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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792573/inherent-resistance-to-14%C3%AE-demethylation-inhibitor-fungicides-in-colletotrichum-truncatum-is-likely-linked-to-cyp51a-and-or-cyp51b-gene-variants
#1
Shuning Chen, Yunyun Wang, Guido Schnabel, Congyue Annie Peng, Satyanarayana Lagishetty, Kerry Smith, Chao-Xi Luo, Huizhu Yuan
Anthracnose disease, caused by Colletotrichum truncatum, affects marketable yield during preharvest production and postharvest storage of fruits and vegetables worldwide. Demethylation inhibitor fungicides (DMIs) are among the very few chemical classes of single-site mode of action fungicides that are effective in controlling anthracnose disease. However, some species are inherently resistant to DMIs and more information is needed to understand this phenomenon. Isolates of C. truncatum were collected from the USA and China from peach, soybean, citrus, and begonia and sensitivity to six DMIs (difenoconazole, propiconazole, metconazole, tebuconazole, flutriafol and fenbuconazole) was determined...
May 24, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792326/common-principles-of-molecular-electronics-and-nanoscale-electrochemistry
#2
Paulo Roberto Bueno
The merging of nanoscale electronics and electrochemistry can potentially modernize the way electronic devices are currently engineered or constructed. It is well known that the greatest challenges will involve not only miniaturizing and improving the performance of mobile devices, but also manufacturing reliable electrical vehicles, and engineering more efficient solar panels and energy storage systems. These are just a few examples of how technological innovation is dependent on both electrochemical and electronic elements...
May 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792303/recurrent-spontaneous-vertigo-with-interictal-headshaking-nystagmus
#3
Sun-Uk Lee, Jeong-Yoon Choi, Hyo-Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
OBJECTIVE: To define a disorder characterized by recurrent spontaneous vertigo (RSV) of unknown etiology and interictal headshaking nystagmus (HSN). METHODS: We characterized HSN in 35 patients with RSV-HSN compared to that recorded in randomly selected patients with compensated vestibular neuritis (VN), vestibular migraine (VM), and Ménière disease (MD). RESULTS: The estimated time constant (TC) of the primary phase of HSN was 12 seconds (95% confidence interval [CI] 12-13) in patients with RSV-HSN, which was larger than those in patients with VN (5 seconds, 95% CI 4-5), VM (5 seconds, 95% CI 5-6), or MD (6 seconds, 95% CI 5-6)...
May 23, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789935/potential-use-of-stem-cells-as-a-therapy-for-cystinosis
#4
REVIEW
Celine J Rocca, Stephanie Cherqui
Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease that belongs to the family of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). Initial symptoms of cystinosis correspond to the renal Fanconi syndrome. Patients then develop chronic kidney disease and multi-organ failure due to accumulation of cystine in all tissue compartments. LSDs are commonly characterized by a defective activity of lysosomal enzymes. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) transplantation is a treatment option for several LSDs based on the premise that their progeny will integrate in the affected tissues and secrete the functional enzyme, which will be recaptured by the surrounding deficient cells and restore physiological activity...
May 22, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789270/surplus-fat-rapidly-increases-fat-oxidation-and-insulin-resistance-in-lipodystrophic-mice
#5
Amandine Girousse, Samuel Virtue, Dan Hart, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Peter R Murgatroyd, Etienne Mouisel, Coralie Sengenès, David B Savage
OBJECTIVE: Surplus dietary fat cannot be converted into other macronutrient forms or excreted, so has to be stored or oxidized. Healthy mammals store excess energy in the form of triacylgycerol (TAG) in lipid droplets within adipocytes rather than oxidizing it, and thus ultimately gain weight. The 'overflow hypothesis' posits that the capacity to increase the size and number of adipocytes is finite and that when this limit is exceeded, fat accumulates in ectopic sites and leads to metabolic disease...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789238/a-phase-1-study-of-safety-and-immunogenicity-following-intradermal-administration-of-a-tetravalent-dengue-vaccine-candidate
#6
Lisa A Jackson, Richard Rupp, Athanasia Papadimitriou, Derek Wallace, Marsha Raanan, Kelley J Moss
BACKGROUND: As part of the ongoing search for an effective dengue vaccine, Takeda performed a phase 1b study to investigate the safety and immunogenicity of an early low-dose tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate formulation (LD-TDV), based on an attenuated serotype 2 backbone, when administered intradermally with an injector device (PharmaJet®), or needle-syringe. METHODS: The study was performed in two centers in the US, in healthy 18-45 year old subjects with no history of dengue vaccination or disease...
May 19, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788236/a-novel-adeno-associated-virus-capsid-with-enhanced-neurotropism-corrects-a-lysosomal-transmembrane-enzyme-deficiency
#7
Julie Tordo, Claire O'Leary, André S L M Antunes, Nuria Palomar, Patrick Aldrin-Kirk, Mark Basche, Antonette Bennett, Zelpha D'Souza, Hélène Gleitz, Annie Godwin, Rebecca J Holley, Helen Parker, Ai Yin Liao, Paul Rouse, Amir Saam Youshani, Larbi Dridi, Carla Martins, Thierry Levade, Kevin B Stacey, Daniel M Davis, Adam Dyer, Nathalie Clément, Tomas Björklund, Robin R Ali, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, Ahad A Rahim, Alexey Pshezhetsky, Simon N Waddington, R Michael Linden, Brian W Bigger, Els Henckaerts
Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are popular in vivo gene transfer vehicles. However, vector doses needed to achieve therapeutic effect are high and some target tissues in the central nervous system remain difficult to transduce. Gene therapy trials using AAV for the treatment of neurological disorders have seldom led to demonstrated clinical efficacy. Important contributing factors are low transduction rates and inefficient distribution of the vector. To overcome these hurdles, a variety of capsid engineering methods have been utilized to generate capsids with improved transduction properties...
May 16, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788012/allograft-inflammatory-factor-1-mediates-macrophage-induced-impairment-of-insulin-signaling-in-adipocytes
#8
Jingqi Ren, Yaqiu Lin, Junni Tang, Hua Yue, Yanying Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is an inflammatory cytokine produced mainly by macrophages within human white adipose tissue. Its expression is increased in obese subjects and positively correlated with insulin resistance. The purpose of this study is to characterize the regulatory role of AIF-1 in insulin signaling of adipocyte. METHODS: AIF-1 was over-expressed via transfection of AIF-1 cDNA into murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the constitutive expression of AIF-1 was decreased via transfection of targeting siRNA...
May 18, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787994/bioavailability-of-wilforlide-a-in-mice-and-its-concentration-determination-using-an-hplc-apci-ms-ms-method
#9
Zhijun Wang, Steven Yeung, Shang Chen, Yasmin Moatazedi, Moses S S Chow
Wilforlide A (WA), an active compound in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TW) which is a traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of autoimmune diseases, is a quality control marker for TW product. At present, the bioavailability/pharmacokinetics of WA is not known. Such information is not only essential to evaluate the relevance of WA as a quality control maker, but also important for future clinical efficacy studies. Therefore, a high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric method (HPLC-APCI-MS/MS) was developed and applied to a bioavailability/pharmacokinetic study of WA...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787708/emerging-links-between-lipid-droplets-and-motor-neuron-diseases
#10
Giuseppa Pennetta, Michael A Welte
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous fat storage organelles and play key roles in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis; in addition, they contribute to protein storage, folding, and degradation. However, a role for LDs in the nervous system remains largely unexplored. We discuss evidence supporting an intimate functional connection between LDs and motor neuron disease (MND) pathophysiology, examining how LD functions in systemic energy homeostasis, in neuron-glia metabolic coupling, and in protein folding and clearance may affect or contribute to disease pathology...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787579/conformity-of-package-inserts-information-to-regulatory-requirements-among-selected-branded-and-generic-medicinal-products-circulating-on-the-east-african-market
#11
Hiiti B Sillo, Nelson E Masota, Sunday Kisoma, Lembit Rago, Veronica Mgoyela, Eliangiringa A Kaale
BACKGROUND: Availability of correct and adequate information about medicines is an important aspect in ensuring rational use of medicines and hence facilitating safety and expected efficacy of medicines during therapy. Package inserts have proven to be a good source of information to the prescribers and patients whereby they have been useful in highlighting important information pertaining proper use and handling of the medicines. The present study was aimed at establishing the extent to which package inserts of medicines circulating on the markets of the East African Community (EAC) Partner States conform to medicines information requirements as established in the harmonized guidelines as well as national guidelines...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787037/effects-of-perinatal-exposure-to-dibutyltin-chloride-on-fat-and-glucose-metabolism-in-mice-and-molecular-mechanisms-in-vitro
#12
Raquel Chamorro-García, Bassem M Shoucri, Sigal Willner, Heidi Käch, Amanda Janesick, Bruce Blumberg
BACKGROUND: The organotin dibutyltin (DBT) is used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, in construction materials, and in medical devices. Previous animal studies showed detrimental effects of DBT during in utero development at relatively high doses, but little was known about the effects of DBT exposure at environmentally relevant doses on endpoints such as obesity and metabolic disease. OBJECTIVES: We tested the potential obesogenic effects of DBT using in vitro and in vivo models...
May 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786527/retrospective-analysis-of-bluetongue-farm-risk-profile-definition-based-on-biology-farm-management-practices-and-climatic-data
#13
Stefano Cappai, Federica Loi, Annamaria Coccollone, Marino Contu, Paolo Capece, Michele Fiori, Simona Canu, Cipriano Foxi, Sandro Rolesu
Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by species of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Many studies have contributed to clarifying various aspects of its aetiology, epidemiology and vector dynamic; however, BT remains a disease of epidemiological and economic importance that affects ruminants worldwide. Since 2000, the Sardinia region has been the most affected area of the Mediterranean basin. The region is characterised by wide pastoral areas for sheep and represents the most likely candidate region for the study of Bluetongue virus (BTV) distribution and prevalence in Italy...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784585/inhibition-of-glycogen-synthase-ii-with-rnai-prevents-liver-injury-in-mouse-models-of-glycogen-storage-diseases
#14
Natalie Pursell, Jessica Gierut, Wei Zhou, Michael Dills, Rohan Diwanji, Monika Gjorgjieva, Utsav Saxena, Jr-Shiuan Yang, Anee Shah, Nandini Venkat, Rachel Storr, Boyoung Kim, Weimin Wang, Marc Abrams, Margaux Raffin, Gilles Mithieux, Fabienne Rajas, Henryk Dudek, Bob D Brown, Chengjung Lai
Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) of the liver are devastating disorders presenting with fasting hypoglycemia as well as hepatic glycogen and lipid accumulation, which could lead to long-term liver damage. Diet control is frequently utilized to manage the potentially dangerous hypoglycemia, but there is currently no effective pharmacological treatment for preventing hepatomegaly and concurrent liver metabolic abnormalities, which could lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma. In this study, we demonstrate that inhibition of glycogen synthesis using an RNAi approach to silence hepatic Gys2 expression effectively prevents glycogen synthesis, glycogen accumulation, hepatomegaly, fibrosis, and nodule development in a mouse model of GSD III...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782940/defining-osteoblast-and-adipocyte-lineages-in-the-bone-marrow
#15
J L Pierce, D L Begun, J J Westendorf, M E McGee-Lawrence
Bone is a complex endocrine organ that facilitates structural support, protection to vital organs, sites for hematopoiesis, and calcium homeostasis. The bone marrow microenvironment is a heterogeneous niche consisting of multipotent musculoskeletal and hematopoietic progenitors and their derivative terminal cell types. Amongst these progenitors, bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) may differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, and chondrogenic lineages to support musculoskeletal development as well as tissue homeostasis, regeneration and repair during adulthood...
May 18, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781987/retrospective-microrna-sequencing-complementary-dna-library-preparation-protocol-using-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-rna-specimens
#16
Olivier Loudig, Christina Liu, Thomas Rohan, Iddo Z Ben-Dov
-Archived, clinically classified formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues can provide nucleic acids for retrospective molecular studies of cancer development. By using non-invasive or pre-malignant lesions from patients who later develop invasive disease, gene expression analyses may help identify early molecular alterations that predispose to cancer risk. It has been well described that nucleic acids recovered from FFPE tissues have undergone severe physical damage and chemical modifications, which make their analysis difficult and generally requires adapted assays...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779757/neutral-lipid-storage-disease-with-myopathy-further-phenotypic-characterization-of-a-rare-pnpla2-variant
#17
Caitlin S Latimer, Jennifer Schleit, Adam Reynolds, Desiree A Marshall, Benjamin Podemski, Leo H Wang, Luis F Gonzalez-Cuyar
Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is a rare disorder of lipid metabolism caused by variants in the Patatin-Like Phospholipase Domain Containing 2 (PNPLA2) gene. Diagnosis is often delayed due to variable presentations, which is of concern due to increased risk of cardiomyopathy. Better phenotype-genotype characterization is necessary to improve speed and accuracy of diagnosis. Here, we describe a 32-year-old woman of Hmong descent with progressive muscle pain and weakness who had a muscle biopsy with characteristic features of a lipid storage myopathy...
April 19, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779170/histological-improvement-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-with-a-prebiotic-a-pilot-clinical-trial
#18
Marc R Bomhof, Jill A Parnell, Hena R Ramay, Pam Crotty, Kevin P Rioux, Chris S Probert, Saumya Jayakumar, Maitreyi Raman, Raylene A Reimer
PURPOSE: In obesity and diabetes the liver is highly susceptible to abnormal uptake and storage of fat. In certain individuals hepatic steatosis predisposes to the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a disease marked by hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Although the precise pathophysiology of NASH is unknown, it is believed that the gut microbiota-liver axis influences the development of this disease. With few treatment strategies available for NASH, exploration of gut microbiota-targeted interventions is warranted...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779155/prioritising-risk-factors-for-type-2-diabetes-causal-inference-through-genetic-approaches
#19
REVIEW
Laura B L Wittemans, Luca A Lotta, Claudia Langenberg
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Causality has been demonstrated for few of the many putative risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) emerging from observational epidemiology. Genetic approaches are increasingly being used to infer causality, and in this review, we discuss how genetic discoveries have shaped our understanding of the causal role of factors associated with T2D. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic discoveries have led to the identification of novel potential aetiological factors of T2D, including the protective role of peripheral fat storage capacity and specific metabolic pathways, such as the branched-chain amino acid breakdown...
May 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778854/proposed-stages-of-myocardial-phenotype-development-in-fabry-disease
#20
Sabrina Nordin, Rebecca Kozor, Katia Medina-Menacho, Amna Abdel-Gadir, Shanat Baig, Daniel M Sado, Ilaria Lobascio, Elaine Murphy, Robin H Lachmann, Atul Mehta, Nicola C Edwards, Uma Ramaswami, Richard P Steeds, Derralynn Hughes, James C Moon
OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to explore the Fabry myocardium in relation to storage, age, sex, structure, function, electrocardiogram changes, blood biomarkers, and inflammation/fibrosis. BACKGROUND: Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, x-linked lysosomal storage disorder. Mortality is mainly cardiovascular with men exhibiting cardiac symptoms earlier than women. By cardiovascular magnetic resonance, native T1 is low in FD because of sphingolipid accumulation. METHODS: A prospective, observational study of 182 FD (167 adults, 15 children; mean age 42 ± 17 years, 37% male) who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance including native T1, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and extracellular volume fraction, 12-lead electrocardiogram, and blood biomarkers (troponin and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide)...
May 11, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
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