the dysfunctional systems in which the children have been raised - the post apartheid socio-cultural environment, the family and the school...
October 2004: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Nadine Petersen, Josef de Beer, Helen Dunbar-Krige
The article describes the use of a simulation game in HIV/AIDS education with pre-service teachers in Johannesburg, South Africa. The use of a simulation game, as novel experiential pedagogy, was an attempt to raise awareness about HIV and AIDS and to demonstrate that anyone can be at risk of HIV infection. Using a generic qualitative research design, the data were collected over a three-year period by way of video recordings of the simulation game, recordings of large and small group discussions afterwards, and via questionnaires and written reflections by the education students four weeks afterwards...
April 2011: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Marije Huls, Sophia E de Rooij, Annemie Diepstraten, Raymond Koopmans, Esther Helmich
CONTEXT: A significant challenge facing health care is the ageing of the population, which calls for a major response in medical education. Most clinical learning takes place within hospitals, but nursing homes may also represent suitable learning environments in which students can gain competencies in geriatric medicine. OBJECTIVES: This study explores what students perceive as the main learning outcomes of a geriatric medicine clerkship in a hospital or a nursing home, and explicitly addresses factors that may stimulate or hamper the learning process...
March 2015: Medical Education
Chengyuan Zhang
The eating disorders literature has focussed on females and little is known of the male experience. The overall image this has generated suggests a young woman in conflict with socio-cultural pressures which associate thinness with beauty. Historical studies have examined anorexia nervosa from an entirely female focus while ignoring how diagnostic categories have shaped approaches to the male body. This paper will track the case of the male with anorexia nervosa through changing theories of causation and treatment approaches, from when the condition first emerged in 1873 to the present...
2014: Journal of Eating Disorders
Kimiko Tanaka, Larry Davidson
Despite the clubhouse model's 60-year existence internationally, the central nature of its core program, the "work-ordered day" (WOH) (Beard et al. in Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 5:47-53, 1982), is not well understood; hence, the primary focus of the present study was to explore members' experiences of the nature and meaning of the WOH. The study drew on qualitative interview data collected in 2009-2013 through open-ended questions and probes with 102 members and 24 staff from 5 Clubhouse International-certified clubhouses (2 US and 3 Finnish)...
June 2015: Psychiatric Quarterly
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