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Simone Scheithauer, Martin Kaase
Patients colonized or infected by multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR) are entitled to the same medical treatment as other patients and infection control measures based on the current evidence are not in conflict with this aim. Recent studies indicate that the correct sampling technique is of utmost importance when screening for MRSA and usage of certain swabs might reduce the sensitivity considerably. Despite improvements in diagnostic strategies for direct MRSA detection by PCR, false positive results cannot be totally excluded...
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
C Carbone, C Martins-Gomes, V Pepe, A M Silva, T Musumeci, G Puglisi, P M Furneri, E B Souto
In this work, we aimed at developing an improved topical SLN formulation combining itraconazole delivery with a coating layer of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide, thus repurposing the drug effectiveness by synergistic skin anticancer effectiveness. In order to obtain a stable SLN formulation with small homogeneously dispersed particles, a deep formulative study was developed screening three different solid lipids (Suppocire NB, Cetyl Palmitate and Dynasan 114) for the SLN preparation by the phase inversion temperature...
April 17, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Michael Wälchli, Martin Keller, Jan Ruffieux, Audrey Mouthon, Wolfgang Taube
Postural control undergoes rapid changes during child development. However, the influence of balance training (BT) on the compensation of perturbations has not yet been investigated in children. For this purpose, young (6.7 ± 0.6 years) and old children (12.0 ± 0.4 years) were exposed to externally induced anticipated (direction known) and non-anticipated (direction unknown) perturbations on a free swinging platform before and after either child-oriented BT (INT; young: n = 12, old: n = 18) or regular physical education (CON; young: n = 9, old: n = 9)...
April 20, 2018: Human Movement Science
Eleonora Rossi, Julien Guerrero, Paola Aprile, Alessandro Tocchio, Elisabeth A Kappos, Cristina Lenardi, Ivan Martin, Arnaud Scherberich
Fat grafting is emerging as a promising alternative to silicon implants in breast reconstruction surgery. Unfortunately, this approach does not provide a proper mechanical support and is affected by drawbacks such as tissue resorption and donor site morbidity. Synthetic scaffolds can offer a valuable alternative to address these challenges, but poorly recapitulate the biochemical stimuli needed for tissue regeneration. Here, we aim at combining the positive features of a structural, synthetic polymer to an engineered, devitalized extracellular matrix (ECM) to generate a hybrid construct that can provide a mix of structural and biological stimuli needed for adipose tissue regeneration...
April 20, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Lara Vezula Gonçalves, Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Tamara Andrea Alarcon Ferreira, Juliana Barbosa Coitinho, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires, Cristina Martins-Silva
Stroke is considered a major cause of global morbidity. Currently, there are no effective treatments for post-stroke cognitive impairment. Enriched environment (EE) has been brought forward as a preconditioning method to induce cerebral tolerance in an ischemic event. However, the subjacent mechanisms involved in this tolerance are not yet clear. Herein we aimed to identify the mechanisms of neuroprotection triggered by EE preconditioning in a murine model of ischemic stroke. In order to do so, C57Bl/6 mice were kept for five weeks either in EE or in standard environment (SC) prior to ischemic injury through bilateral carotid occlusion (BCCAo) or sham surgery...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Michaël Noë, Neda Rezaee, Kaushal Asrani, Michael Skaro, Vincent P Groot, Pei-Hsun Wu, Matthew T Olson, Seung-Mo Hong, Sung Joo Kim, Matthew J Weiss, Christopher L Wolfgang, Martin A Makary, Jin He, John L Cameron, Denis Wirtz, Nicholas J Roberts, G Johan A Offerhaus, Lodewijk A A Brosens, Laura D Wood, Ralph H Hruban
Visualizing pathologies in three dimensions (3D) can provide unique insights into the biology of human diseases. A rapid and easy-to-implement dibenzyl ether-based technique was used to clear thick sections of surgically resected human pancreatic parenchyma. Protocols were applicable to both fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. The penetration of antibodies into dense pancreatic parenchyma was optimized using both gradually increasing antibody concentrations and centrifugal flow. Immunolabeling with antibodies against CK19 was visualized using both light sheet and confocal laser scanning microscopy...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Peter D Craggs, Stephane Mouilleron, Martin Rejzek, Cesira Chiara, Robert J Young, Robert A Field, Argyrides Argyrou, Luiz Pedro S de Carvalho
The biosynthetic pathway of peptidoglycan is essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We report here the acetyltransferase substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism of the bifunctional N-acetyltransferase/uridyltransferase from M. tuberculosis (GlmU). This enzyme is responsible for the final two steps of the synthesis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, which is an essential precursor of peptidoglycan, from glucosamine-1-phosphate, acetyl coenzyme A and uridine-5'-triphosphate. GlmU utilizes requires ternary complex formation to transfer an acetyl from acetyl coenzyme A to glucosamine-1-phosphate to form N-acetylglucosmaine-1-phosphate...
April 23, 2018: Biochemistry
Martin Riemer, Jonathan Shine, Thomas Wolbers
Cross-dimensional interference between spatial and temporal processing is well documented in humans, but the direction of these interactions remains unclear. The theory of metaphoric structuring states that space is the dominant concept influencing time perception, whereas time has little effect upon the perception of space. In contrast, theories proposing a common neuronal mechanism representing magnitudes argue for a symmetric interaction between space and time perception. Here, we investigated space-time interactions in realistic, large-scale virtual environments...
April 23, 2018: Hippocampus
Emily T Martin, Jane Kuypers, Helen Y Chu, Sydney Foote, Andrew Hashikawa, Mary P Fairchok, Janet A Englund
Background: Despite the frequency of human rhinovirus (HRV), data describing the molecular epidemiology of HRV in the community are limited. Child care centers are optimal settings to characterize heterotypic HRV co-circulation. Methods: HRV specimens were prospectively obtained from a cohort of child care attendees at enrollment and weekly during respiratory illness. Sequences of the 5' non-coding region were used to determine HRV species (A, B, or C) and genotypes...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Rafal Dolot, Curtis H Lam, Malgorzata Sierant, Qiang Zhao, Feng-Wu Liu, Barbara Nawrot, Martin Egli, Xianbin Yang
Thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) is a DNA 15-mer of sequence 5'-GGT TGG TGT GGT TGG-3' that folds into a G-quadruplex structure linked by two T-T loops located on one side and a T-G-T loop on the other. These loops are critical for post-SELEX modification to improve TBA target affinity. With this goal in mind we synthesized a T analog, 5-(indolyl-3-acetyl-3-amino-1-propenyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (W) to substitute one T or a pair of Ts. Subsequently, the affinity for each analog was determined by biolayer interferometry...
April 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Martin Malmstrøm, Ralf Britz, Michael Matschiner, Ole K Tørresen, Renny Kurnia Hadiaty, Norsham Yaakob, Heok Hui Tan, Kjetill Sigurd Jakobsen, Walter Salzburger, Lukas Rüber
The world's smallest fishes belong to the genus Paedocypris. These miniature fishes are endemic to an extreme habitat: the peat swamp forests in Southeast Asia, characterized by highly acidic blackwater. This threatened habitat is home to a large array of fishes, including a number of miniaturized but also developmentally truncated species. Especially the genus Paedocypris is characterized by profound, organism-wide developmental truncation, resulting in sexually mature individuals of <8 mm in length with a larval phenotype...
April 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Martin G Ottolini, Allison M W Malloy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Javier Ortuño, Martin Debbané, Raymond C K Chan, David Cicero, Lisa C Zhang, Colleen Brenner, Emma Barkus, Richard J Linscott, Thomas Kwapil, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Alex Cohen, Adrian Raine, Michael T Compton, Erin B Tone, Julie Suhr, Felix Inchausti, Julio Bobes, Axit Fumero, Stella Giakoumaki, Ioannis Tsaousis, Antonio Preti, Michael Chmielewski, Julien Laloyaux, Anwar Mechri, Mohamed Aymen Lahmar, Viviana Wuthrich, Frank Larøi, Johanna C Badcock, Assen Jablensky, Adela M Isvoranu, Sacha Epskamp, Eiko I Fried
Elucidating schizotypal traits is important if we are to understand the various manifestations of psychosis spectrum liability and to reliably identify individuals at high risk for psychosis. The present study examined the network structures of (1) 9 schizotypal personality domains and (2) 74 individual schizotypal items, and (3) explored whether networks differed across gender and culture (North America vs China). The study was conducted in a sample of 27001 participants from 12 countries and 21 sites (M age = 22...
April 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Matthew E Oetgen, Allison L Matthews, Benjamin D Martin, Jeffrey Hanway, Shannon Kelly, Laurel Blakemore
INTRODUCTION: The dangers of radiation exposure in children have been well studied, with assessment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) documented as having the potential for notable patient exposure. The purposes of this study were to evaluate a consecutive series of patients referred to a tertiary care pediatric hospital for AIS and to assess the type and quality of imaging obtained before referral for specialist evaluation. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of consecutive patients referred over a 6-month period to a pediatric orthopaedic practice at a large, free-standing, urban children's hospital for evaluation of AIS...
April 19, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Martin Schnitzer, Janette Walde, Sabrina Scheiber, Roman Nagiller, Gottfried Tappeiner
On the basis of the Youth Olympic Games (YOG), we assess if and how the youth in the communities of the YOG host cities have been influenced concerning their perception of the Olympic values (OV) and the Olympic movement (OM). Special attention of the study is paid to the analysis of intervention mechanisms which the local youth underwent (e.g. attending the YOG on-site, participating in school programmes). Our study was conducted among 1004 adolescents living in the host region three years after the Innsbruck 2012 YOG had been staged...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Max A Mattson, Thomas D Green, Peter T Lake, Martin McCullagh, Amber T Krummel
Perylene diimides (PDI) are a family of molecules that have potential applications to organic photovoltaics. These systems typically aggregate cofacially due to π-stacking interactions between the aromatic perylene cores. In this study, the structure and characteristics of aggregated N,N'-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (common name lumogen orange), a perylene diimide (PDI) with sterically bulky imide functional groups were investigated using both experimental vibrational spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Kurt G Pike, Bernard Barlaam, Elaine Cadogan, Andrew Campbell, Yingxue Chen, Nicola Colclough, Nichola L Davies, Camila DeAlmeida, Sébastien L Degorce, Myriam Didelot, Allan Dishington, Richard Ducray, Stephen T Durant, Lorraine A Hassall, Jane L Holmes, Gareth D Hughes, Philip A MacFaul, Keith R Mulholland, Thomas M McGuire, Gilles Ouvry, Martin Pass, Graeme R Robb, Natalie Stratton, Zhenhua Wang, Joanne Wilson, Baochang Zhai, Kang Zhao, Nidal Al-Huniti
ATM inhibitors, such as 7, have demonstrated the anti-tumor potential of ATM inhibition when combined with DNA double strand break-inducing agents in mouse xenograft models. However, the properties of 7 result in a relatively high predicted clinically efficacious dose. In an attempt to minimize attrition during clinical development we sought to identify ATM inhibitors with a low predicted clinical dose (<50 mg) and focussed on strategies to increase both ATM potency and predicted human pharmacokinetic half-life (predominantly through the increase of volume of distribution)...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Vsevolod A Bolotov, Konstantin A Kovalenko, Denis G Samsonenko, Xue Han, Xinran Zhang, Gemma L Smith, Laura McCormick, Simon J Teat, Sihai Yang, Matthew J Lennox, Alice Henley, Elena Besley, Vladimir P Fedin, Danil N Dybtsev, Martin Schröder
The complex [Zn2 (tdc)2 dabco] (H2 tdc = thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid; dabco = 1,4-diazabicyclooctane) shows a remarkable increase in carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake and CO2 /dinitrogen (N2 ) selectivity compared to the nonthiophene analogue [Zn2 (bdc)2 dabco] (H2 bdc = benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid; terephthalic acid). CO2 adsorption at 1 bar for [Zn2 (tdc)2 dabco] is 67.4 cm3 ·g-1 (13.2 wt %) at 298 K and 153 cm3 ·g-1 (30.0 wt %) at 273 K. For [Zn2 (bdc)2 dabco], the equivalent values are 46 cm3 ·g-1 (9...
April 23, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Peter Vuust, Martin J Dietz, Maria Witek, Morten L Kringelbach
Rhythmic incongruity in the form of syncopation is a prominent feature of many contemporary musical styles. Syncopations afford incongruity between rhythmic patterns and the meter, giving rise to mental models of differently accented isochronous beats. Syncopations occur either in isolation or as part of rhythmic patterns, so-called grooves. On the basis of the predictive coding framework, we discuss how brain processing of rhythm can be seen as a special case of predictive coding. We present a simple, yet powerful model for how the brain processes rhythmic incongruity: the model for predictive coding of rhythmic incongruity...
April 23, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
John T McCrone, Robert J Woods, Emily T Martin, Ryan E Malosh, Arnold S Monto, Adam S Lauring
The evolutionary dynamics of influenza virus ultimately derive from processes that take place within and between infected individuals. Here we define influenza virus dynamics in human hosts through sequencing of 249 specimens from 200 individuals collected over 6290 person-seasons of observation. Because these viruses were collected from individuals in a prospective community-based cohort, they are broadly representative of natural infections with seasonal viruses. Consistent with a neutral model of evolution, sequence data from 49 serially sampled individuals illustrated the dynamic turnover of synonymous and nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants and provided little evidence for positive selection of antigenic variants...
April 23, 2018: ELife
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