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Christopher L Kirkland, Breandán A MacGabhann, Brian L Kirkland, J Stephen Daly
The Hellefjord Schist, a volcaniclastic psammite-pelite formation in the Caledonides of Arctic Norway contains discoidal impressions and apparent tube casts that share morphological and taphonomic similarities to Neoproterozoic stem-holdfast forms. U-Pb zircon geochronology on the host metasediment indicates it was deposited between 437 ± 2 and 439 ± 3 Ma, but also indicates that an inferred basal conglomerate to this formation must be part of an older stratigraphic element, as it is cross-cut by a 546 ± 4 Ma pegmatite...
2016: PloS One
Muhammad Ajaz Hussain, Muhammad Umer Ashraf, Gulzar Muhammad, Muhammad Nawaz Tahir, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
The review summarizes the efforts to fabricate inclusion complexes of different therapeutic agents based on a versatile material . is a macrocyclic nano-basket which is the marvelous host with distinct hydrophobic three dimensional cavities to entrap and encapsulate biologically active guest drugs. and its derivatives are used as carriers (host-guest) for anti-cancer, anti-convulsant, anti-hypertensive, anthelmentic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-psychotic drugs, etc. They are the important biocompatible materials to improve solubility and chemical reactivity, and decrease cytotoxicity of poorly soluble drugs...
September 28, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Bubun Banerjee
Heterocycles are the backbone of organic compounds. Specially, N- &O-containing heterocycles represent privileged structural subunits well distributed in naturally occurring compounds with immense biological activities. Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) are becoming valuable tool for synthesizing structurally diverse molecular entities. On the other hand, the last decade has seen a tremendous outburst in modifying chemical processes to make them sustainable for the betterment of our environment. The application of ultrasound in organic synthesis is fulfilling some of the goals of 'green and sustainable chemistry' as it has some advantages over the traditional thermal methods in terms of reaction rates, yields, purity of the products, product selectivity, etc...
October 14, 2016: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Vittorio Del Duca, Claude Duhr, Adam Kardos, Gábor Somogyi, Zoltán Trócsányi
We introduce a completely local subtraction method for fully differential predictions at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) accuracy for jet cross sections and use it to compute event shapes in three-jet production in electron-positron collisions. We validate our method on two event shapes, thrust and C parameter, which are already known in the literature at NNLO accuracy and compute for the first time oblateness and the energy-energy correlation at the same accuracy.
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Nancy Bagatell, Dara Chan, Kimberly Karrat Rauch, Deborah Thorpe
BACKGROUND: The transition to adulthood, the gradual change in roles and responsibilities, is identified as a challenging time for adolescents and young adults with physical disabilities, including those with cerebral palsy. Health care, education, employment, independent living, and community engagement have been identified as areas of concern. However, relatively little research has been done to understand the experiences, perceptions, and needs of individuals with cerebral palsy as they transition toward adulthood...
October 3, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
Elizabeth Simpson
Rationale and key points Choking, or foreign body airway obstruction, is a common, yet treatable, cause of accidental death. This article aims to provide an overview of the skills required when faced with this emergency in adults, including how to recognise this emergency, the immediate management and treatment required, and the necessary aftercare. » Choking usually occurs when a person is eating or drinking. » An obstruction may classified as mild or severe. » For a severe obstruction in a conscious person, it may be necessary to administer back blows and/or abdominal thrusts to remove the obstruction from the airway...
September 14, 2016: Nursing Standard
Armaghan Mahmoudian, Jaap H van Dieen, Sjoerd M Bruijn, Isabel Ac Baert, Gert S Faber, Frank P Luyten, Sabine Mp Verschueren
BACKGROUND: Varus thrust, defined as an abrupt increase of the knee varus angle during weight-bearing in gait, has been shown to be present in patients with moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis and is considered to be one of the risk factors for progression of symptomatic medial knee osteoarthritis. We evaluated the presence and magnitude of varus thrust and its relation with the Knee Adduction Moment in women with early medial knee osteoarthritis, and compared it to that in a group of controls and in a group of subjects with established medial knee osteoarthritis...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
John A Heflin, Scott Ford, Peter Stevens
Blount's disease is commonly attributed to an intrinsic, idiopathic defect in the posteromedial proximal tibial physis resulting in progressive bowing of the leg, intoeing, and lateral knee thrust. Treatment has historically included bracing, physeal stapling, or corrective osteotomy, and was determined primarily by age at presentation. As we feel the pathology is not necessarily age dependent, we have elected to use the technique of guided growth using a lateral tension band plate to correct limb alignment as a first-line treatment in all patients presenting to our clinic as long as they had growth remaining and no evidence of a physeal bar...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bolin Chen, Nathaniel T Garland, Jason Geder, Marius Pruessner, Eric Mootz, Allison A Cargill, Anne Leners, Granit Vokshi, Jacob Davis, Wyatt Burns, Michael A Daniele, Joshua M Kogot, Igor L Medintz, Jonathan C Claussen
Micro unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) need to house propulsion mechanisms that are small in size but sufficiently powerful to deliver on-demand acceleration for tight radius turns, burst-driven docking maneuvers, and low-speed course corrections. Recently, small-scale hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) propulsion mechanisms have shown great promise in delivering pulsatile thrust for such acceleration needs. However, the need for robust, high surface area nanocatalysts that can be manufactured on a large scale for integration into micro UUV reaction chambers is still needed...
October 11, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Humberto G Rosas
Although rare, posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries can result in sustained instability and failed cruciate ligament reconstruction if they are not diagnosed. The anatomy of the PLC was once thought to be perplexing and esoteric-in part because of the varying nomenclature applied to this region in the literature, which added unnecessary complexity. More recently, three major structures have been described as the primary stabilizers of the PLC on the basis of biomechanical study findings: the lateral collateral ligament, popliteus tendon, and popliteofibular ligament...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
S Murphy, A Scala, A Herrero, S Lorito, G Festa, E Trasatti, R Tonini, F Romano, I Molinari, S Nielsen
The 2011 Tohoku earthquake produced an unexpected large amount of shallow slip greatly contributing to the ensuing tsunami. How frequent are such events? How can they be efficiently modelled for tsunami hazard? Stochastic slip models, which can be computed rapidly, are used to explore the natural slip variability; however, they generally do not deal specifically with shallow slip features. We study the systematic depth-dependence of slip along a thrust fault with a number of 2D dynamic simulations using stochastic shear stress distributions and a geometry based on the cross section of the Tohoku fault...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Satoshi Hamai, Ken Okazaki, Satoru Ikebe, Koji Murakami, Hidehiko Higaki, Hiroyuki Nakahara, Takeshi Shimoto, Hideki Mizu-Uchi, Yukio Akasaki, Yukihide Iwamoto
The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo kinematics in healthy and osteoarthritic (OA) knees during stepping using image-matching techniques. Six healthy volunteers and fourteen patients with medial OA knee before undergoing total knee arthroplasty performed stepping under periodic anteroposterior X-ray images. We analyzed the three-dimensional kinematic parameters of knee joints using X-ray images and CT-derived digitally reconstructed radiographs. The average extension/flexion angle ranged 6°/53° and 16°/44° in healthy and OA knees with significant difference in extension (p = ...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Frank E Fish
Re-invasion of the aquatic environment by terrestrial vertebrates resulted in the evolution of species expressing a suite of adaptations for high-performance swimming. Examination of swimming by secondarily aquatic vertebrates provides opportunities to understand potential selection pressures and mechanical constraints, which may have directed the evolution of these aquatic species. Mammals and birds realigned the body and limbs for cursorial movements and flight, respectively, from the primitive tetrapod configuration...
October 3, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Gil Iosilevskii
The paper addresses hydrodynamic performance of a slender swimmer furnished with a flexible small-aspect-ratio soft-rayed caudal fin. The recoil of the fin is found by solving the coupled hydro-elastic problem, in which the structure of the fin is modeled by a cantilever of variable cross section and the hydrodynamic forces acting on it are modeled using the elongated body theory. It is shown that the recoil has practically no effect on the propulsion efficiency of anguilliform swimmers, but has a profound effect on the efficiency of carangiform swimmers, which can increase almost four-fold between low-speed (low-thrust) cruise and high-speed (high-thrust) burst...
2016: PloS One
Jeffrey P Bishop
The essays in this issue of JMP are devoted to critical engagement of my book, The Anticipatory Corpse The essays, for the most part, accept the main thrust of my critique of medicine. The main thrust of the criticism is whether the scope of the critique is too totalizing, and whether the proposed remedy is sufficient. I greatly appreciate these interventions because they allow me this occasion to respond and clarify, and to even further extend the argument of my book. In this response essay, I maintain that the regnant social imaginary of medicine is the regnant social imaginary of our time...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Ayesha Kabir, Devawati Dutta, Chhabinath Mandal, Gopinatha Suresh Kumar
A major thrust of anticancer therapeutics is the dynamic quest for small molecules that binds and modifies nucleic acids and proteins effectively. The role of tRNA in the protein translational machinery and the influence of polyamines on the interaction of acylated and deacylated tRNA to ribosomes,47-48 make polyamine-tRNA interactions conspicuous. Therefore, we have studied the interaction of two biogenic polyamines spermine and spermidine with tRNAPhe and compared the interaction with the polyamine analog, 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine to fathom the thermodynamic and structural basis of the binding interaction...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Dai Thien Nhan Tram, Hao Wang, Sigit Sugiarto, Tao Li, Wee Han Ang, Chengkuo Lee, Giorgia Pastorin
Nanotechnology has gained much attention over the last decades, as it offers unique opportunities for the advancement of the next generation of sensing tools. Point-of-care (POC) devices for the selective detection of biomolecules using engineered nanoparticles have become a main research thrust in the diagnostic field. This review presents an overview on how the POC-associated nanotechnology, currently applied for the identification of nucleic acids, proteins and antibodies, might be further exploited for the detection of infectious pathogens: although still premature, future integrations of nanoparticles with biological markers that target specific microorganisms will enable timely therapeutic intervention against life-threatening infectious diseases...
September 26, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Thomas Losnegard, Håvard Myklebust, Angela Ehrhardt, Jostein Hallén
To characterise timing of movements and evaluate performance effects of technique alterations in V2 ski skating, 13 elite male cross-country skiers (age, 23 ± 2 years; stature, 182 ± 6 cm; body mass, 76 ± 8 kg; V2 V̇O2max, 79.3 ± 4.4 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) were tested four times during the preparation and competition phase on a roller ski treadmill. Each test consisted of submaximal intensities of exercise for determination of oxygen cost followed by one 1000-m performance test. Hip movement (from accelerometer data) and joint angles (2D video) were determined for high-intensity exercise (6° and 3...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Amanda Freitas Valentim, Renata Maria Moreira Moraes Furlan, Tatiana Vargas de Castro Perilo, Andréa Rodrigues Motta, Estevam Barbosa de Las Casas
Purpose: To verify whether there are differences of tongue force on the teeth at rest and during swallowing between individuals who report appropriate tongue position and those who report tongue thrust. Methods: Tongue forces on the teeth were evaluated in 28 participants aged 19 to 31 years. To this end, a Flexiforce® resistive sensor was fixed to the palatal surface of the maxillary right central incisor (tooth 8) and was connected to an amplifier circuit, a data acquisition board, and a computer...
September 26, 2016: CoDAS
L Sosdian, R S Hinman, T V Wrigley, K L Paterson, M Dowsey, P Choong, K Bennell
BACKGROUND: Varus-valgus thrust is a biomechanical characteristic linked to knee osteoarthritis disease progression. This study aimed to determine: i) direction of thrust in individuals awaiting total knee arthroplasty versus controls, ii) whether thrust and related parameters differed between groups, iii) differences between osteoarthritis patients awaiting surgery with varus and valgus thrust. METHODS: 44 patients scheduled for surgery and 40 asymptomatic participants were recruited...
September 21, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
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