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Chisato Kurisaka, Teruaki Oku, Saotomo Itoh, Tsutomu Tsuji
The staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs) exhibit no superantigenic activity but have recently been considered to act as immune suppressors. It was previously reported that SSL5 bound to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, leading to inhibition of leukocyte adhesion and invasion. These interactions were suggested to depend on sialic acid-containing glycans of MMP-9, but the roles of sialic acids in the interaction between SSL5 and MMP-9 are still controversial...
January 12, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Rudolf Figl, Friedrich Altmann
Release of O-glycans by reductive β-elimination has become routine in many glyco-analytical laboratories and concomitant release of N-glycans has repeatedly been observed. Revisiting this somewhat forgotten mode of N-glycan release revealed that all kinds of N-glycans including oligomannosidic and complex-type N-glycans from plants with 3-linked fucose and from mammals with or without 6-linked fucose and with sialic acid could be recovered. However, the mass spectra of the obtained products revealed very surprising facts...
January 12, 2018: Proteomics
Jeanne K DuShane, Michael P Wilczek, Colleen L Mayberry, Melissa S Maginnis
The human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infects the majority of the population worldwide and presents as an asymptomatic, persistent infection in the kidney. In individuals who are immunocompromised, JCPyV can become reactivated and cause a lytic infection in the central nervous system resulting in the fatal, demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Infection is initiated by interactions between the capsid protein viral protein 1 (VP1) and the α2,6-linked sialic acid on LSTc, while JCPyV internalization is facilitated by 5-hydroxytryptamine 2 receptors (5-HT2Rs)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
Minami Akira, Ami Ishii, Sumika Shimba, Takahiro Kano, Eri Fujioka, Saki Sai, Nagisa Oshio, Sayaka Ishibashi, Tadanobu Takahashi, Yuuki Kurebayashi, Hiroaki Kanazawa, Nobuhiro Yuki, Tadamune Otsubo, Kiyoshi Ikeda, Takashi Suzuki
Sialidase, which removes sialic acid residues in sialylglycoconjugates, is essential for hippocampal memory and synaptic plasticity. Enzyme activity of sialidase is rapidly increased in response to neural excitation. Because sialic acid bound to gangliosides such as the tetra-sialoganglioside GQ1b is crucial for calcium signaling and neurotransmitter release, neural activity-dependent removal of sialic acid may affect hippocampal neurotransmission. In the present study, we found that 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA), a sialidase inhibitor, increased expression of ganglioside GQ1b/GT1a in hippocampal acute slices...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Hironobu Hojo, Yuya Asahina, Naoki Takeda, Toshiki Takei
Amino acids carrying 4-methylbenzyl (MBn) and 4-methoxybenzyl (MPM)-protected sialic acid were synthesized and used for the 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) solid-phase synthesis of a glycopeptide. The alpha-sialyl linkage of the MBn-protected unit was partially cleaved under the final deprotection by trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). In addition, the removal of several MBn groups were incomplete. On the other hand, the MPM-protected unit gave the desired glycopeptide without decomposition of the -sialyl linkage...
January 3, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Rong Deng, Jing Yue, Huixin Qu, Lijia Liang, Dan Sun, Jing Zhang, Chongyang Liang, Weiqing Xu, Shuping Xu
The expression levels of glycans on the surfaces of cancer and normal cells show different, however, this difference is not noticeable enough to distinguish them directly. So, herein, based on the targeted molecular recognition of the glycans on cell surfaces by 4-mercaptophenyl boronic acid (MPBA), a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoprobe (glucose-MPBA@AgNPs) was prepared by inducing controllable assembly of MPBA decorated Ag nanoparticles (MPBA@AgNPs) in a certain level via the bridge of glucose to amplify such a limited difference in SERS measurements...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
Zi Chen, Fang-Fang Bai, Lu Han, Jin Zhu, Tao Zheng, Zhou Zhu, Lin-Fu Zhou
Severe asthma comprises only 5% of patients with asthma, but the burden it brings to the social health system accounts for more than half of all asthmatics. Clinical evidence shows that severe asthma is often linked to the recruitment and activation of neutrophils in the airways. However, the underlying molecular and immunological mechanisms of neutrophilia in severe asthma are not clear and currently available drugs exert only limited effects on neutrophilic inflammation. Great efforts are underway to address the mystery of neutrophilic inflammation in chronic respiratory disorders...
January 6, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Chang Wang, Yike Wu, Liang Zhang, Bi-Feng Liu, Yawei Lin, Xin Liu
Quantitative analysis of glycans is an emerging field in glycomic research. Herein we present a rapid and effective dual-labeling strategy, in the combination of isotopic derivatization of N-glycosylamine-based glycans by d0/d5-benzoyl chloride and methylamidation of sialic acids, to relatively quantify both neutral and sialylated N-glycans simultaneously by MALDI-MS. The derivatization efficiencies were increased by microwave-accelerated deglycosylation which not only largely reduce the time of glycoprotein deglycosylation but also inhibit the hydrolysis of intermediate glycosylamines produced by PNGase F digestion...
March 9, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Oksana Pogoryelova, Phillip Cammish, Hank Mansbach, Zohar Argov, Ichizo Nishino, Alison Skrinar, Yiumo Chan, Shahriar Nafissi, Hosein Shamshiri, Emil Kakkis, Hanns Lochmüller
GNE myopathy is a rare distal myopathy, caused by mutations in the GNE gene, affecting sialic acid synthesis. Clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic early stage patients to severely debilitating forms. This first report describes clinical presentations and severity of the disease, using data of 150 patients collected via the on-line, patient-reported registry component of the GNE Myopathy Disease Monitoring Program (GNEM-DMP). Disease progression was prospectively analysed, over a 2-year period, using the GNE myopathy functional activity scale (GNEM-FAS)...
November 14, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Claire Gendrin, Sean Merillat, Jay Vornhagen, Michelle Coleman, Blair Armistead, Lisa Ngo, Anjali Aggarwal, Phoenicia Quach, Jacob Berrigan, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) are encapsulated, β-hemolytic bacteria that are a common cause of infections in human newborns and certain adults. Two virulence factors important for GBS virulence are the sialic acid capsular polysaccharide that promotes immune evasion and the hemolytic pigment that induces host cell cytotoxcity. These virulence factors are often oppositely regulated by the CovR/CovS two-component system. Clinical GBS strains exhibiting hyperhemolysis and low capsule due to pathoadaptive covR/S mutations have been isolated from patients...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Leif Wide, Karin Eriksson
BACKGROUND: FSH, LH, and TSH are glycoprotein hormones secreted from the pituitary as fully and low-asparagine-glycosylated hormones. These glycoforms of the hormones exist as a large number of isoforms varying in their glycan contents of terminal anionic monosaccharides (AMS), i.e. sialic acid (SA) and sulfonated N-acetylgalactosamine (SU). Due to the immense heterogeneity and the low concentrations in serum it has been a challenge to develop reliable analytical methods to measure and characterize the circulating glycoforms of these hormones...
January 4, 2018: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
Takeo Tatsuta, Toshiyuki Satoh, Shigeki Sugawara, Akiyoshi Hara, Masahiro Hosono
Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer that results from exposure to asbestos. The therapeutic options for this type of cancer are limited; therefore, the development of novel therapeutic agents is urgently required. Sialic acid-binding lectin isolated from Rana catesbeiana oocytes (cSBL) is a novel therapeutic candidate for cancer, which exhibits antitumor activity mediated through RNA degradation. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of cSBL in vitro and in vivo. Xenograft-competent H2452 and MSTO human mesothelioma cell lines were treated with cSBL, and the pathway by which cSBL induces apoptosis was analyzed...
2018: PloS One
Gianluca Accogli, Letizia Sion, Porzia Maiorano, Francesca Capezzuto, Gianfranco D'Onghia, Salvatore Desantis
Blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus is a zygoparous fish whose males are equipped with the copulating organ named urogenital papilla (UP). This study deals with the morphology and the glycoconjugate pattern of the UP epidermis, which is the male tissue interacting with the female internal body during copulation. The carbohydrate content was studied by means of conventional and lectin histochemistry. The epidermis was shown to be a stratified cuboidal epithelium and to exhibit characteristic intraepithelial pits in the apical zone...
December 26, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
Fernando Spiller, Corwin M Nycholat, Chika Kikuchi, James C Paulson, Matthew S Macauley
CD22 and sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec)-G are members of the Siglec family of inhibitory coreceptors expressed on B cells that participate in enforcement of peripheral B cell tolerance. We have shown previously that when a BCR engages its cognate Ag on a cell surface that also expresses Siglec ligands, B cell Siglecs are recruited to the immunological synapse, resulting in suppression of BCR signaling and B cell apoptosis. Because all cells display sialic acids, and CD22 and Siglec-G have distinct, yet overlapping, specificities for sialic acid-containing glycan ligands, any cell could, in principle, invoke this tolerogenic mechanism for cell surface Ags...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
F Liaini Gross, Yaohui Bai, Stacie Jefferson, Crystal Holiday, Min Z Levine
Neutralizing antibodies against hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza viruses are considered the main immune mechanism that correlates with protection for influenza infections. Microneutralization (MN) assays are often used to measure neutralizing antibody responses in human sera after influenza vaccination or infection. Madine Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells are the commonly used cell substrate for MN assays. However, currently circulating 3C.2a and 3C.3a A(H3N2) influenza viruses have acquired altered receptor binding specificity...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Paul R Wratil, Rüdiger Horstkorte
Sialic acid (Sia) is a highly important constituent of glycoconjugates, such as N- and O-glycans or glycolipids. Due to its position at the non-reducing termini of oligo- and polysaccharides, as well as its unique chemical characteristics, sialic acid is involved in a multitude of different receptor-ligand interactions. By modifying the expression of sialic acid on the cell surface, sialic acid-dependent interactions will consequently be influenced. This can be helpful to investigate sialic acid-dependent interactions and has the potential to influence certain diseases in a beneficial way...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jim Baggen, Daniel L Hurdiss, Georg Zocher, Nitesh Mistry, Richard W Roberts, Jasper J Slager, Hongbo Guo, Arno L W van Vliet, Maryam Wahedi, Kimberley Benschop, Erwin Duizer, Cornelis A M de Haan, Erik de Vries, José M Casasnovas, Raoul J de Groot, Niklas Arnberg, Thilo Stehle, Neil A Ranson, Hendrik Jan Thibaut, Frank J M van Kuppeveld
Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is a painful, contagious eye disease, with millions of cases in the last decades. Coxsackievirus A24 (CV-A24) was not originally associated with human disease, but in 1970 a pathogenic "variant" (CV-A24v) emerged, which is now the main cause of AHC. Initially, this variant circulated only in Southeast Asia, but it later spread worldwide, accounting for numerous AHC outbreaks and two pandemics. While both CV-A24 variant and nonvariant strains still circulate in humans, only variant strains cause AHC for reasons that are yet unknown...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Soracha E Ward, Jamie M O'Sullivan, Clive Drakeford, Sonia Aguila, Christopher N Jondle, Jyotika Sharma, Padraic G Fallon, Teresa M Brophy, Roger J S Preston, Paul Smyth, Orla Sheils, Alain Chion, James S O'Donnell
Previous studies have shown that loss of terminal sialic acid causes enhanced VWF clearance through the Ashwell-Morrell receptor (AMR). In this study we investigated (i) the specific importance of N- versus O-linked sialic acid in protecting against VWF clearance (ii) whether additional receptors contribute to the reduced half-life of hyposialylated VWF. α2-3 linked sialic acid accounts for <20% of total sialic acid and is predominantly expressed on VWF O-glycans. Nevertheless, specific digestion with α2-3 neuraminidase (α2-3Neu-VWF) was sufficient to cause markedly enhanced VWF clearance...
December 27, 2017: Blood
Jose D Pagan, Maya Kitaoka, Robert M Anthony
Self-reactive IgGs contribute to the pathology of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Paradoxically, IgGs are used to treat inflammatory diseases in the form of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Distinct glycoforms on the IgG crystallizable fragment (Fc) dictate these divergent functions. IgG anti-inflammatory activity is attributed to sialylation of the Fc glycan. We therefore sought to convert endogenous IgG to anti-inflammatory mediators in vivo by engineering solubilized glycosyltransferases that attach galactose or sialic acid...
December 11, 2017: Cell
Li An, Guangtong Wang, Yu Han, Tianchan Li, Peng Jin, Shaoqin Liu
The detection of rare circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in patients' blood is crucial for the early diagnosis of cancer, highly precise cancer therapy and monitoring therapeutic outcomes in real time. In this study we have developed an efficient strategy to capture and detect CTCs from the blood of cancer patients using a benzoboric acid modified gold-plated polymeric substrate with a regular 3D surface array. Compared with the smooth substrate, the substrate with the surface 3D microarrays exhibited a higher capture efficiency, i...
December 20, 2017: Lab on a Chip
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