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gallus gallus

Dan Zhao, Imdad Hussain Leghari, Jian Li, Yuling Mi, Caiqiao Zhang
The isolation and culture of ovarian follicles is essential for the studies of follicular development and function. In contrast to the relative ease of culture for mammalian follicles, developing in vitro cultures of high viability for the much larger avian follicles has always proven to be more challenging. In this study, the growing follicles from domestic hens (Gallus domesticus) were isolated using enzymatic and mechanical methods and then investigated for the optimized conditions for culture. Assessments of viability and hormonal responsiveness were also considered...
February 2, 2018: Theriogenology
Marie Perkins, Niladri Basu
Mercury (Hg) is a pervasive environmental contaminant that can impair avian health, consequently there is a need to gauge exposures. Bird blood provides a measure of recent dietary exposure to Hg, but blood collection and storage can be complex and costly. Dried blood spots (DBS) may help overcome challenges of whole blood analyses, therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a novel method to assess Hg exposure in birds using DBS. First, accuracy and precision of blood Hg concentrations for entire DBS and DBS punches were determined for white leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) dosed with methylmercury (MeHg) via egg injection...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Benjamin Dubansky, Guido Verbeck, Phillip Mach, Warren Burggren
Oil spills on birds and other organisms have focused primarily on direct effects of oil exposure through ingestion or direct body fouling. Little is known of indirect effects of airborne volatiles from spilled oil, especially on vulnerable developing embryos within the bird egg. Here a technique is described for exposing bird embryos in the egg to quantifiable amounts of airborne volatile toxicants from Deepwater Horizon crude oil. A novel membrane inlet mass spectrometry system was used to measure major classes of airborne oil-derived toxicants and correlate these exposures with biological endpoints...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Renata Rezende Carvalho, Rupert Palme, Angélica da Silva Vasconcellos
Livestock is the category of animals that suffers the most severe welfare problems. Among these, physical, physiological, and behavioural distress caused by artificial grouping are some of the challenges faced by these animals. Groups whose members are frequently changed have been reported as socially unstable, which could jeopardise the welfare of animals. Here, we assessed the effect of social instability on aggression, stress, and productivity in groups of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We studied 36 females, distributed into three stable groups (without group membership change) and three unstable groups (where the dominant member was rotated every week) over the course of 10 weeks...
February 2, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Karina M Shreffler, Zachary Giano, Ronald B Cox, Michael J Merten, Kami L Gallus
Many Latino youth are U.S. citizens but live with parents whose immigration status is unauthorized. The association between parental documentation status and early adolescent academic attitudes and expectations is unclear. Using a general population sample of urban 7th grade students who self-identified as Latino in the South Central U.S. (n = 514), we examine the associations between parental documentation status and youth attitudes about the importance of graduating high school and college and expectations of the likelihood of completing high school and attending college...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Steven J Conrad, Robert F Silva, Cari J Hearn, Megan Climans, John R Dunn
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus of Gallus gallus, the domesticated chicken. Control strategies rely upon vaccination with live attenuated viruses of antigenically similar avian herpesviruses or attenuated strains of MDV. Recent studies in other viruses have shown that recoding certain viral genes to employ synonymous but rarely-used codon pairs resulted in viral attenuation. We deoptimized two MDV proteins, UL54/ICP27 and UL49/VP22, and demonstrate that the more severely deoptimized variant of UL54 accumulates significantly less gene product in vitro...
February 1, 2018: Virology
Takahiro Tabuchi, Keisuke Fukui, Silvano Gallus
Introduction: Tobacco price increases can generate increased public interest in smoking cessation, but it is not clear how long this interest lasts. Our objective was to evaluate the duration of the impact of cigarette price increase in Japan using Google search data. Methods: Monthly or daily aggregated Google search volume for smoking cessation in Japan from 2004 to 2016 was collected in terms of relative search volume (RSV) ranging from 0-100. Using monthly RSV data, we evaluated possible relationships between the RSVs and tobacco control measures in Japan...
January 31, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Qixin Guo, Lu Xu, Yulin Bi, Lingling Qiu, Yin Chen, Lingling Kong, Rui Pan, Guobin Chang
Spermatogenesis is a complex process. Some studies have shown that Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play an important role in spermatogenesis. To verify the evaluate between piRNAs and PIWI proteins in chicken and its possible role in spermatogenesis and reproductive stem cell proliferation and differentiation, we performed immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing analyses and determined the expression profiles of small RNAs in primordial germ cells (PGCs), spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), spermatogonia (Sa) cells and spermatozoa...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Aline Bertin, Ludovic Calandreau, Maryse Meurisse, Marion Georgelin, Rupert Palme, Sophie Lumineau, Cécilia Houdelier, Anne-Sophie Darmaillacq, Ludovic Dickel, Violaine Colson, Fabien Cornilleau, Christophe Rat, Joel Delaveau, Cécile Arnould
The influence of embryonic microclimate on the behavioural development of birds remains unexplored. In this study, we experimentally tested whether chronic exposure to suboptimal temperatures engendered plasticity in the expression of fear-related behaviours and in the expression of the corticotropin-releasing factor in the brains of domestic chicks (Gallus g. domesticus). We compared the neurobehavioural phenotypes of a control group of chicks incubated in an optimal thermal environment (37.8 °C) with those of a group of experimental chicks exposed chronically in ovo to suboptimal temperatures (27...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Piyanat Teinlek, Kannika Siripattarapravat, Chanin Tirawattanawanich
Objective: Complete mtDNA D-loop sequences of four Thai indigenous chicken varieties, including Pra-dhu-hang-dam (PD), Leung-hang-khao (LK), Chee (CH) and Dang (DA) were explored for genetic diversity and relationships with their potential ancestor and possible associates so to address chicken domestication in Thailand. Methods: A total of 220 complete mtDNA D-loop sequences of the 4 Thai indigenous chicken varieties were obtained by Sanger direct sequencing of PCR amplicons of 1231-1232 base pair in size...
January 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
L Paglia, S Gallus, S de Giorgio, S Cianetti, E Lupatelli, G Lombardo, A Montedori, P Eusebi, R Gatto, S Caruso
AIM: Children's dental fear and anxiety (DFA) causes significant problems in clinical practice. The 15-item Children's Fear Survey Schedule - Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) and the 8-item Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (MCDAS) are the most widely used measures of dental fear in children. The aim of this study is to examine the reliability and validity of the Italian versions of the CFSS-DS and MCDAS, also in comparison with a simple visual analogue scale (VAS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CFSS-DS and MCDAS were translated into Italian by a consensus panel of experts and administered to 210 dental patients aged 4-11 years from three Italian Institutions...
December 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Lissandra Sousa Dalsecco, Rafael Melo Palhares, Pollyana Carvalho Oliveira, Lilian Viana Teixeira, Marcela Gonçalves Drummond, Denise Aparecida Andrade de Oliveira
Species substitution in meat products is a common problem reported worldwide. This type of food fraud is, typically, an intentional act for economic gain, using sources of low-priced meats in high-value meat products. Consequences include economic, health, and religious concerns. Highly sensitive and efficient techniques are thus required to detect meat species. This paper describes a method based on real-time PCR to detect 10 animal species (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa, Ovis aries, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Bubalus bubalis, Equus caballus, Felis catus, and Canis familiaris) in meat product...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Food Science
C Aidala, Y Akiba, M Alfred, V Andrieux, K Aoki, N Apadula, H Asano, C Ayuso, B Azmoun, V Babintsev, A Bagoly, N S Bandara, K N Barish, S Bathe, A Bazilevsky, M Beaumier, R Belmont, A Berdnikov, Y Berdnikov, D S Blau, M Boer, J S Bok, M L Brooks, J Bryslawskyj, V Bumazhnov, C Butler, S Campbell, V Canoa Roman, R Cervantes, C Y Chi, M Chiu, I J Choi, J B Choi, Z Citron, M Connors, N Cronin, M Csanád, T Csörgő, T W Danley, M S Daugherity, G David, K DeBlasio, K Dehmelt, A Denisov, A Deshpande, E J Desmond, A Dion, D Dixit, J H Do, A Drees, K A Drees, M Dumancic, J M Durham, A Durum, T Elder, A Enokizono, H En'yo, S Esumi, B Fadem, W Fan, N Feege, D E Fields, M Finger, M Finger, S L Fokin, J E Frantz, A Franz, A D Frawley, Y Fukuda, C Gal, P Gallus, P Garg, H Ge, F Giordano, Y Goto, N Grau, S V Greene, M Grosse Perdekamp, T Gunji, H Guragain, T Hachiya, J S Haggerty, K I Hahn, H Hamagaki, H F Hamilton, S Y Han, J Hanks, S Hasegawa, T O S Haseler, X He, T K Hemmick, J C Hill, K Hill, R S Hollis, K Homma, B Hong, T Hoshino, N Hotvedt, J Huang, S Huang, K Imai, J Imrek, M Inaba, A Iordanova, D Isenhower, Y Ito, D Ivanishchev, B V Jacak, M Jezghani, Z Ji, X Jiang, B M Johnson, V Jorjadze, D Jouan, D S Jumper, J H Kang, D Kapukchyan, S Karthas, D Kawall, A V Kazantsev, V Khachatryan, A Khanzadeev, C Kim, D J Kim, E-J Kim, M Kim, M H Kim, D Kincses, E Kistenev, J Klatsky, P Kline, T Koblesky, D Kotov, S Kudo, K Kurita, Y Kwon, J G Lajoie, E O Lallow, A Lebedev, S Lee, M J Leitch, Y H Leung, N A Lewis, X Li, S H Lim, L D Liu, M X Liu, V-R Loggins, S Lökös, K Lovasz, D Lynch, T Majoros, Y I Makdisi, M Makek, M Malaev, V I Manko, E Mannel, H Masuda, M McCumber, P L McGaughey, D McGlinchey, C McKinney, M Mendoza, W J Metzger, A C Mignerey, D E Mihalik, A Milov, D K Mishra, J T Mitchell, G Mitsuka, S Miyasaka, S Mizuno, P Montuenga, T Moon, D P Morrison, S I M Morrow, T Murakami, J Murata, K Nagai, K Nagashima, T Nagashima, J L Nagle, M I Nagy, I Nakagawa, H Nakagomi, K Nakano, C Nattrass, T Niida, R Nouicer, T Novák, N Novitzky, R Novotny, A S Nyanin, E O'Brien, C A Ogilvie, J D Orjuela Koop, J D Osborn, A Oskarsson, G J Ottino, K Ozawa, V Pantuev, V Papavassiliou, J S Park, S Park, S F Pate, M Patel, W Peng, D V Perepelitsa, G D N Perera, D Yu Peressounko, C E PerezLara, J Perry, R Petti, M Phipps, C Pinkenburg, R P Pisani, A Pun, M L Purschke, P V Radzevich, K F Read, D Reynolds, V Riabov, Y Riabov, D Richford, T Rinn, S D Rolnick, M Rosati, Z Rowan, J Runchey, A S Safonov, T Sakaguchi, H Sako, V Samsonov, M Sarsour, K Sato, S Sato, B Schaefer, B K Schmoll, K Sedgwick, R Seidl, A Sen, R Seto, A Sexton, D Sharma, I Shein, T-A Shibata, K Shigaki, M Shimomura, T Shioya, P Shukla, A Sickles, C L Silva, D Silvermyr, B K Singh, C P Singh, V Singh, M J Skoby, M Slunečka, K L Smith, M Snowball, R A Soltz, W E Sondheim, S P Sorensen, I V Sourikova, P W Stankus, S P Stoll, T Sugitate, A Sukhanov, T Sumita, J Sun, S Syed, J Sziklai, A Takeda, K Tanida, M J Tannenbaum, S Tarafdar, A Taranenko, G Tarnai, R Tieulent, A Timilsina, T Todoroki, M Tomášek, C L Towell, R S Towell, I Tserruya, Y Ueda, B Ujvari, H W van Hecke, S Vazquez-Carson, J Velkovska, M Virius, V Vrba, N Vukman, X R Wang, Z Wang, Y Watanabe, Y S Watanabe, C P Wong, C L Woody, C Xu, Q Xu, L Xue, S Yalcin, Y L Yamaguchi, H Yamamoto, A Yanovich, P Yin, J H Yoo, I Yoon, H Yu, I E Yushmanov, W A Zajc, A Zelenski, S Zharko, L Zou
During 2015, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided collisions of transversely polarized protons with Au and Al nuclei for the first time, enabling the exploration of transverse-single-spin asymmetries with heavy nuclei. Large single-spin asymmetries in very forward neutron production have been previously observed in transversely polarized p+p collisions at RHIC, and the existing theoretical framework that was successful in describing the single-spin asymmetry in p+p collisions predicts only a moderate atomic-mass-number (A) dependence...
January 12, 2018: Physical Review Letters
A Barbero, C Porcu, A Spezzigu, S Succu, M Dattena, M Gallus, G Molle, S Naitana, A Gonzalez-Bulnes, F Berlinguer
The present study used a sheep model of intrauterine growth restriction, combining maternal undernutrition and twinning, to determine possible markers of early damage to the fetal kidney. The occurrence of early deviations in fetal hemodynamics which may be indicative of changes in blood perfusion was assessed by Doppler ultrasonography. A total of 24 sheep divided in two groups were fed with the same standard grain-based diet but fulfilling either their daily maintenance requirements for pregnancy (control group; n=12, six singleton and six twin pregnancies) or only the 50% of such quantity (food-restricted group; n=12; four singleton and eight twin pregnancies)...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Xiaoqiu Liu, Alessandra Lugo, Lorenzo Spizzichino, Takahiro Tabuchi, Roberta Pacifici, Silvano Gallus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 26, 2018: Tobacco Control
Márcia Moreira de Ávila, Andreia Fernandes Brilhante, Cristian Ferreira de Souza, Paula Dias Bevilacqua, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati, Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are insects of medical importance due to their involvement in the zoonotic transmission of Leishmania spp. to vertebrates. The aim of this work was to study the ecology of the sand fly fauna of two types of environments, a rural environment (the Transacreana Road) and an urban park (Horto Florestal Park), both located in the municipality of Rio Branco in the state of Acre, Brazil. Additionally, this study intended to investigate Leishmania infection and blood meal sources of these sand flies using molecular techniques...
January 26, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
O Rosa-Salva, M Hernik, A Broseghini, G Vallortigara
From the first hours of life, the prompt detection of animate agents allows identification of biologically relevant entities. The motion of most animate agents is constrained by their bilaterally-symmetrical body-plan, and consequently tends to be aligned with the main body-axis. Thus parallelism between the main axis of a moving object and its motion trajectory can signal the presence of animate agents. Here we demonstrated that visually-naïve newborn chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) are attracted to objects displaying such parallelism, and thus show preference for the same type of motion patterns that elicit perception of animacy in humans...
January 19, 2018: Cognition
Marija Knez, Elad Tako, Raymond P Glahn, Nikolai Kolba, Emma de Courcy Ireland, James C R Stangoulis
The quantity of Zn absorbed from Zn biofortified wheat material using an in-vivo model of Zn absorption has been determined. Erythrocyte linoleic: dihomo -γ-linolenic acid (LA: DGLA) ratio was used as a biomarker of Zn status. Two groups of chickens (n = 15) were fed different diets: a high Zn (46.5 µg Zn g-1) and a low Zn wheat based diet (32.8 µg Zn g-1). Dietary Zn intakes, body weight, serum Zn, and the erythrocyte fatty acid profile were measured and tissues were collected for gene expression analysis...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Timothy O'Donnell, Elizabeth L Christie, Arun Ahuja, Jacqueline Buros, B Arman Aksoy, David D L Bowtell, Alexandra Snyder, Jeff Hammerbacher
BACKGROUND: Patients with highly mutated tumors, such as melanoma or smoking-related lung cancer, have higher rates of response to immune checkpoint blockade therapy, perhaps due to increased neoantigen expression. Many chemotherapies including platinum compounds are known to be mutagenic, but the impact of standard treatment protocols on mutational burden and resulting neoantigen expression in most human cancers is unknown. METHODS: We sought to quantify the effect of chemotherapy treatment on computationally predicted neoantigen expression for high grade serous ovarian carcinoma patients enrolled in the Australian Ovarian Cancer Study...
January 22, 2018: BMC Cancer
Gallus Beatus Ineichen, Raphael Röthlisberger, Kevin Fabian Johner, Roland Seiler
Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is a highly aggressive disease. Despite optimal therapy, half of the patients will succumb to disease. This prognosis could not be improved over the last three decades. Therefore, MIBC is left behind from other cancers such as prostate, where novel treatment options were discovered and improve patient outcomes. While being aware of the recent emerging evidence of checkpoint inhibition in MIBC, we aim to describe different stages of drug development in MIBC by using three specific targets...
December 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
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