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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340143/protecting-pain-patients-the-evaluation-of-a-chronic-pain-educational-intervention
#1
Simon Holliday, Chris Hayes, Adrian Dunlop, Simon Morgan, Amanda Tapley, Kim Henderson, Briony Larance, Parker Magin
Introduction. : Advocacy and commercially funded education successfully reduced barriers to the provision of long-term opioid analgesia. The subsequent escalation of opioid prescribing for chronic noncancer pain has seen increasing harms without improved pain outcomes. Methods. : This was a one-group pretest-posttest design study. A multidisciplinary team developed a chronic pain educational package for general practitioner trainees emphasizing limitations, risk-mitigation, and deprescribing of opioids with transition to active self-care...
March 13, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340125/the-association-of-lesbian-gay-and-bisexual-identity-facets-with-smoking-dependence-motives
#2
Nathan Grant Smith, Kate Winderman, Brooke King, Ezemenari M Obasi, Lorraine R Reitzel
Introduction: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults have higher rates of smoking than heterosexual adults. LGB individuals face unique stressors, including challenges associated with having a LGB identity. The extent to which these unique stressors are related to dependence motives in LGB adult smokers, however, has not been previously explored. The current study was conducted to redress these gaps. Methods: Participants (N=52; Mage=42.8; 55.8% Black/African American) were recruited from the local community...
March 9, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339460/evaluating-implementation-of-a-fire-prevention-injury-prevention-briefing-in-children-s-centres-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Toity Deave, Adrian Hawkins, Arun Kumar, Mike Hayes, Nicola Cooper, Michael Watson, Joanne Ablewhite, Carol Coupland, Alex Sutton, Gosia Majsak-Newman, Lisa McDaid, Trudy Goodenough, Kate Beckett, Elaine McColl, Richard Reading, Denise Kendrick
BACKGROUND: Many developed countries have high mortality rates for fire-related deaths in children aged 0-14 years with steep social gradients. Evidence-based interventions to promote fire safety practices exist, but the impact of implementing a range of these interventions in children's services has not been assessed. We developed an Injury Prevention Briefing (IPB), which brought together evidence about effective fire safety interventions and good practice in delivering interventions; plus training and facilitation to support its use and evaluated its implementation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339352/approaching-environmental-sustainability-perceptions-of-self-efficacy-and-changeability
#4
Nicola S Schutte, Navjot Bhullar
This paper describes a model focused on the role of self-efficacy and belief in changeability of behavior in motivating environmentally sustainable behavior. The model was tested in two studies. The first study found that participants who had greater self-efficacy for sustainability behavior and a greater belief in their changeability of sustainability behavior had a higher level of approach motivation toward sustainability behavior and reported more such actual behavior. The second study investigated the effect of brief interventions intended to increase perception of self-efficacy for sustainability-related purchasing and changeability of sustainability-related purchasing...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337633/the-development-of-an-hiv-risk-environment-scale-of-exotic-dance-clubs
#5
Susan G Sherman, Meredith R Brantley, Carla Zelaya, Quyen Duong, Ralph B Taylor, Jon M Ellen
Exotic dancers have received little research attention despite evidence of high-risk behaviours within exotic dance clubs (EDCs). We developed and assessed the reliability and validity of a risk environment score, examining differences between dancers (n = 107) and other staff (n = 172). In the summer of 2013, anonymous surveys were administered via A-CASI in EDCs (N = 26) in Baltimore among exotic dancers and staff. Surveys consisted of a brief demographic section followed by 65 statements. The overall domain had an alpha = 0...
March 23, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336365/breast-cancer-cells-focus-on-the-consequences-of-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#6
Alice H L Bong, Gregory R Monteith
Breast cancers are highly heterogeneous and successful treatment of those subtypes with a high frequency of metastases and resistance to clinically available therapies remains a challenge. An understanding of mechanisms which may contribute to this heterogeneity and generation of more resilient cancer cells is therefore essential. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a dynamic two-way process that occurs during embryonic development and wound healing whereby epithelial cells can gain plasticity and switch to a mesenchymal-like phenotype...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334801/a-systematic-review-of-the-physical-activity-assessment-tools-used-in-primary-care
#7
Toby O Smith, Máire C McKenna, Charlotte Salter, Wendy Hardeman, Kathryn Richardson, Melvyn Hillsdon, Carly A Hughes, Nicholas Steel, Andy P Jones
Background.: Primary care is an ideal setting for physical activity interventions to prevent and manage common long-term conditions. To identify those who can benefit from such interventions and to deliver tailored support, primary care professionals (e.g. GPs, practice nurses, physiotherapists, health care assistants) need reliable and valid tools to assess physical activity. However, there is uncertainty about the best-performing tool. Objective.: To identify the tools used in the literature to assess the physical activity in primary care and describe their psychometric properties...
February 21, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333531/randomized-controlled-trial-of-triple-p-for-parents-of-children-with-asthma-or-eczema-effects-on-parenting-and-child-behavior
#8
Alina Morawska, Amy Mitchell, Scott Burgess, Jennifer Fraser
OBJECTIVE: Parents play an important role in children's illness management, in promoting child adjustment and reducing behavior problems. Little research has focused on the evaluation of parenting interventions in the context of childhood chronic illness. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a brief, group parenting intervention (Healthy Living Triple P) in improving parenting skills and parent adjustment, and reducing child behavioral and emotional difficulties in the context of childhood asthma and eczema...
April 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333512/randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-positive-affect-intervention-for-people-newly-diagnosed-with-hiv
#9
Judith T Moskowitz, Adam W Carrico, Larissa G Duncan, Michael A Cohn, Elaine O Cheung, Abigail Batchelder, Lizet Martinez, Eisuke Segawa, Michael Acree, Susan Folkman
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether IRISS (Intervention for those Recently Informed of their Seropositive Status), a positive affect skills intervention, improved positive emotion, psychological health, physical health, and health behaviors in people newly diagnosed with HIV. METHOD: One-hundred and fifty-nine participants who had received an HIV diagnosis in the past 3 months were randomized to a 5-session, in-person, individually delivered positive affect skills intervention or an attention-matched control condition...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333511/does-impaired-mental-health-interfere-with-the-outcome-of-brief-alcohol-intervention-at-general-hospitals
#10
Sophie Baumann, Beate Gaertner, Katja Haberecht, Christian Meyer, Hans-Jürgen Rumpf, Ulrich John, Jennis Freyer-Adam
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test whether the efficacy of in-person and computer delivered brief alcohol intervention (BAI) is moderated by mental health status. METHOD: General hospital inpatients with at-risk alcohol use aged 18 to 64 years (N = 961, 75% men) were allocated to in-person BAI, computer-based BAI, and assessment only. In-person BAI contained counseling by research staff. Computer-based BAI contained computer-generated individualized feedback letters...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332942/a-statewide-screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-sbirt-curriculum-for-medical-residents-differential-implementation-strategies-in-heterogeneous-medical-residency-programs
#11
Janice L Pringle, Shannon M Kearney, Sherry Rickard-Aasen, Melinda M Campopiano, Adam J Gordon
BACKGROUND: Many screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) training curricula have been implemented within graduate medical residency training programs, with varying degrees of success. The authors examined the implementation of a uniform, but adaptable, statewide SBIRT curriculum in 7 diverse residency training programs and whether it could improve resident knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding SBIRT and unhealthy alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. METHODS: The authors assessed the implementation of the Pennsylvania SBIRT Medical and Residency Training (SMaRT) curriculum at 7 residency sites training a variety of disciplines...
February 8, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328739/effects-of-a-brief-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-group-intervention-on-baseline-brain-perfusion-in-adolescents-with-major-depressive-disorder
#12
Zrinka Sosic-Vasic, Birgit Abler, Georg Grön, Paul Plener, Joana Straub
A number of neuroimaging studies have identified altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in adult samples, particularly in the lateral prefrontal, cingular and temporal regions. In contrast, neuroimaging investigations in adolescents with MDD are rare, although investigating young patients during a significant period of brain maturation might offer valuable insights into the neural mechanisms of MDD. We acquired perfusion images obtained with continuous arterial spin labelling in 21 medication-naive adolescents with MDD before and after a five-session cognitive behavioural group therapy (group CBT)...
March 21, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328312/adolescent-substance-use-assessing-the-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-a-school-based-health-center-workforce
#13
Mary M Ramos, Rachel A Sebastian, Mary Murphy, Kristin Oreskovich, Timothy P Condon
BACKGROUND: Recent attention has focused on the potential for school-based health centers (SBHCs) to provide access points for adolescent substance use care. In 2015, the University of New Mexico began screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) training for providers at New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH)-funded SBHCs across the state. This study assesses baseline knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the New Mexico SBHC provider workforce regarding adolescent substance use and provision of services...
February 8, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326552/biogenesis-assembly-and-trafficking-of-acetylcholinesterase
#14
REVIEW
Richard L Rotundo
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is expressed as several homomeric and heterooligomeric forms in a wide variety of tissues such as neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems and their targets including skeletal muscle, endocrine and exocrine glands. In addition, glycolipid-anchored forms are expressed in erythropoietic and lymphopoietic cells. While transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation is important for determining which AChE oligomeric forms are expressed in a given tissue, translational and post-translational regulatory mechanisms at the level of protein folding, assembly and sorting play equally important roles in assuring that the AChE molecules reach their intended sites on the cell surface in the appropriate numbers...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324813/among-patients-with-unhealthy-alcohol-use-those-with-hiv-are-less-likely-than-those-without-to-receive-evidence-based-alcohol-related-care-a-national-va-study
#15
Emily C Williams, Gwen T Lapham, Susan M Shortreed, Anna D Rubinsky, Jennifer F Bobb, Kara M Bensley, Sheryl L Catz, Julie E Richards, Katharine A Bradley
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use has important adverse effects on people living with HIV (PLWH). This study of patients with recognized unhealthy alcohol use estimated and compared rates of alcohol-related care received by PLWH and HIV- patients. METHODS: Outpatients from the Veterans Health Administration who had one or more positive screen(s) for unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C≥5) documented in their medical records 10/2009-5/2013 were eligible. Primary and secondary outcomes were brief intervention documented ≤14days after a positive alcohol screen, and a composite measure of any alcohol-related care (brief intervention, specialty addictions treatment or pharmacotherapy documented ≤365 days), respectively...
March 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323912/sex-hormones-and-cardiometabolic-health-role-of-estrogen-and-estrogen-receptors
#16
Deborah Clegg, Andrea L Hevener, Kerrie L Moreau, Eugenia Morselli, Alfredo Criollo, Rachael E Van Pelt, Victoria J Vieira-Potter
With increased life expectancy, women will spend over three decades of life post-menopause. The menopausal transition increases susceptibility to metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Thus, it is more important than ever to develop effective hormonal treatment strategies to protect aging women. Understanding the role of estrogens, and their biological actions mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs), in the regulation of cardiometabolic health is of paramount importance to discover novel targeted therapeutics...
February 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323548/referral-to-treatment-for-hospitalized-medical-patients-with-an-alcohol-use-disorder-a-proof-of-concept-brief-intervention-study
#17
Lisa Berger, Jennifer Hernandez-Meier, John Hyatt, Michael Brondino
Substance misuse intervention in healthcare settings is becoming a US national priority, especially in the dissemination and implementation of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT). Yet, the referral to treatment component of SBIRT is understudied. This proof-of-concept investigation tested an enhanced coordinated hospital-community two session brief intervention designed to facilitate the referral to treatment of hospitalized medical patients with an alcohol use disorder. Participants (N = 9) attended the second session of the brief intervention held in the community in most cases (56%), while one out of three (33%) received some level of post-brief intervention alcohol and/or other drug treatment...
March 21, 2017: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322914/computer-aided-prediction-of-extent-of-motor-recovery-following-constraint-induced-movement-therapy-in-chronic-stroke
#18
Sarah Hulbert George, Mohammad Hossein Rafiei, Lynne Gauthier, Alexandra Borstad, John A Buford, Hojjat Adeli
Constraint-induced movement therapy (CI therapy) is a well-researched intervention for treatment of upper limb function. Overall, CI therapy yields clinically meaningful improvements in speed of task completion and greatly increases use of the more affected upper extremity for daily activities. However, individual improvements vary widely. It has been suggested that intrinsic feedback from somatosensation may influence motor recovery from CI therapy. To test this hypothesis, an enhanced probabilistic neural network (EPNN) prognostic computational model was developed to identify which baseline characteristics predict extent of motor recovery, as measured by the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT)...
March 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322606/cognitive-impairment-in-pediatric-onset-multiple-sclerosis-is-detected-by-the-brief-international-cognitive-assessment-for-multiple-sclerosis-and-computerized-cognitive-testing
#19
Leigh E Charvet, Michael Shaw, Ariana Frontario, Dawn Langdon, Lauren B Krupp
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a common and troubling feature of pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS). Brief cognitive assessment in the outpatient setting can identify and longitudinally monitor cognitive involvement so that early intervention is possible. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to measure the sensitivity of two cognitive assessment approaches that are brief, repeatable, and suitable for clinical practice and for multicenter investigation...
March 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321455/comorbid-psychopathology-and-everyday-functioning-in-a-brief-intervention-study-to-reduce-khat-use-among-somalis-living-in-kenya-description-of-baseline-multimorbidity-its-effects-of-intervention-and-its-moderation-effects-on-substance-use
#20
Marina Widmann, Bernice Apondi, Abednego Musau, Abdulkadir Hussein Warsame, Maimuna Isse, Victoria Mutiso, Clemens Veltrup, David Ndetei, Michael Odenwald
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Migration and khat use were found to correlate with high rates of psychopathology. In this paper we aimed for assessing baseline multimorbidity and its interactions with a Brief Intervention. METHODS: In the RCT, 330 male Somali khat users were assigned to treatment conditions (khat use is a predominantly male habit). The ASSIST-linked BI for khat users was administered. Using the TLFB Calendar, the PHQ-9, a Somali short version of the PDS and parts from the CIDI, khat use and comorbidity was assessed...
March 20, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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