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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528445/interindividual-spread-of-herpesviruses
#1
Keith W Jarosinski
Interindividual spread of herpesviruses is essential for the virus life cycle and maintenance in host populations. For most herpesviruses, the virus-host relationship is close, having coevolved over millions of years resulting in comparatively high species specificity. The mechanisms governing interindividual spread or horizontal transmission are very complex, involving conserved herpesviral and cellular proteins during the attachment, entry, replication, and egress processes of infection. Also likely, specific herpesviruses have evolved unique viral and cellular interactions during cospeciation that are dependent on their relationship...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479175/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv13-formulated-with-2-phenoxyethanol-in-multidose-vials-given-with-routine-vaccination-in-healthy-infants-an-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Olubukola T Idoko, Robert B Mboizi, Michael Okoye, France Laudat, Bubacarr Ceesay, John Z Liang, Natacha Le Dren-Narayanin, Kathrin U Jansen, Alejandra Gurtman, Kimberly J Center, Daniel A Scott, Beate Kampmann, Anna Roca
BACKGROUND: This open-label randomized controlled trial in infants compared safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) formulated with the preservative 2-phenoxyethanol (2-PE) in a multidose vial (MDV) to the current PCV13 without 2-PE in a single-dose syringe (SDS). METHODS: Gambian infants were randomized 1:1 to receive PCV13 as either MDV or SDS at ages 2, 3, and 4months. Serotype-specific antipneumococcal antibody responses and opsonophagocytic activity ([OPA]; subset) were measured at age 5months...
May 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475033/differentially-expressed-genes-during-spontaneous-lytic-switch-of-marek-s-disease-virus-in-lymphoblastoid-cell-lines-determined-by-global-gene-expression-profiling
#3
William N Mwangi, Deepali Vasoya, Lydia B Kgosana, Mick Watson, Venugopal Nair
Marek's disease virus (MDV), an alphaherpesvirus of poultry, causes Marek's disease and is characterized by visceral CD4+TCRαβ+ T-cell lymphomas in susceptible hosts. Immortal cell lines harbouring the viral genome have been generated from ex vivo cultures of MD tumours. As readily available sources of large numbers of cells, MDV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) are extremely valuable for studies of virus-host interaction. While the viral genome in most cells is held in a latent state, minor populations of cells display spontaneous reactivation identifiable by the expression of lytic viral genes...
April 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453957/a-magnetic-droplet-vaporization-approach-using-perfluorohexane-encapsulated-magnetic-mesoporous-particles-for-ultrasound-imaging-and-tumor-ablation
#4
Zhaogang Teng, Ronghui Wang, Yang Zhou, Michael Kolios, Yanjie Wang, Nan Zhang, Zhigang Wang, Yuanyi Zheng, Guangming Lu
Phase change agents consisting of low boiling point perfluorocarbon (PFC) compounds have attracted increasing attention for ultrasound contrast-enhanced imaging and tumor therapy. However, the refraction, acoustic shadowing, reverberation, or limited penetration depth hamper their practical applications through previously reported acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) or optical droplet vaporization (ODV) technique. Herein, we demonstrate a magnetic droplet vaporization (MDV) approach by loading perflurohexane (PFH) in magnetic mesoporous particles with a hollow space to carry out ultrasound imaging and tumor ablation...
April 15, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425390/sterility-and-stability-of-diluted-carprofen-in-a-multidose-vial-in-the-laboratory-animal-setting
#5
Gregory D Simonek Gwendolyne G Alarcio And Laurie L Brignolo
Using compounded multidose vials (cMDV) is a common practice in the laboratory animal setting, where medications oftenare diluted to provide appropriate doses to rodents. However, bacterial contamination of MDV has been well establishedin both the human and veterinary medical literature. For this study, we created 14 cMDV by diluting carprofen into sterilewater (dilution, 1:10) and stored 6 cMDV each at 5 and 24 °C. The stoppers of the cMDV were not cleaned with alcohol, andall were punctured twice daily for 28 d...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413051/protective-efficacy-of-a-novel-recombinant-marek-s-disease-virus-vector-vaccine-against-infectious-bursal-disease-in-chickens-with-or-without-maternal-antibodies
#6
Kai Li, Yongzhen Liu, Yanping Zhang, Li Gao, Changjun Liu, Hongyu Cui, Xiaole Qi, Yulong Gao, Li Zhong, Xiaomei Wang
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) causes significant clinical and economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Current vaccine programs using live attenuated and inactivated vaccines have numerous drawbacks. As an alternative solution to control IBD, a Marek's disease virus (MDV) vector vaccine (rMDV-VP2) expressing the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) has been developed. In this study, the protective efficacy of rMDV-VP2 was evaluated in a dose-related experiment which showed that a single dose of 1000 PFU was sufficient to fully protect chickens against IBDV infection...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410454/transcriptomic-analysis-of-host-immune-response-in-the-skin-of-chickens-infected-with-marek-s-disease-virus
#7
Mohammad Heidari, Phillip C Delekta
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated oncogenic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of T cell lymphoma and neuropathic disease called Marek's disease. The skin is the only anatomical site where infectious enveloped cell-free virions are produced and shed into the environment. Studies have demonstrated that MDV infection induces immunological responses within the skin, including the release of cytokines and the recruitment of T lymphocytes. The host immune response, however, is not sufficient to block replication and shedding of the virus particles from the skin...
April 14, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386650/complete-genomic-characterization-of-milk-vetch-dwarf-virus-isolates-from-cowpea-and-broad-bean-in-anhui-province-china
#8
Chenhua Zhang, Hongying Zheng, Dankan Yan, Kelei Han, Xijiao Song, Yong Liu, Dongfang Zhang, Jianping Chen, Fei Yan
Cowpea and broad bean plants showing severe stunting and leaf rolling symptoms were observed in Hefei city, Anhui province, China, in 2014. Symptomatic plants from both species were shown to be infected with milk vetch dwarf virus (MDV) by PCR. The complete genomes of MDV isolates from cowpea and broad bean were sequenced. Each of them had eight genomic DNAs that differed between the two isolates by 10.7% in their overall nucleotide sequences. In addition, the MDV genomes from cowpea and broad bean were associated with two and three alphasatellite DNAs, respectively...
April 6, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382158/phase-transitional-fe3o4-perfluorohexane-microspheres-for-magnetic-droplet-vaporization
#9
Ronghui Wang, Yang Zhou, Ping Zhang, Yu Chen, Wei Gao, Jinshun Xu, Hangrong Chen, Xiaojun Cai, Kun Zhang, Pan Li, Zhigang Wang, Bing Hu, Tao Ying, Yuanyi Zheng
Activating droplets vaporization has become an attractive strategy for ultrasound imaging and physical therapy due to the significant increase in ultrasound backscatter signals and its ability to physically damage the tumor cells. However, the current two types of transitional droplets named after their activation methods have their respective limitations. To circumvent the limitations of these activation methods, here we report the concept of magnetic droplet vaporization (MDV) for stimuli-responsive cancer theranostics by a magnetic-responsive phase-transitional agent...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368367/a-chinese-variant-marek-s-disease-virus-strain-with-divergence-between-virulence-and-vaccine-resistance
#10
Guo-Rong Sun, Yan-Ping Zhang, Hong-Chao Lv, Lin-Yi Zhou, Hong-Yu Cui, Yu-Long Gao, Xiao-le Qi, Yong-Qiang Wang, Kai Li, Li Gao, Qing Pan, Xiao-Mei Wang, Chang-Jun Liu
Marek's disease (MD) virus (MDV) has been evolving continuously, leading to increasing vaccination failure. Here, the MDV field strain BS/15 was isolated from a severely diseased Chinese chicken flock previously vaccinated with CVI988. To explore the causes of vaccination failure, specific-pathogen free (SPF) chickens vaccinated with CVI988 or 814 and unvaccinated controls were challenged with either BS/15 or the reference strain Md5. Both strains induced MD lesions in unvaccinated chickens with similar mortality rates of 85...
April 3, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346793/early-immune-responses-to-marek-s-disease-vaccines
#11
Mohammad Heidari, Dan Wang, Shuhong Sun
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD) in domestic chickens. MDV replicates in chicken cells and establishes a latent infection within CD4(+) T cells. Although MD vaccines have been in use for several decades, the exact mechanism of vaccine-induced protection is unclear. It is believed that the innate immune system plays a role in vaccine-induced immunity against pathogenic strains of MDV. To shed light on the possible function of the innate immunity in vaccine-mediated protection, we investigated the effect of vaccination, Rispens/CVI988, on the activation of cellular components of the innate immune system by analyzing the expression pattern of select immune-related genes in the cecal tonsils (CT) and duodenum of two MD-susceptible and MD-resistant chicken lines at 3, 5, and 10 days postvaccination (dpv)...
April 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339787/molecular-characterization-of-marek-s-disease-virus-in-a-poultry-layer-farm-from-colombia
#12
Sara López-Osorio, Diego Piedrahita, Maria A Espinal-Restrepo, Gloria C Ramírez-Nieto, Venugopal Nair, Susan M Williams, Susan Baigent, César Ventura-Polite, Diego A Aranzazu-Taborda, Jenny J Chaparro-Gutiérrez
Marek's disease ( ) is a lymphoproliferative disease caused by an Alphaherpesvirus, genus Mardivirus , serotype 1 ( Gallid Herpesvirus 2 , GaHV-2) that includes all known pathogenic strains. In addition to Marek's disease virus ( ) serotype 1, the genus includes 2 distinct nonpathogenic serotypes: serotype 2 (GaHV-3) and serotype 3 ( Meleagridis Herpesvirus 1 , MeHV-1) which are used in commercially available vaccines against MD. As a result of vaccination, clinical signs are not commonly observed, and new cases are usually associated with emerging variant strains against which the vaccines are less effective...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301231/evaluation-and-identification-of-marek-s-disease-virus-bac-clones-as-standardized-reagents-for-research
#13
John R Dunn, Sanjay M Reddy, Masahiro Niikura, Venugopal Nair, Janet E Fulton, Hans H Cheng
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes Marek's disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens. Understanding of MDV gene function advanced significantly following the cloning of the MDV genome as either a series of overlapping cosmids or as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), both of which could produce viable MDV. The objectives of this study were to compare multiple virulent MDV BAC clones using the Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory's pathotyping assay, and to demonstrate the use of these clones as standardized reagents for a modified pathotyping assay by other laboratories...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263843/comparison-of-different-sites-in-recombinant-marek-s-disease-virus-for-the-expression-of-green-fluorescent-protein
#14
Yongzhen Liu, Kai Li, Hongyu Cui, Li Gao, Changjun Liu, Yanping Zhang, Yulong Gao, Xiaomei Wang
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a preferred vector for recombinant vaccine construction, and insertion site is the main factor influencing foreign gene expression and vaccine efficacy. In this study, recombinant MDVs inserted with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene at different sites in its genome were generated from overlapping fosmid DNAs and the eGFP expression was compared. The results showed that the eGFP expression levels from the sites in the unique long (UL) region (within UL41, between UL45 and UL46, and between UL55 and LORF10) were comparable, which were significantly higher than those from the sites in the unique short (US) region (US2 and US10), and the eGFP expression level from US2 was significantly higher than that from US10...
March 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167384/a-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-for-h3n2-canine-influenza-virus
#15
Laura Rodriguez, Aitor Nogales, Emma C Reilly, David J Topham, Pablo R Murcia, Colin R Parrish, Luis Martinez Sobrido
Canine influenza is a contagious respiratory disease in dogs caused by two subtypes (H3N2 and H3N8) of canine influenza virus (CIV). Currently, only inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) are available for the prevention of CIVs. Historically, live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) have been shown to produce better immunogenicity and protection efficacy than IIVs. Here, we have engineered a CIV H3N2 LAIV by using the internal genes of a previously described CIV H3N8 LAIV as a master donor virus (MDV) and the surface HA and NA genes of a circulating CIV H3N2 strain...
February 3, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160668/expression-of-marek-s-disease-virus-oncoprotein-meq-during-infection-in-the-natural-host
#16
S-H Sheldon Tai, Cari Hearn, Sudawapee Umthong, Olga Agafitei, Hans H Cheng, John R Dunn, Masahiro Niikura
Gallid herpesvirus 2 (Marek's disease virus, MDV) causes lymphoproliferative Marek's disease (MD), and is unique among alphaherpesviruses as the viral genome encodes an oncoprotein, Meq. To elucidate the temporal relationship between Meq expression and the development of MD lymphomas in infected chickens, we generated a virulent recombinant MDV that expresses GFP simultaneously with Meq. By using this virus, we monitored the dynamics of Meq expression in vivo throughout the course of infection. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the percentage of Meq-expressing cells dramatically increased in the early latent phase but decreased thereafter...
March 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151004/evaluation-of-factors-influencing-the-development-of-late-marek-s-disease-virus-induced-immunosuppression-virus-pathotype-and-host-sex
#17
Nik M Faiz, Aneg L Cortes, James S Guy, Oscar J Fletcher, Thomas Cimino, Isabel M Gimeno
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a herpesvirus that induces lymphoma and immunosuppression in chickens. MDV-induced immunosuppression (MDV-IS) is complex and can be divided into two phases: early-MDV-IS associated with cytolytic infection in the lymphoid organs in chickens lacking maternal antibodies against MDV (MAbs) and late-MDV-IS that appears later in the pathogenesis and occurs even in chickens bearing MAbs. We have recently developed a model to reproduce late-MDV-IS under laboratory conditions. This model evaluates late-MDV-IS indirectly by assessing the effect of MDV infection on the efficacy of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccines against challenge with ILT virus...
April 24, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113043/activation-of-gga-mir-155-by-reticuloendotheliosis-virus-t-strain-and-its-contribution-to-transformation
#18
Yongxiu Yao, Deepali Vasoya, Lydia Kgosana, Lorraine P Smith, Yulong Gao, Xiaomei Wang, Mick Watson, Venugopal Nair
The v-rel oncoprotein encoded by reticuloendotheliosis virus T strain (Rev-T) is a member of the rel/NF-κB family of transcription factors capable of transformation of primary chicken spleen and bone marrow cells. Rapid transformation of avian haematopoietic cells by v-rel occurs through a process of deregulation of multiple protein-encoding genes through its direct effect on their promoters. More recently, upregulation of oncogenic miR-155 and its precursor pre-miR-155 was demonstrated in both Rev-T-infected chicken embryo fibroblast cultures and Rev-T-induced B-cell lymphomas...
April 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057380/current-and-future-vaccines-and-vaccination-strategies-against-infectious-laryngotracheitis-ilt-respiratory-disease-of-poultry
#19
Maricarmen García
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically important respiratory disease of poultry that affects the industry worldwide. Vaccination is the principal tool in the control of the disease. Two types of vaccines, live attenuated and recombinant viral vector, are commercially available. The first generation of GaHV-1 vaccines available since the early 1960's are live viruses, attenuated by continuous passages in cell culture or embryos. These vaccines significantly reduce mortalities and, in particular, the chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines have shown to limit outbreaks of the disease...
December 24, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043157/complete-nucleotide-sequence-analysis-of-the-oncogene-meq-from-serotype-1-marek-s-disease-virus-isolates-from-india
#20
P Suresh, J Johnson Rajeswar, K Sukumar, T J Harikrishnan, P Srinivasan
1. A study was undertaken to characterise the oncogene Meq at the molecular level for three serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) field isolates from vaccinated poultry flocks which had encountered a Marek's disease outbreak in the southern part of India. The isolates were named Ind/TN/11/01, Ind/KA/12/02 and Ind/TN/12/03. The oncogene Meq was amplified by PCR and sequenced. 2. The isolates were shown to have a homology for the Meq gene of 99.1-99.8% with various isolates from China and 98.5-99.2% with isolates from Europe and the USA...
April 2017: British Poultry Science
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