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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792883/plasma-n-glycan-signatures-associate-with-features-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#1
Florent Clerc, Mislav Novokmet, Viktoria Dotz, Karli R Reiding, Noortje de Haan, Guinevere S M Kammeijer, Hans Dalebout, Marco R Bladergroen, Frano Vukovic, Erdmann Rapp, Stephan R Targan, Gildardo Barron, Natalia Manetti, Anna Latiano, Dermot P B McGovern, Vito Annese, Gordan Lauc, Manfred Wuhrer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Biomarkers are needed for early detection of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) or to predict patient outcomes. Glycosylation is a common and complex post-translational modification of proteins that affects their structure and activity. We compared plasma N-glycosylation profiles between patients with CD or UC and healthy individuals (controls). METHODS: We analyzed the total plasma N-glycomes of 2635 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and 996 controls by mass spectrometry with a linkage-specific sialic acid derivatization technique...
May 21, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791241/neutrophil-mediated-delivery-of-pixantrone-loaded-liposomes-decorated-with-poly-sialic-acid-octadecylamine-conjugate-for-lung-cancer-treatment
#2
Xiang Luo, Ling Hu, Huangliang Zheng, Mingqi Liu, Xinrong Liu, Cong Li, Qiujun Qiu, Zitong Zhao, Xiaobo Cheng, Chaoyang Lai, Yuqing Su, Yihui Deng, Yanzhi Song
Poly(sialic acid) (PSA) is a natural hydrophilic biodegradable and non-immunogenic biopolymer, receptors for its monomer are expressed on peripheral blood neutrophils (PBNs), which plays important roles in the progression and invasion of tumors. A poly(sialic acid)-octadecylamine conjugate (PSA-ODA) was synthesized and then anchor it on the surface of liposomal pixantrone (Pix-PSL), to achieve an improved anticancer effect. The liposomes were prepared using a remote loading method via a pH gradient, and then assessed for particle size, zeta potential encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release, and in vitro cytotoxicity...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790315/inhibitory-effects-of-mushroom-extracts-on-progression-of-carcinogenesis-in-mice
#3
Caroline Wasonga, Charles Omwandho
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common primary malignancy of hepatocytes that has caused many fatalities globally. To manage the increasing cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, natural products like mushrooms have been tested for their anti-oxidant, anti-tumour and therapeutic properties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Agaricus bisporus on progression of chemically induced carcinogenesis in mice. Carcinogenesis was induced in experimental and positive group of mice. Development and progression of carcinogenesis was monitored by quantifying levels of Lactate dehydrogenase, total sialic acid and by histological analysis...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787815/two-extracellular-sialidases-from-bifidobacterium-bifidum-promote-the-degradation-of-sialyl-oligosaccharides-and-support-the-growth-of-bifidobacterium-breve
#4
Keita Nishiyama, Aki Nagai, Kazuya Uribayashi, Yuji Yamamoto, Takao Mukai, Nobuhiko Okada
We investigated the roles of extracellular sialidases (SiaBb1 and SiaBb2) in cross-feeding between sialidase-carrying Bifidobacterium bifidum and sialic acid-utilizing Bifidobacterium breve. Using 6' sialyllactose (6'SL) as a carbon source, the number of wild-type B. bifidum cells increased while that of a siabb2-inactivated strain (Δsiabb2) did not. Coculture of these two strains in the presence of 6'SL resulted in similar increase in cell numbers. Coculture of wild-type B. bifidum, but not the Δsiabb2 strain, with sialic acid-utilizing Bifidobacterium breve, which cannot release sialic acids from carbohydrates, in the presence of 6'SL increased the number of B...
May 19, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787759/glycosylation-status-of-nicastrin-influences-catalytic-activity-and-substrate-preference-of-%C3%AE-secretase
#5
Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Seiko Ishihara, Mika Nobuhara, Hidekazu Higashide, Satoru Funamoto
γ-Secretase complex, the assembly of nicastrin (NCT), Presenilin (PS), Presenilin Enhancer-2 (PEN-2) and Anterior pharynx defective 1 (Aph-1), catalyzes the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein to generate amyloid-β protein (Aβ), the main culprit of Alzheimer's disease. NCT becomes matured through complex glycosylation and play important role in γ-secretase activity by interacting with catalytic subunit PS. However, the role of NCT glycosylation on γ-secretase activity and substrate specificity is still unknown...
May 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785832/lectin-microarray-combined-with-mass-spectrometry-identifies-haptoglobin-related-protein-hpr-as-a-potential-serologic-biomarker-for-separating-non-bacterial-pneumonia-from-bacterial-pneumonia-in-childhood
#6
Lin Yang, Zhou Yang, Lei Cheng, Juan Cheng, Li Cheng, Yangyang Sun, Wenting Li, Kai Song, Weichun Huang, Yong Yin, Shengce Tao, Qinghua Zhang
PURPOSE: Etiological diagnosis of pediatric patients with community-acquired pneumonia is difficult. For therapy, one of the major problems is the difficulty in separating bacterial pneumonia which would benefit from antibiotics from non-bacterial pneumonia. Therefore, we sought to identify potential biomarkers for distinguishing non-bacterial pneumonia from bacterial pneumonia. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Lectin microarray containing 91 lectins was used to screen serums from pediatric patients with pneumonia...
May 22, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781747/sialylation-pattern-in-lung-epithelial-cell-line-and-siglecs-expression-in-monocytic-thp-1-cells-as-cellular-indicators-of-cigarette-smoke-induced-pathology-in-vitro
#7
Przemyslaw Wielgat, Emil Trofimiuk, Robert Czarnomysy, Adam Holownia, Jan J Braszko
PURPOSE: Cellular response to cigarette smoke (CS) involves activation of recognition receptors resulting in changes in immune status, oxidative stress and cell turnover. We investigated the effects of CS on sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin type lectins (Siglecs) expression and their sialylated ligands in human immune and non-immune cells. METHODS: Human monocytes (THP-1) and epithelial cells (A549) were cultured in CS-conditioned medium (CSM). Expression of Siglec-8 and Siglec-5/Siglec-14 was analysed in THP-1 cells using flow cytometry...
May 21, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779930/a-sialylated-voltage-dependent-ca-2-channel-binds-hemagglutinin-and-mediates-influenza-a-virus-entry-into-mammalian-cells
#8
Yoichiro Fujioka, Shinya Nishide, Toyoyuki Ose, Tadaki Suzuki, Izumi Kato, Hideo Fukuhara, Mari Fujioka, Kosui Horiuchi, Aya O Satoh, Prabha Nepal, Sayaka Kashiwagi, Jing Wang, Mika Horiguchi, Yuko Sato, Sarad Paudel, Asuka Nanbo, Tadaaki Miyazaki, Hideki Hasegawa, Katsumi Maenaka, Yusuke Ohba
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is initiated by the attachment of the viral glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) to sialic acid on the host cell surface. However, the sialic acid-containing receptor crucial for IAV infection has remained unidentified. Here, we show that HA binds to the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel Cav 1.2 to trigger intracellular Ca2+ oscillations and subsequent IAV entry and replication. IAV entry was inhibited by Ca2+ channel blockers (CCBs) or by knockdown of Cav 1.2. The CCB diltiazem also inhibited virus replication in vivo...
May 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777255/inhibition-of-sialidase-activity-and-cellular-invasion-by-the-bacterial-vaginosis-pathogen-gardnerella-vaginalis
#9
G Govinden, J L Parker, K L Naylor, A M Frey, D O C Anumba, G P Stafford
Bacterial vaginosis is a genital tract infection, thought to be caused by transformation of a lactobacillus-rich flora to a dysbiotic microbiota enriched in mixed anaerobes. The most prominent of these is Gardnerella vaginalis (GV), an anaerobic pathogen that produces sialidase enzyme to cleave terminal sialic acid residues from human glycans. Notably, high sialidase activity is associated with preterm birth and low birthweight. We explored the potential of the sialidase inhibitor Zanamavir against GV whole cell sialidase activity using methyl-umbelliferyl neuraminic acid (MU-NANA) cleavage assays, with Zanamavir causing a 30% reduction in whole cell GV sialidase activity (p < 0...
May 18, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770894/efficacy-of-punarnavine-in-restraining-organ-specific-tumour-progression-in-4t1-induced-murine-breast-tumour-model
#10
Gilcy George Kallivalappil, Girija Kuttan
Most of the breast cancer deaths occur when cancer cells depart from their tumour of origin and spread systemically and colonise distant organs. The present study was to find out whether punarnavine, the quinolizidine alkaloid, with already proven antimetastatic effect on spontaneous B16F10 pulmonary metastasis has got any effect on a drastic organ-specific breast cancer spread. For the study, we selected a syngenic mouse 4T1 breast tumour model that mimics stage four of human breast cancer. The metastatic progression of 4T1 to lymph nodes, lungs, and liver was reduced by punarnavine (40 mg/kg body weight) administration in BALB/c mice...
May 17, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770154/effects-of-platycodin-d-on-reflux-esophagitis-due-to-modulation-of-antioxidant-defense-systems
#11
Su-Yeon Cho, Chang-Hyun Song, Ji-Eun Lee, Seong Hun Choi, Sae-Kwang Ku, Soo-Jin Park
Aims: The effects of platycodin D (PD) pretreatment were examined in reflux esophagitis (RE) induced rats. Methods: Sham, control, and omeprazole (OMP) group were pretreated with distilled water or OMP as a reference, respectively, and PD pretreated groups were given 3 different PD doses once a day for 7 days. One hour after last pretreatment, RE was induced by ligation of the forestomach and pylorus. At 8 h after operation, all animals were sacrificed. Results: PD showed significant dose-dependent reduction of gastric secretion, myeloperoxidase activity, and RE lesion areas of esophagus and stomach mucosa...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769321/lectin-mediated-binding-and-sialoglycans-of-porcine-surfactant-protein-d-synergistically-neutralize-influenza-a-virus
#12
Martin van Eijk, Michael J Rynkiewicz, Kshitij Khatri, Nancy Leymarie, Joseph Zaia, Mitchell R White, Kevan L Hartshorn, Tanya R Cafarella, Irma Van Die, Martin Hessing, Barbara A Seaton, Henk P Haagsman
Innate immunity is critical in the early containment of influenza A virus (IAV) infection, and surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays a crucial role in the pulmonary defense against IAV. In pigs, which are important intermediate hosts during the generation of pandemic IAVs, SP-D uses its unique carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) to interact with IAV. An N-linked CRD-glycosylation provides interactions with the sialic acid binding site of IAV, and a tripeptide loop at the lectin binding site facilitates enhanced interactions with IAV glycans...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765403/effect-of-maternal-administration-of-edible-bird-s-nest-on-the-learning-and-memory-abilities-of-suckling-offspring-in-mice
#13
Yong Xie, Hongliang Zeng, Zhiji Huang, Hui Xu, Qunyan Fan, Yi Zhang, Baodong Zheng
Although human brains continue developing throughout the underage developmental stages, the infancy period is considered the most important one for the whole life. It has been reported that sialic acid from edible bird's nest (EBN) can facilitate the development of brain and intelligence. In this study, by oral administration of EBN to female mice during the pregnancy or lactation period, the effects of EBN on the levels of sialic acid in mouse milk were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764940/the-tetrameric-structure-of-sialic-acid-synthesizing-udp-glcnac-2-epimerase-from-acinetobacter-baumannii-a-comparative-study-with-human-gne
#14
Tzu-Ping Ko, Shu-Jung Lai, Tung-Ju Hsieh, Chia-Shin Yang, Yeh Chen
Sialic acid presentation on the cell surface by some pathogenic strains of bacteria allows their escape from the host immune system. It is one of the major virulence factors. Bacterial biosynthesis of sialic acids starts with the conversion of UDP-GlcNAc to UDP and ManNAc by a hydrolyzing 2-epimerase. Here we present the crystal structure of this enzyme, named NeuC, from Acinetobacter baumannii The protein folds into two Rossmann-like domains and forms dimers and tetramers as does the epimerase part of the bifunctional UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase / ManNAc kinase (GNE)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759949/the-glycoscience-of-immunity
#15
REVIEW
Julie Y Zhou, Douglas M Oswald, Kelsey D Oliva, Lori S C Kreisman, Brian A Cobb
Carbohydrates, or glycans, are as integral to biology as nucleic acids and proteins. In immunology, glycans are well known to drive diverse functions ranging from glycosaminoglycan-mediated chemokine presentation and selectin-dependent leukocyte trafficking to the discrimination of self and non-self through the recognition of sialic acids by Siglec (sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin) receptors. In recent years, a number of key immunological discoveries are driving a renewed and burgeoning appreciation for the importance of glycans...
May 11, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752217/mass-spectrometric-identification-of-urinary-biomarkers-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#16
Flonza Isa, Sean Collins, Myung Hee Lee, Diessy Decome, Nancy Dorvil, Patrice Joseph, Lauren Smith, Stephen Salerno, Martin T Wells, Steven Fischer, James M Bean, Jean W Pape, Warren D Johnson, Daniel W Fitzgerald, Kyu Y Rhee
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide. A major barrier to control of the pandemic is a lack of clinical biomarkers with the ability to distinguish active TB from healthy and sick controls and potential for development into point-of-care diagnostics. METHODS: We conducted a prospective case control study to identify candidate urine-based diagnostic biomarkers of active pulmonary TB (discovery cohort) and obtained a separate blinded "validation" cohort of confirmed cases of active pulmonary TB and controls with non-tuberculous pulmonary disease for validation...
April 22, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751010/siglecs-a-journey-through-the-evolution-of-sialic-acid-binding-immunoglobulin-type-lectins
#17
REVIEW
Kim F Bornhöfft, Tom Goldammer, Alexander Rebl, Sebastian P Galuska
Siglecs (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins) are a family of immune regulatory receptors predominantly found on the cells of the hematopoietic system. A V-set Ig-like domain mediates the recognition of different sialylated glycoconjugates, which can lead to the activation or inhibition of the immune response, depending on the involved Siglecs. Siglecs are categorized into two subgroups: one including all CD33-related Siglecs and the other consisting of Siglec-1 (Sialoadhesin), Siglec-2 (CD22), Siglec-4 (myelin-associated glycoprotein, MAG) and Siglec-15...
May 8, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747821/gangliosides-in-axon-stability-and-regeneration
#18
Pablo H H Lopez, Bárbara Beatriz Báez
Gangliosides are a family of sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids highly expressed in the nervous system of vertebrates. Over the last 25years, research has unmasked several of their neurobiological functions but the role of gangliosides in the nervous system remains not fully elucidated. Genetic disruption of genes for key enzymes involved in ganglioside biosynthesis led to the discovery of their diverse functions and highlighted the exquisite structural specificity required in this processes. In the nervous system, gangliosides regulate axonal caliber and organize ion channels at the nodes of Ranvier, a critical step to ensure fast conduction velocity of myelinated fibers...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747818/glycan-chains-of-gangliosides-functional-ligands-for-tissue-lectins-siglecs-galectins
#19
Robert W Ledeen, Jürgen Kopitz, José Abad-Rodríguez, Hans-Joachim Gabius
Molecular signals on the cell surface are responsible for adhesion and communication. Of relevance in this respect, their chemical properties endow carbohydrates with the capacity to store a maximum of information in a minimum of space. One way to present glycans on the cell surface is their covalent conjugation to a ceramide anchor. Among the resulting glycosphingolipids, gangliosides are special due to the presence of at least one sialic acid in the glycan chains. Their spatial accessibility and the dynamic regulation of their profile are factors that argue in favor of a role of glycans of gangliosides as ligands (counterreceptors) for carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins)...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747816/gangliosides-in-nerve-cell-specification
#20
Yutaka Itokazu, Jing Wang, Robert K Yu
The central nervous system is generated from progenitor cells that are recognized as neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs are defined as undifferentiated neural cells that are characterized by the capacity for self-renewal and multipotency. Throughout neural development, NSCs undergo proliferation, migration, and cellular differentiation, and dynamic changes are observed in the composition of carbohydrate-rich molecules, including gangliosides. Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids with essential and multifaceted functions in brain development and NSC maintenance, which reflects the complexity of brain development...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
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