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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319248/cyclic-tensile-strain-enhances-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-smad-2-3-activation-and-tenogenic-differentiation-in-anisotropic-collagen-glycosaminoglycan-scaffolds
#1
W G Grier, A S Moy, B A Harley
Stem cell research arose from the need to explore new therapeutic possibilities for intractable and lethal diseases. Although musculoskeletal disorders are basically nonlethal, their high prevalence and relative ease of performing clinical trials have facilitated the clinical application of stem cells in this field. However, few reliable clinical studies have been published, despite the plethora of in vitro and preclinical studies in stem cell research for regenerative medicine in the musculoskeletal system...
March 20, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316505/from-nappe-stacking-to-exhumation-cretaceous-tectonics-in-the-apuseni-mountains-romania
#2
Martin Kaspar Reiser, Ralf Schuster, Richard Spikings, Peter Tropper, Bernhard Fügenschuh
New Ar-Ar muscovite and Rb-Sr biotite age data in combination with structural analyses from the Apuseni Mountains provide new constraints on the timing and kinematics of deformation during the Cretaceous. Time-temperature paths from the structurally highest basement nappe of the Apuseni Mountains in combination with sedimentary data indicate exhumation and a position close to the surface after the Late Jurassic emplacement of the South Apuseni Ophiolites. Early Cretaceous Ar-Ar muscovite ages from structurally lower parts in the Biharia Nappe System (Dacia Mega-Unit) show cooling from medium-grade conditions...
2017: International Journal of Earth Sciences: Geologische Rundschau
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314748/flight-control-of-fruit-flies-dynamic-response-to-optic-flow-and-headwind
#3
Kiaran K K Lawson, Mandyam V Srinivasan
Insects are magnificent fliers that are capable of performing many complex tasks such as speed regulation, smooth landings, and collision avoidance, even though their computational abilities are limited by their small brain. To investigate how flying insects respond to changes in wind speed and surrounding optic flow, the open-loop sensorimotor response of female Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni) was examined. 136 flies were exposed to stimuli comprising sinusoidally varying optic flow and air flow (simulating forward movement) under tethered conditions in a virtual reality arena...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304157/characterization-of-gas-phase-organics-using-proton-transfer-reaction-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-aircraft-turbine-engines
#4
Dogushan Kilic, Benjamin T Brem, Felix Klein, Imad El-Haddad, Lukas Durdina, Theo Rindlisbacher, Ari Setyan, Rujin Huang, Jing Wang, Jay G Slowik, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S H Prevot
Nonmethane organic gas emissions (NMOGs) from in-service aircraft turbine engines were investigated using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) at an engine test facility at Zurich Airport, Switzerland. Experiments consisted of 60 exhaust samples for seven engine types (used in commercial aviation) from two manufacturers at thrust levels ranging from idle to takeoff. Emission indices (EIs) for more than 200 NMOGs were quantified, and the functional group fractions (including acids, carbonyls, aromatics, and aliphatics) were calculated to characterize the exhaust chemical composition at different engine operation modes...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297638/buckling-instabilities-and-complex-trajectories-in-a-simple-model-of-uniflagellar-bacteria
#5
Frank T M Nguyen, Michael D Graham
Observations of uniflagellar bacteria show that buckling instabilities of the hook protein connecting the cell body and flagellum play a role in locomotion. To understand this phenomenon, we develop models at varying levels of description with a particular focus on the parameter dependence of the buckling instability. A key dimensionless group called the flexibility number measures the hook flexibility relative to the thrust exerted by the flagellum; this parameter and the geometric parameters of the cell determine the stability of straight swimming...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285147/protective-roles-of-nanomelatonin-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-of-aged-brain-matrixmetalloproteinases-as-regulators
#6
Sibani Sarkar, Abhishek Mukherjee, Nirmalendu Das, Snehasikta Swarnakar
Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) injury occurs as a result of oxygen occlusion in the carotid artery through embolus or thrombus formation or cerebrovascular hemorrhage. The oxygen thrust during reperfusion causes the generation of reactive oxidative species (ROS) which exert a potential threat to neuronal survival. ROS may possibly be arrested by antioxidants. After CIR, extracellular matrix remodeling takes place, which is governed by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Augmentation of lipid per oxidation, perturbation of antioxidant enzyme activities and the loss of pyramidal neuronal cells in rat brain were attributed to CIR injury...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280869/biotechnological-route-for-sustainable-succinate-production-utilizing-oil-palm-frond-and-kenaf-as-potential-carbon-sources
#7
REVIEW
Abdullah Amru Indera Luthfi, Shareena Fairuz Abdul Manaf, Rosli Md Illias, Shuhaida Harun, Abdul Wahab Mohammad, Jamaliah Md Jahim
Due to the world's dwindling energy supplies, greater thrust has been placed on the utilization of renewable resources for global succinate production. Exploration of such biotechnological route could be seen as an act of counterbalance to the continued fossil fuel dominance. Malaysia being a tropical country stands out among many other nations for its plenty of resources in the form of lignocellulosic biomass. To date, oil palm frond (OPF) contributes to the largest fraction of agricultural residues in Malaysia, while kenaf, a newly introduced fiber crop with relatively high growth rate, holds great potential for developing sustainable succinate production, apart from OPF...
March 9, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275003/inverse-dynamic-modelling-of-jumping-in-the-red-legged-running-frog-kassina-maculata
#8
Laura B Porro, Amber J Collings, Enrico A Eberhard, Kyle P Chadwick, Christopher T Richards
Although the red-legged running frog Kassina maculata is secondarily a walker/runner, it retains the capacity for multiple locomotor modes, including jumping at a wide range of angles (nearly 70°). Using simultaneous hind limb kinematics and single-foot ground reaction forces, we performed inverse dynamics analyses to calculate moment arms and torques about the hind limb joints during jumping at different angles in K. maculata. We show that forward thrust is generated primarily at the hip and ankle, while body elevation is primarily driven by the ankle...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274080/aesthetic-retainer-cum-trainer
#9
Tulika Tripathi, Shilpa Kalra, Priyank Rai
Tongue thrust habit is one of the contributing factors in the relapse of orthodontic treatment results. Compliance with removable habit breaking appliance is a major issue to the dental practitioners treating patients of any age group. Through this case we introduce a more aesthetic and comfortable option to the patients requiring habit control for tongue thrusting and retention of treatment results. Hence, this appliance acts as a retainer cum trainer in such patients.
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270769/the-role-of-power-fluctuations-in-the-preference-of-diagonal-vs-double-poling-sub-technique-at-different-incline-speed-combinations-in-elite-cross-country-skiers
#10
Christine Dahl, Øyvind Sandbakk, Jørgen Danielsen, Gertjan Ettema
In classical cross-country skiing, diagonal stride (DIA) is the major uphill sub-technique, while double poling (DP) is used on relatively flat terrain. Although, the dependence of incline and speed on the preference of either sub-technique seems clearly established, the mechanisms behind these preferences are not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare kinetics and energy consumption in DP and DIA at the same submaximal workload in cross-country skiing under two different incline-speed combinations...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267510/preparation-properties-and-applications-of-nanocellulosic-materials
#11
REVIEW
Subrata Mondal
Recently, nano materials derived from natural renewable resources have drawn much attention in the nanotechnology research thrust. Lignocelluloses are composed of cellulosic nano-fibrils which can be disintegrated by chemical, mechanical and enzymatic methods in order to obtain nanocellulose. Further, nanocellulose can also be synthesized by bacterial method in a suitable culture. Nanocelluloses have many interesting properties (viz. nano-dimension, renewability, low toxicity, biocompatibility, bio-degradability, easy availability and low cost) which make them ideal nanomaterials for diverse applications...
May 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267159/maximizing-propulsive-thrust-of-a-driven-filament-at-low-reynolds-number-via-variable-flexibility
#12
Zhiwei Peng, Gwynn J Elfring, On Shun Pak
At low Reynolds numbers the locomotive capability of a body can be dramatically hindered by the absence of inertia. In this work, we show how propulsive performance in this regime can be significantly enhanced by employing spatially varying flexibility. As a prototypical example, we consider the propulsive thrust generated by a filament periodically driven at one end. The rigid case leads to zero propulsion, as so constrained by Purcell's scallop theorem, while for uniform filaments there exists a bending stiffness maximizing the propulsive force at a given frequency; here we demonstrate explicitly how considerable further improvement can be achieved by simply varying the stiffness along the filament...
March 7, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266690/lengthening-primary-cilia-enhances-cellular-mechanosensitivity
#13
G-I Im
Stem cell research arose from the need to explore new therapeutic possibilities for intractable and lethal diseases. Although musculoskeletal disorders are basically nonlethal, their high prevalence and relative ease of performing clinical trials have facilitated the clinical application of stem cells in this field. However, few reliable clinical studies have been published, despite the plethora of in vitro and preclinical studies in stem cell research for regenerative medicine in the musculoskeletal system...
February 21, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265030/wind-resource-assessment-in-heterogeneous-terrain
#14
C Vanderwel, M Placidi, B Ganapathisubramani
High-resolution particle image velocimetry data obtained in rough-wall boundary layer experiments are re-analysed to examine the influence of surface roughness heterogeneities on wind resource. Two different types of heterogeneities are examined: (i) surfaces with repeating roughness units of the order of the boundary layer thickness (Placidi & Ganapathisubramani. 2015 J. Fluid Mech.782, 541-566. (doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.552)) and (ii) surfaces with streamwise-aligned elevated strips that mimic adjacent hills and valleys (Vanderwel & Ganapathisubramani...
April 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249682/developing-a-methodology-for-estimating-the-drag-in-front-crawl-swimming-at-various-velocities
#15
Kenzo Narita, Motomu Nakashima, Hideki Takagi
We aimed to develop a new method for evaluating the drag in front-crawl swimming at various velocities and at full stroke. In this study, we introduce the basic principle and apparatus for the new method, which estimates the drag in swimming using measured values of residual thrust (MRT). Furthermore, we applied the MRT to evaluate the active drag (Da) and compared it with the passive drag (Dp) measured for the same swimmers. Da was estimated in five-stages for velocities ranging from 1.0 to 1.4ms(-1); Dp was measured at flow velocities ranging from 0...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244946/a-randomized-crossover-study-comparing-cervical-spine-motion-during-intubation-between-two-lightwand-intubation-techniques-in-patients-with-simulated-cervical-immobilization-laryngoscope-assisted-versus-conventional-lightwand-intubation
#16
Tae Kyong Kim, Je-Do Son, Hyungseok Seo, Yun-Seok Lee, Jinyoung Bae, Hee-Pyoung Park
BACKGROUND: In patients with cervical immobilization, jaw thrust can cause cervical spine movement. Concurrent use of a laryngoscope may facilitate lightwand intubation, allowing midline placement and free movement of the lightwand in the oral cavity without jaw thrust. We compared the effects of laryngoscope-assisted lightwand intubation (LALI) versus conventional lightwand intubation (CLI) on cervical spine motion during intubation in patients with simulated cervical immobilization...
February 24, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241060/nematode-neuropeptides-as-transgenic-nematicides
#17
Neil D Warnock, Leonie Wilson, Cheryl Patten, Colin C Fleming, Aaron G Maule, Johnathan J Dalzell
Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) seriously threaten global food security. Conventionally an integrated approach to PPN management has relied heavily on carbamate, organophosphate and fumigant nematicides which are now being withdrawn over environmental health and safety concerns. This progressive withdrawal has left a significant shortcoming in our ability to manage these economically important parasites, and highlights the need for novel and robust control methods. Nematodes can assimilate exogenous peptides through retrograde transport along the chemosensory amphid neurons...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217424/joint-mobilization-in-the-management-of-persistent-insertional-achilles-tendinopathy-a-case-report
#18
Dhinu J Jayaseelan, Andrew A Post, John J Mischke, Josiah D Sault
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Insertional Achilles tendinopathy (IAT) can be a challenging condition to manage conservatively. Eccentric exercise is commonly used in the management of chronic tendinopathy; however, it may not be as helpful for insertional tendon problems as compared to mid-portion dysfunction. While current evidence describing the physical therapy management of IAT is developing, gaps still exist in descriptions of best practice. The purpose of this case report is to describe the management of a patient with persistent IAT utilizing impairment-based joint mobilization, self-mobilization, and exercise...
February 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215058/effect-of-cervical-versus-thoracic-spinal-manipulation-on-peripheral-neural-features-and-grip-strength-in-subjects-with-chronic-mechanical-neck-pain-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Francisco Bautista-Aguirre, Ángel Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Alberto M Heredia-Rizo, Juan J Boscá-Gandía, François Ricard, Cleofás Rodriguez-Blanco
BACKGROUND: Cervical and thoracic spinal manipulative therapy has shown positive impact for relief of pain and improve function in non-specific mechanical neck pain. Several attempts have been made to compare their effectiveness although previous studies lacked a control group, assessed acute neck pain or combined thrust and nonthrust techniques. AIM: To compare the immediate effects of cervical and thoracic spinal thrust manipulations on mechanosensitivity of upper limb nerve trunks and grip strength in patients with chronic non-specific mechanical neck pain...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213146/linear-ultrasonic-motor-for-absolute-gravimeter
#20
Yue Jian, Zhiyuan Yao, Vadim V Silberschmidt
Thanks to their compactness and suitability for vacuum applications, linear ultrasonic motors are considered as substitutes for classical electromagnetic motors as driving elements in absolute gravimeters. Still, their application is prevented by relatively low power output. To overcome this limitation and provide better stability, a V-type linear ultrasonic motor with a new clamping method is proposed for a gravimeter. In this paper, a mechanical model of stators with flexible clamping components is suggested, according to a design criterion for clamps of linear ultrasonic motors...
February 1, 2017: Ultrasonics
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