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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926828/harnessing-cancer-cell-metabolism-for-theranostic-applications-using-metabolic-glycoengineering-of-sialic-acid-in-breast-cancer-as-a-pioneering-example
#1
REVIEW
Haitham A Badr, Dina M M AlSadek, Motawa E El-Houseini, Christopher T Saeui, Mohit P Mathew, Kevin J Yarema, Hafiz Ahmed
Abnormal cell surface display of sialic acids - a family of unusual 9-carbon sugars - is widely recognized as distinguishing feature of many types of cancer. Sialoglycans, however, typically cannot be identified with sufficiently high reproducibility and sensitivity to serve as clinically accepted biomarkers and similarly, almost all efforts to exploit cancer-specific differences in sialylation signatures for therapy remain in early stage development. In this report we provide an overview of important facets of glycosylation that contribute to cancer in general with a focus on breast cancer as an example of malignant disease characterized by aberrant sialylation...
November 25, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924808/avian-h11-influenza-virus-isolated-from-domestic-poultry-in-a-colombian-live-animal-market
#2
Pedro Jiménez-Bluhm, Erik A Karlsson, Karl A Ciuoderis, Valerie Cortez, Shauna A Marvin, Christopher Hamilton-West, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Jorge E Osorio
Live animal markets (LAMs) are an essential source of food and trade in Latin American countries; however, they can also serve as 'hotbeds' for the emergence and potential spillover of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Despite extensive knowledge of AIV in Asian LAMs, little is known about the prevalence South American LAMs. To fill this gap in knowledge, active surveillance was carried out at the major LAM in Medellin, Colombia between February and September 2015. During this period, overall prevalence in the market was 2...
December 7, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924669/effects-of-15%C3%A2-hz-square-wave-magnetic-fields-on-the-voltage-gated-sodium-and-potassium-channels-in-prefrontal-cortex-pyramidal-neurons
#3
Yu Zheng, Jun-Rong Dou, Yang Gao, Lei Dong, Gang Li
PURPOSE: Although magnetic fields have significant effects on neurons, little is known about the mechanisms behind their effects. The present study aimed to measure the effects of magnetic fields on ion channels in cortical pyramidal neurons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cortical pyramidal neurons of Kunming mice were isolated and then subjected to 15 Hz, 1 mT square wave (duty ratio 50%) magnetic fields stimulation. Sodium currents (INa), transient potassium currents (IA) and delayed rectifier potassium currents (IK) were recorded by whole-cell patch clamp method...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924345/chemoenzymatic-synthesis-of-para-nitrophenol-pnp-tagged-%C3%AE-2-8-sialosides-and-high-throughput-substrate-specificity-studies-of-%C3%AE-2-8-sialidases
#4
Nova Tasnima, Hai Yu, Yanhong Li, Abhishek Santra, Xi Chen
para-Nitrophenol (pNP)-tagged α2-8-linked sialosides containing different sialic acid forms were chemoenzymatically synthesized using an efficient one-pot three-enzyme α2-8-sialylation system. The resulting compounds allowed high-throughput substrate specificity studies of the α2-8-sialidase activity of a recombinant human cytosolic sialidase hNEU2 and various bacterial sialidases. The sialoside substrate profiles obtained can be used to guide the selection of suitable sialidases for sialylglycan analysis and for cell and tissue surface glycan modification...
December 7, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923705/icam-5-telencephalin-is-a-functional-entry-receptor-for-enterovirus-d68
#5
Wei Wei, Haoran Guo, Junliang Chang, Yingzi Yu, Guanchen Liu, Nannan Zhang, Stephen H Willard, Shu Zheng, Xiao-Fang Yu
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a member of the Picornaviridae family. Although EV-D68-associated infection was once considered rare, it has been increasing in recent years. EV-D68 infection is most frequently associated with respiratory illness. However, it has also been implicated in a polio-like neurological disorder, acute flaccid myelitis. Although sialic acid has been implicated in EV-D68 entry, the existence of a protein receptor has yet to be clarified. Here we identify neuron-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 5 (ICAM-5/telencephalin) as a cellular receptor for sialic acid-dependent and -independent EV-D68 viruses...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922759/the-effects-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-treatment-on-total-antioxidant-capacity-and-prolidase-activity-after-bile-duct-ligation-in-rats
#6
Duygu Terzioglu, Lebriz Uslu, Gonul Simsek, Pinar Atukeren, Hayriye Erman, Remise Gelisgen, Suleyman Ayvaz, Burhan Aksu, Hafize Uzun
BACKGROUND: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy may improve cholestasis, increase hepatic regeneration, and decrease oxidative stress in liver. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of HBO therapy on hepatic oxidative stress parameters, such as total thiol groups (T-SH), protein carbonyl (PCO), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as the predictive value of the noninvasive biochemical marker, sialic acid (SA), and prolidase activity in bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced oxidative damage and fibrosis in rats...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917893/new-insights-into-molecular-organization-of-human-neuraminidase-1-transmembrane-topology-and-dimerization-ability
#7
Pascal Maurice, Stéphanie Baud, Olga V Bocharova, Eduard V Bocharov, Andrey S Kuznetsov, Charlotte Kawecki, Olivier Bocquet, Beatrice Romier, Laetitia Gorisse, Maxime Ghirardi, Laurent Duca, Sébastien Blaise, Laurent Martiny, Manuel Dauchez, Roman G Efremov, Laurent Debelle
Neuraminidase 1 (NEU1) is a lysosomal sialidase catalyzing the removal of terminal sialic acids from sialyloconjugates. A plasma membrane-bound NEU1 modulating a plethora of receptors by desialylation, has been consistently documented from the last ten years. Despite a growing interest of the scientific community to NEU1, its membrane organization is not understood and current structural and biochemical data cannot account for such membrane localization. By combining molecular biology and biochemical analyses with structural biophysics and computational approaches, we identified here two regions in human NEU1 - segments 139-159 (TM1) and 316-333 (TM2) - as potential transmembrane (TM) domains...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899210/comparative-analysis-of-the-internalization-of-the-macrophage-receptor-sialoadhesin-in-human-and-mouse-primary-macrophages-and-cell-lines
#8
Marjorie De Schryver, Annelies Leemans, Isabel Pintelon, Davie Cappoen, Louis Maes, Guy Caljon, Paul Cos, Peter L Delputte
Sialoadhesin (Sn) is a surface receptor expressed on resident macrophages with the ability to bind with sialic acids. During inflammation, an upregulation of Sn is observed. Upon binding of monoclonal antibodies to Sn, the receptor becomes internalized and this has been observed in multiple species. The latter characteristic, combined with the strong upregulation of Sn on inflammatory macrophages and the fact that Sn-positive macrophages contribute to certain inflammatory diseases, makes Sn an interesting entry portal for phenotype-modulating or cytotoxic drugs...
November 21, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897433/affinity-chromatography-matrices-for-depletion-and-purification-of-casein-glycomacropeptide-from-bovine-whey
#9
María F Baieli, Nicolás Urtasun, María J Martinez, Daniela B Hirsch, Ana M R Pilosof, María V Miranda, Osvaldo Cascone, Federico J Wolman
Casein glycomacropeptide (CMP) is a 64- amino acid peptide found in cheese whey, which is released after κ-casein specific cleavage by chymosin. CMP lacks aromatic amino acids, a characteristic that makes it usable as a nutritional supplement for people with phenylketonuria. CMP consists of two nonglycosylated isoforms (aCMP A and aCMP B) and its different glycosylated forms (gCMP A and gCMP B). The most predominant carbohydrate of gCMP is N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid). Here, we developed a CMP purification process based on the affinity of sialic acid for wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)...
November 7, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895975/anti-helicobacter-pylori-effect-of-cag-nana-a-new-sialic-acid-derivative
#10
Yun-Hee Rhee, Hyun-Jeong Ku, Hye-Ji Noh, Hyang-Hyun Cho, Hee-Kyong Kim, Jin-Chul Ahn
AIM: To investigate the bactericidal effects of calcium chelated N-acetylneuraminic acid-glycomacropeptide (CaG-NANA) against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). METHODS: For manufacture of CaG-NANA, calcium (Ca) was combined with glycomacropeptide (GMP) by chelating, and N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) was produced with Ca-GMP substrate by an enzymatic method. The final concentration of each component was 5% Ca, 7% NANA, 85% GMP, and 3% water. For in vitro study, various concentrations of CaG-NANA were investigated under the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893774/multivalent-interactions-of-human-primary-amine-oxidase-with-the-v-and-c22-domains-of-sialic-acid-binding-immunoglobulin-like-lectin-9-regulate-its-binding-and-amine-oxidase-activity
#11
Heli Elovaara, Vimal Parkash, Ruth Fair-Mäkelä, Outi M H Salo-Ahen, Gabriela Guédez, Eva Bligt-Lindén, Janne Grönholm, Sirpa Jalkanen, Tiina A Salminen
Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-9 (Siglec-9) on leukocyte surface is a counter-receptor for endothelial cell surface adhesin, human primary amine oxidase (hAOC3), a target protein for anti-inflammatory agents. This interaction can be used to detect inflammation and cancer in vivo, since the labeled peptides derived from the second C2 domain (C22) of Siglec-9 specifically bind to the inflammation-inducible hAOC3. As limited knowledge on the interaction between Siglec-9 and hAOC3 has hampered both hAOC3-targeted drug design and in vivo imaging applications, we have now produced and purified the extracellular region of Siglec-9 (Siglec-9-EC) consisting of the V, C21 and C22 domains, modeled its 3D structure and characterized the hAOC3-Siglec-9 interactions using biophysical methods and activity/inhibition assays...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892504/soluble-siglec-5-associates-to-psgl-1-and-displays-anti-inflammatory-activity
#12
Marion Pepin, Soraya Mezouar, Julie Pegon, Vincent Muczynski, Frédéric Adam, Elsa P Bianchini, Amine Bazaa, Valerie Proulle, Alain Rupin, Jerome Paysant, Laurence Panicot-Dubois, Olivier D Christophe, Christophe Dubois, Peter J Lenting, Cécile V Denis
Interactions between endothelial selectins and the leukocyte counter-receptor PSGL1 mediates leukocyte recruitment to inflammation sites. PSGL1 is highly sialylated, making it a potential ligand for Siglec-5, a leukocyte-receptor that recognizes sialic acid structures. Binding assays using soluble Siglec-5 variants (sSiglec-5/C4BP and sSiglec-5/Fc) revealed a dose- and calcium-dependent binding to PSGL1. Pre-treatment of PSGL1 with sialidase reduced Siglec-5 binding by 79 ± 4%. In confocal immune-fluorescence assays, we observed that 50% of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) simultaneously express PSGL1 and Siglec-5...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891772/twoplex-12-13-c6-aniline-stable-isotope-and-linkage-specific-sialic-acid-labelling-2d-lc-ms-workflow-for-quantitative-n-glycomics
#13
Simone Albrecht, Stefan Mittermayr, Josh Smith, Silvia Millán Martín, Margaret Doherty, Jonathan Bones
Quantitative glycomics represents an actively expanding research field ranging from the discovery of disease associated glycan alterations to the quantitative characterization of N-glycans on therapeutic proteins. Commonly used analytical platforms for comparative relative quantitation of complex glycan samples include MALDI-ToF-MS or chromatographic glycan profiling with subsequent data alignment and statistical evaluation. Limitations of such approaches include run-to-run technical variation and the potential introduction of subjectivity during data processing...
November 28, 2016: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888305/reversed-phase-separation-methods-for-glycan-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Gerda C M Vreeker, Manfred Wuhrer
Reversed-phase chromatography is a method that is often used for glycan separation. For this, glycans are often derivatized with a hydrophobic tag to achieve retention on hydrophobic stationary phases. The separation and elution order of glycans in reversed-phase chromatography is highly dependent on the hydrophobicity of the tag and the contribution of the glycan itself to the retention. The contribution of the different monosaccharides to the retention strongly depends on the position and linkage, and isomer separation may be achieved...
November 25, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885808/vp1-the-major-capsid-protein-of-the-mouse-polyomavirus-binds-microtubules-promotes-their-acetylation-and-blocks-the-host-cell-cycle
#15
Lenka Horníková, Martin Fraiberk, Petr Man, Václav Janovec, Jitka Forstová
VP1, the major structural protein of the mouse polyomavirus (MPyV), is the major architectural component of the viral capsid. Its pentamers are able to self-assemble into capsid-like particles and to non-specifically bind DNA. Surface loops of the protein interact with sialic acid of ganglioside receptors. Although the replication cycle of the virus, including virion morphogenesis, proceeds in the cell nucleus, a substantial fraction of the protein is detected in the cytoplasm of late-phase MPyV-infected cells...
November 25, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876865/increased-gene-dosage-for-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE%C2%BA-casein-in-transgenic-cattle-improves-milk-composition-through-complex-effects
#16
Götz Laible, Grant Smolenski, Thomas Wheeler, Brigid Brophy
We have previously generated transgenic cattle with additional copies of bovine β- and κ casein genes. An initial characterisation of milk produced with a hormonally induced lactation from these transgenic cows showed an altered milk composition with elevated β-casein levels and twofold increased κ-casein content. Here we report the first in-depth characterisation of the composition of the enriched casein milk that was produced through a natural lactation. We have analyzed milk from the high expressing transgenic line TG3 for milk composition at early, peak, mid and late lactation...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874015/metabolic-sialic-acid-blockade-lowers-the-activation-threshold-of-modcs-for-tlr-stimulation
#17
Christian Büll, Estel Collado-Camps, Esther D Kers-Rebel, Torben Heise, Jonas N Søndergaard, Martijn H den Brok, Barbara M Schulte, Thomas J Boltje, Gosse J Adema
Sialic acid sugars cover the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) and have been suggested to impact several aspects of DC biology. Research into the role of sialic acids in DCs, however, is complicated by the limited number of tools available to modulate sialic acid expression. Here we report on a synthetic, fluorinated sialic acid mimetic, Ac53FaxNeu5Ac, which potently blocks sialic acid expression in human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs). Sialic acid blockade enhanced the responsiveness of moDCs to Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation as measured by increased maturation marker expression and cytokine production...
November 22, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872474/multi-level-glyco-engineering-techniques-to-generate-igg-with-defined-fc-glycans
#18
Gillian Dekkers, Rosina Plomp, Carolien A M Koeleman, Remco Visser, Hans H von Horsten, Volker Sandig, Theo Rispens, Manfred Wuhrer, Gestur Vidarsson
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) mediates its immune functions through complement and cellular IgG-Fc receptors (FcγR). IgG contains an evolutionary conserved N-linked glycan at position Asn297 in the Fc-domain. This glycan consists of variable levels of fucose, galactose, sialic acid, and bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (bisection). Of these variations, the lack of fucose strongly enhances binding to the human FcγRIII, a finding which is currently used to improve the efficacy of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. The influence of the other glycan traits is largely unknown, mostly due to lack of glyco-engineering tools...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871459/morphology-histochemistry-and-glycosylation-of-the-placenta-and-associated-tissues-in-the-european-hedgehog-erinaceus-europaeus
#19
Carolyn J P Jones, A M Carter, W R Allen, Sandra A Wilsher
INTRODUCTION: There are few descriptions of the placenta and associated tissues of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and here we present findings on a near-term pregnant specimen. METHODS: Tissues were examined grossly and then formalin fixed and wax-embedded for histology and immunocytochemistry (cytokeratin) and resin embedded for lectin histochemistry. RESULTS: Each of four well-developed and near term hoglets displayed a discoid, haemochorial placenta with typical labyrinth and spongy zones...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871232/lipooligosaccharide-locus-classes-and-putative-virulence-genes-among-chicken-and-human-campylobacter-jejuni-isolates
#20
Patrik Ellström, Ingrid Hansson, Anna Nilsson, Hilpi Rautelin, Eva Olsson Engvall
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter cause morbidity and considerable economic loss due to hospitalization and post infectious sequelae such as reactive arthritis, Guillain Barré- and Miller Fischer syndromes. Such sequelae have been linked to C. jejuni harboring sialic acid structures in their lipooligosaccharide (LOS) layer of the cell wall. Poultry is an important source of human Campylobacter infections but little is known about the prevalence of sialylated C. jejuni isolates and the extent of transmission of such isolates to humans...
November 21, 2016: BMC Microbiology
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