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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902909/marek-s-disease-in-backyard-chickens-a-study-of-pathologic-findings-and-viral-loads-in-tumorous-and-nontumorous-birds
#1
Aslı Mete, Radhika Gharpure, Maurice E Pitesky, Dan Famini, Karen Sverlow, John Dunn
Marek's disease (MD) is a major cause of mortality in backyard chickens. The diagnosis of MD is complex, however, and knowledge of Marek's disease virus (MDV) in spontaneous field cases such as in backyard chickens is largely unknown. In this study, 40 backyard chickens with a presumptive MD diagnosis based on histologic lymphoid infiltrations in peripheral nerves with and without lymphomas were investigated. Twenty-eight of the birds were submitted to the diagnostic laboratory for disease explorations, and 12 chickens were from a flock in which some members demonstrated anisocoria and pupil irregularities compatible with ocular MD...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902902/history-of-the-first-generation-marek-s-disease-vaccines-the-science-and-little-known-facts
#2
Karel A Schat
Shortly after the isolation of Marek's disease (MD) herpesvirus (MDV) in the late 1960s vaccines were developed in England, the United States, and The Netherlands. Biggs and associates at the Houghton Poultry Research Station (HPRS) in England attenuated HPRS-16, the first cell-culture-isolated MDV strain, by passaging HPRS-16 in chick kidney cells. Although HPRS-16/Att was the first commercially available vaccine, it never became widely used and was soon replaced by the FC126 strain of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) vaccine developed by Witter and associates at the Regional Poultry Research Laboratory (now Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory [ADOL]) in East Lansing, MI...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894330/marek-s-disease-in-chickens-a-review-with-focus-on-immunology
#3
REVIEW
Nitish Boodhoo, Angila Gurung, Shayan Sharif, Shahriar Behboudi
Marek's disease (MD), caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), is a commercially important neoplastic disease of poultry which is only controlled by mass vaccination. Importantly, vaccines that can provide sterile immunity and inhibit virus transmission are lacking; such that vaccines are only capable of preventing neuropathy, oncogenic disease and immunosuppression, but are unable to prevent MDV transmission or infection, leading to emergence of increasingly virulent pathotypes. Hence, to address these issues, developing more efficacious vaccines that induce sterile immunity have become one of the important research goals for avian immunologists today...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829176/comparative-studies-of-infectivity-immunogenicity-and-cross-protective-efficacy-of-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccines-containing-nucleoprotein-from-cold-adapted-or-wild-type-influenza-virus-in-a-mouse-model
#4
Irina Isakova-Sivak, Daniil Korenkov, Tatiana Smolonogina, Tatiana Tretiak, Svetlana Donina, Andrey Rekstin, Anatoly Naykhin, Svetlana Shcherbik, Nicholas Pearce, Li-Mei Chen, Tatiana Bousse, Larisa Rudenko
This study sought to improve an existing live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) by including nucleoprotein (NP) from wild-type virus rather than master donor virus (MDV). H7N9 LAIV reassortants with 6:2 (NP from MDV) and 5:3 (NP from wild-type virus) genome compositions were compared with regard to their growth characteristics, induction of humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and ability to protect mice against homologous and heterologous challenge viruses. Although, in general, the 6:2 reassortant induced greater cell-mediated immunity in C57BL6 mice than the 5:3 vaccine, mice immunized with the 5:3 LAIV were better protected against heterologous challenge...
January 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827933/recombinant-marek-s-disease-virus-as-a-vector-based-vaccine-against-avian-leukosis-virus-subgroup-j-in-chicken
#5
Yongzhen Liu, Kai Li, Yulong Gao, Li Gao, Li Zhong, Yao Zhang, Changjun Liu, Yanping Zhang, Xiaomei Wang
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an immunosuppressive virus that causes considerable economic losses to the chicken industry in China. However, there is currently no effective vaccine to prevent ALV-J infection. In order to reduce the losses caused by ALV-J, we constructed two effective ALV-J vaccines by inserting the ALV-J (strain JL093-1) env or gag+env genes into the US2 gene of the Marek's disease herpesviruses (MDV) by transfection of overlapping fosmid DNAs, creating two recombinant MDVs, rMDV/ALV-gag+env and rMDV/ALV-env...
November 4, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794054/gp85-genetic-diversity-of-avian-leukosis-virus-subgroup-j-among-different-individual-chickens-from-a-native-flock
#6
Yang Li, Jiayuan Fu, Shuai Cui, Fanfeng Meng, Zhizhong Cui, Jianhua Fan, Shuang Chang, Peng Zhao
To compare the genetic diversity and quasispecies evolution of avian leukosis virus (ALV) among different individuals, 5 chickens, raised in Shandong Provice of China, were randomly selected from a local chicken flock associated with serious tumor cases. Blood samples were collected and inoculated into chicken embryo fibroblast and DF-1 cell lines for virus isolation and identification, respectively, of Marek's disease virus (MDV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), and ALV. Five strains of ALV subgroup J (ALV-J) were identified, and the gp85 gene from each strain was amplified and cloned...
October 28, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747299/dna-from-dust-comparative-genomics-of-large-dna-viruses-in-field-surveillance-samples
#7
Utsav Pandey, Andrew S Bell, Daniel W Renner, David A Kennedy, Jacob T Shreve, Chris L Cairns, Matthew J Jones, Patricia A Dunn, Andrew F Read, Moriah L Szpara
The intensification of the poultry industry over the last 60 years facilitated the evolution of increased virulence and vaccine breaks in Marek's disease virus (MDV-1). Full-genome sequences are essential for understanding why and how this evolution occurred, but what is known about genome-wide variation in MDV comes from laboratory culture. To rectify this, we developed methods for obtaining high-quality genome sequences directly from field samples without the need for sequence-based enrichment strategies prior to sequencing...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742216/effects-of-different-promoters-on-the-protective-efficacy-of-recombinant-marek-s-disease-virus-type-1-expressing-the-vp2-gene-of-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#8
Kai Li, Yongzhen Liu, Changjun Liu, Li Gao, Yanping Zhang, Yulong Gao, Hongyu Cui, Xiaole Qi, Li Zhong, Xiaomei Wang
The vaccine efficacy of recombinant viruses can be influenced by many factors. Accordingly, the activity of promoters has been one of the major factors affecting the antigen expression and protection rate. In the present study, two recombinant Marek's disease virus type 1 (MDV1) vaccines containing the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) under control of different promoters were generated from overlapping fosmid DNAs. The rMDV-Pec-VP2 virus containing the VP2 gene under control of the Pec promoter (CMV enhancer and chicken β-actin chimera promoter) demonstrated higher VP2 expression and stronger antibody response against IBDV in chickens than the rMDV-CMV-VP2 virus using the CMV promoter...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720297/marek-s-disease-herpesvirus-vaccines-integrate-into-chicken-host-chromosomes-yet-lack-a-virus-host-phenotype-associated-with-oncogenic-transformation
#9
Marla C McPherson, Hans H Cheng, Mary E Delany
Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphotropic and oncogenic disease of chickens that can lead to death in susceptible and unvaccinated host birds. The causative pathogen, MD virus (MDV), a highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus, integrates into host genome near the telomeres. MD occurrence is controlled across the globe by biosecurity, selective breeding for enhanced MD genetic resistance, and widespread vaccination of flocks using attenuated serotype 1 MDV or other serotypes. Despite over 40 years of usage, the specific mechanism(s) of MD vaccine-related immunity and anti-tumor effects are not known...
October 5, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715458/alternative-splicing-of-a-viral-mirtron-differentially-affects-the-expression-of-other-micrornas-from-its-cluster-and-of-the-host-transcript
#10
Perrine Rasschaert, Thomas Figueroa, Ginette Dambrine, Denis Rasschaert, Sylvie Laurent
Interplay between alternative splicing and the Microprocessor may have differential effects on the expression of intronic miRNAs organised into clusters. We used a viral model - the LAT long non-coding RNA (LAT lncRNA) of Marek's disease oncogenic herpesvirus (MDV-1), which has the mdv1-miR-M8-M6-M7-M10 cluster embedded in its first intron - to assess the impact of splicing modifications on the biogenesis of each of the miRNAs from the cluster. Drosha silencing and alternative splicing of an extended exon 2 of the LAT lncRNA from a newly identified 3' splice site (SS) at the end of the second miRNA of the cluster showed that mdv1-miR-M6 was a 5'-tailed mirtron...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692091/marek-s-disease-virus-immunosuppression-alters-host-cellular-responses-and-immune-gene-expression-in-the-skin-of-infected-chickens
#11
Mohammad Heidari, Dan Wang, Phillip Delekta, Shuhong Sun
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD) in domestic chickens. MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4(+) T cells. The latently infected CD4(+) T cells carry the virus to visceral organs, peripheral nerves, and feather follicle epithelium (FFE). FFE is the only anatomical site where infectious enveloped cell-free virus particles are produced and disseminated into the environment...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687164/genome-wide-association-studies-of-immune-disease-and-production-traits-in-indigenous-chicken-ecotypes
#12
Androniki Psifidi, Georgios Banos, Oswald Matika, Takele T Desta, Judy Bettridge, David A Hume, Tadelle Dessie, Rob Christley, Paul Wigley, Olivier Hanotte, Pete Kaiser
BACKGROUND: The majority of chickens in sub-Saharan Africa are indigenous ecotypes, well adapted to the local environment and raised in scavenging production systems. Although they are generally resilient to disease challenge, routine vaccination and biosecurity measures are rarely applied and infectious diseases remain a major cause of mortality and reduced productivity. Management and genetic improvement programmes are hampered by lack of routine data recording. Selective breeding based on genomic technologies may provide the means to enhance sustainability...
September 29, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686071/expression-patterns-of-endogenous-avian-retrovirus-alve1-and-its-response-to-infection-with-exogenous-avian-tumour-viruses
#13
Xuming Hu, Wenqi Zhu, Shihao Chen, Yangyang Liu, Zhen Sun, Tuoyu Geng, Chengyi Song, Bo Gao, Xiaoyan Wang, Aijian Qin, Hengmi Cui
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are genomic elements that are present in a wide range of vertebrates and have been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including cancer. However, the characteristic expression patterns of ERVs, particularly in virus-induced tumours, is not fully clear. DNA methylation was analysed by bisulfite pyrosequencing, and gene expression was analysed by RT-qPCR. In this study, we first found that the endogenous avian retrovirus ALVE1 was highly expressed in some chicken tissues (including the heart, bursa, thymus, and spleen) at 2 days of age, but its expression was markedly decreased at 35 days of age...
September 29, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662574/positive-selection-drives-rapid-evolution-of-the-meq-oncogene-of-marek-s-disease-virus
#14
Abinash Padhi, Mark S Parcells
Marek's disease (MD), caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), a poultry-borne alphaherpesvirus, is a devastating disease of poultry causing an estimated annual loss of one billion dollars to poultry producers, worldwide. Despite decades of control through vaccination, MDV field strains continue to emerge having increased virulence. The evolutionary mechanism driving the emergence of this continuum of strains to increased MDV virulence, however, remains largely enigmatic. Increase in MDV virulence has been associated with specific amino acid changes within the C-terminus domain of Mareks's EcoRI-Q (meq)-encoded oncoprotein...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617224/sequence-analysis-of-meq-oncogene-among-indian-isolates-of-marek-s-disease-herpesvirus
#15
Mridula Gupta, Dipak Deka, Ramneek
Marek's disease (MD), caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), is a highly contagious neoplastic disease of chicken that can be prevented by vaccination. However, in recent years many cases of vaccine failure have been reported worldwide as chickens develop symptoms of MD in spite of proper vaccination. Distinct polymorphism and point mutations in Meq gene of MDV have been reported to be associated with virulence and oncogenicity. The present study was carried out with the objective to isolate and characterize field isolates of MDV on the basis of Meq gene...
September 2016: Meta Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610734/natural-infection-with-avian-hepatitis-e-virus-and-marek-s-disease-virus-in-brown-layer-chickens-in-china
#16
Shuqing Yang, Liyuan Wang, Shuhong Sun
In the present study, avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) and serotype-1 strains of Marek's disease virus (MDV-1) were detected from a flock of 27-wk-old brown layer hens in China, accompanied by an average daily mortality of 0.44%. Postmortem examination of 25 sick hens and five apparently healthy hens selected randomly from the flock showed significant pathologic changes consistent with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HSS), including hepatomegaly, peritoneal fluid, and hepatic subcapsular hemorrhages. Microscopic examination of these livers showed multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and mild lymphocytic infiltration...
September 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604255/differences-in-cd8%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-cecal-microbiome-community-during-proliferation-and-late-cytolytic-phases-of-marek-s-disease-virus-mdv-infection-are-associated-with-genetic-resistance-to-marek-s-disease
#17
Sudeep Perumbakkam, Henry D Hunt, Hans H Cheng
Marek's disease (MD) is an important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. In this study using two chicken lines, one resistant and another susceptible to MD, splenic T cells and cecal microbiome were profiled to gain a better understanding of primary differences in these lines. The percent of splenic CD4(+) T cells were similar regardless of MDV challenge status in both bird lines. In contrast, CD8αα profiles were different (P < 0.005) between chicken lines under naïve status and under MDV challenge, suggesting that CD8αα T cells play a key role in mediating MDV infection...
September 7, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569836/field-studies-of-the-detection-persistence-and-spread-of-the-rispens-cvi988-vaccine-virus-and-the-extent-of-co-infection-with-marek-s-disease-virus
#18
S Ralapanawe, K G Renz, S K Burgess, S W Walkden-Brown
OBJECTIVE: To use specific real-time qPCR to determine (1) the vaccination success of Rispens CVI988 vaccine in feathers and dust; (2) persistence of Rispens infection in vaccinated layer chickens; (3) extent of co-infection with wild-type Marek's disease virus (MDV) in vaccinated layers; and (4) presence of Rispens virus in unvaccinated broiler flocks. METHODS: Feather, dust and serum samples were collected from birds aged 3 days to 91 weeks from three layer farms...
September 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549920/prescription-of-oral-hypoglycemic-agents-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-retrospective-cohort-study-using-a-japanese-hospital-database
#19
Makito Tanabe, Ryoko Motonaga, Yuichi Terawaki, Takashi Nomiyama, Toshihiko Yanase
INTRODUCTION: In treatment algorithms of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Western countries, biguanides are recommended as first-line agents. In Japan, various oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) are available, but prescription patterns are unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 7,108 and 2,655 T2DM patients in study-1 and -2, respectively, were extracted from the MDV database (2008-2013). Cardiovascular disease (CVD) history was not considered in study-1, but was in study-2...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528486/a-novel-recombinant-meq-protein-based-dot-elisa-for-rapid-and-confirmatory-diagnosis-of-marek-s-disease-induced-lymphoma-in-poultry
#20
M Asok Kumar, R Barathidasan, M Palanivelu, S D Singh, Mohd Yaqoob Wani, Yashpal Singh Malik, R Singh, K Dhama
Marek's disease (MD), is an economically important virus disease of poultry throughout the world. In this study, we for the first time reports development of a novel dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) for the confirmatory diagnosis of lymphoma caused by Marek's Disease Virus (MDV). Suspected lymphoma tissue extracts from the diseased birds were used for the Meq oncoprotein antigen detection, which is expressed specifically in MDV lymphomas. Recombinant Meq oncoprotein was expressed using Expresso™ Rhamnose Sumo Cloning and Expression system and the hyperimmune serum was raised against it, which was used later while developing dot-ELISA...
October 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
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