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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776798/changes-in-chlamydia-prevalence-and-duration-of-infection-estimated-from-testing-and-diagnosis-rates-in-england-a-model-based-analysis-using-surveillance-data-2000-15
#1
Joanna Lewis, Peter J White
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia screening programmes have been implemented in several countries, but the effects of screening on incidence, prevalence, and reproductive sequelae remain unclear. In England, despite increases in testing with the rollout of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP; 2003-08), prevalence estimated in 10-yearly population-based surveys was similar before (1999-2001) and after (2010-12) the programme. However, the precision of these previous estimates was limited by the low numbers of infections...
May 15, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776358/associations-between-local-descriptive-norms-for-overweight-obesity-and-insufficient-fruit-intake-individual-level-diet-and-10-year-change-in-body-mass-index-and-glycosylated-haemoglobin-in-an-australian-cohort
#2
Suzanne J Carroll, Theo Niyonsenga, Neil T Coffee, Anne W Taylor, Mark Daniel
BACKGROUND: Descriptive norms (what other people do) relate to individual-level dietary behaviour and health outcome including overweight and obesity. Descriptive norms vary across residential areas but the impact of spatial variation in norms on individual-level diet and health is poorly understood. This study assessed spatial associations between local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and insufficient fruit intake (spatially-specific local prevalence), and individual-level dietary intakes (fruit, vegetable and sugary drinks) and 10-year change in body mass index (BMI) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c )...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775993/postnatal-psychosocial-assessment-and-clinical-decision-making-a-descriptive-study
#3
Deborah Sims, Cathrine Fowler
AIM: The aim of this study is to describe experienced child and family health nurses' clinical decision-making during a postnatal psychosocial assessment. BACKGROUND: Maternal emotional wellbeing in the postnatal year optimises parenting and promotes infant development. Psychosocial assessment potentially enables early intervention and reduces the risk of a mental disorder occurring during this time of change. Assessment accuracy, and the interventions used are determined by the standard of nursing decision-making...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774616/psychological-effects-of-belonging-to-a-facebook-weight-management-group-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-results-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Monica Jane, Jonathan Foster, Martin Hagger, Suleen Ho, Robert Kane, Sebely Pal
This study was conducted to test whether the weight outcomes in an online social networking group were mediated by changes to psychological outcome measures in overweight and obese individuals, following a weight management programme delivered via Facebook. The data analysed in this study were collected during a three-armed, randomised, controlled clinical weight management trial conducted with overweight and obese adults over 24 weeks. Two intervention groups were given the same weight management programme: one within a Facebook group, along with peer support from other group members (the Facebook Group); the other group received the same programme in a pamphlet (the Pamphlet Group)...
May 18, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773539/effectiveness-of-text-message-based-diabetes-self-management-support-programme-sms4bg-two-arm-parallel-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Rosie Dobson, Robyn Whittaker, Yannan Jiang, Ralph Maddison, Matthew Shepherd, Catherine McNamara, Richard Cutfield, Manish Khanolkar, Rinki Murphy
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a theoretically based and individually tailored, text message based, diabetes self management support intervention (SMS4BG) in adults with poorly controlled diabetes. DESIGN: Nine month, two arm, parallel randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Primary and secondary healthcare services in New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: 366 participants aged 16 years and over with poorly controlled type 1 or type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥65 mmol/mol or 8%) randomised between June 2015 and November 2016 (n=183 intervention, n=183 control)...
May 17, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773076/risk-factors-for-schistosomiasis-in-an-urban-area-in-northern-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#6
Richard K M'Bra, Brama Kone, Yapi G Yapi, Kigbafori D Silué, Ibrahima Sy, Danielle Vienneau, Nagnin Soro, Guéladio Cissé, Jürg Utzinger
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease transmitted by trematodes belonging to the genus Schistosoma. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the prevalence of schistosomiasis and access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and environmental and socioeconomic factors in the city of Korhogo, northern Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 728 randomly selected households was conducted in Korhogo in March 2015...
May 18, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772803/the-impact-of-activity-based-working-abw-on-workplace-activity-eating-behaviours-productivity-and-satisfaction
#7
Lauren Arundell, Bronwyn Sudholz, Megan Teychenne, Jo Salmon, Brooke Hayward, Genevieve N Healy, Anna Timperio
The redesign of the physical workplace according to activity-based working (ABW) principles has potential to influence employee health and workplace outcomes. This natural experiment examined changes in accelerometer-derived workplace activity, self-reported eating behaviours, productivity, workplace satisfaction before (March to November 2014) and six to nine months after moving to an ABW workplace compared to a comparison workplace ( n = 146 at baseline (56% ABW, aged 40.1 ± 8.5 years, 72% female). Interviews were also conducted with 21 ABW participants...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772467/yawning-and-cortisol-levels-in-multiple-sclerosis-potential-new-diagnostic-tool
#8
Simon B N Thompson, Alister Coleman, Nicola Williams
Yawning is a significant behavioural response and, together with cortisol, is potentially a new diagnostic marker of neurological diseases. Evidence of an association between yawning and cortisol was found which supports the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis and thermoregulation hypotheses, indication that brain cooling occurs when yawning. 117 volunteers aged 18-69 years were randomly allocated to experimentally controlled conditions to provoke yawning. Thirty-three had been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Saliva cortisol samples were collected before and after yawning or after stimuli presentation in the absence of yawning...
May 2, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771207/the-stopit-programme-to-reduce-bullying-and-undermining-behaviour-in-hospitals
#9
Graham Benmore, Steven Henderson, Joanna Mountfield, Brian Wink
Purpose The impact of bullying and undermining behaviours on the National Health Service on costs, patient safety and retention of staff was well understood even before the Illing report, published in 2013, that reviewed the efficacy of training interventions designed to reduce bullying and harassment in the outputs. The purpose of this paper is to provide an example of a good programme well evaluated. Design/methodology/approach The methodology follows a broad realist approach, by specifying the underlying programme assumptions and intention of the designers...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770611/the-changing-aetiology-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-cancer-a-tale-of-three-cancers
#10
Steven J Thomas, Chris M Penfold, Andrea Waylen, Andrew R Ness
Head and neck cancers are the sixth most common cancers worldwide and an important cause of ill health.(1) Each year about 9000 cases are reported in the UK.(2) Survival is poor and despite advances in treatment, has not improved until recently.(3) The majority of head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, affecting the larynx, oropharynx and oral cavity. The aetiology is changing and this has implications for prevention and treatment. Twenty years ago, tobacco and alcohol consumption were considered to be the established risk factors and it was estimated that these risk factors accounted for about 75% of cases...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768728/evaluation-of-complex-community-based-childhood-obesity-prevention-interventions
#11
REVIEW
D Karacabeyli, S Allender, S Pinkney, S Amed
BACKGROUND: Multi-setting, multi-component community-based interventions have shown promise in preventing childhood obesity; however, evaluation of these complex interventions remains a challenge. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to systematically review published methodological approaches to outcome evaluation for multi-setting community-based childhood obesity prevention interventions and synthesize a set of pragmatic recommendations. METHODS: MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched from inception to 6 July 2017...
May 16, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768507/attitudes-to-ageing-and-objectively-measured-sedentary-and-walking-behaviour-in-older-people-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1936
#12
Catharine R Gale, Iva Čukić, Sebastien F Chastin, Philippa M Dall, Manon L Dontje, Dawn A Skelton, Ian J Deary
BACKGROUND: Prolonged sitting and low activity-both common in older people-are associated with increased mortality and poorer health. Whether having a more negative attitude to ageing is associated with higher levels of these behaviours is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prospective relationship between attitudes to ageing and objectively measured sedentary and walking behaviour. METHODS: Participants were 271 members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765655/adsorption-behaviour-of-hydrogarnet-for-humic-acid
#13
Hirotaka Maeda, Yuichi Kurosaki, Masanobu Nakayama, Emile Hideki Ishida, Toshihiro Kasuga
Discharge of humic acid (HA) in aqueous environments is a key health and aesthetic issue. The present work investigates the use of hydrogarnet as a novel adsorbent for HA. Hydrogarnet was hydrothermally synthesized with different solvents to control the chemical composition. Hydrogarnet with three types of chemical compositions had better adsorption properties for HA than hydrogarnet with a single chemical composition. Controlling the chemical composition of hydrogarnet increased the number of hydroxyl groups and the overall binding energy of the system, leading to changes in the zeta potential...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765067/wildfire-smoke-impacts-activity-and-energetics-of-wild-bornean-orangutans
#14
W M Erb, E J Barrow, A N Hofner, S S Utami-Atmoko, E R Vogel
Indonesia's peatlands experience frequent and intense wildfires, producing hazardous smoke with consequences for human health, yet there is a lack of research into adverse effects on wildlife. We evaluated the effects of smoke on the activity and energy balance of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) in a peat swamp forest at the Tuanan Research Station, Central Kalimantan. We collected behavioural data and urine samples from four adult flanged males before, during, and after wildfires between March 2015 and January 2016...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764887/how-effective-and-cost-effective-are-behaviour-change-interventions-in-improving-the-prescription-and-use-of-antibiotics-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#15
Neha Batura, Carla Cuevas, Mishal Khan, Virginia Wiseman
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic resistance endangers effective prevention and treatment of infections, and places significant burden on patients, families, communities and healthcare systems. Low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) are especially vulnerable to antibiotic resistance, owing to high infectious disease burden, and limited resources for treatment. High prevalence of antibiotic prescription and use due to lack of provider's knowledge, prescriber's habits and perceived patient needs further exacerbate the situation...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761539/-fat-is-really-a-four-letter-word-exploring-weight-related-communication-best-practices-in-children-with-and-without-disabilities-and-their-caregivers
#16
A C McPherson, T J Knibbe, M Oake, J A Swift, N Browne, G D C Ball, J Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Health care professionals play a critical role in preventing and managing childhood obesity, but the American Academy of Pediatrics recently stressed the importance of using sensitive and nonstigmatizing language when discussing weight with children and families. Although barriers to weight-related discussions are well known, there are few evidence-based recommendations around communication best practices. Disability populations in particular have previously been excluded from work in this area...
May 15, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761488/psychological-therapies-for-treatment-resistant-depression-in-adults
#17
REVIEW
Sharea Ijaz, Philippa Davies, Catherine J Williams, David Kessler, Glyn Lewis, Nicola Wiles
BACKGROUND: Antidepressants are a first-line treatment for adults with moderate to severe major depression. However, many people prescribed antidepressants for depression don't respond fully to such medication, and little evidence is available to inform the most appropriate 'next step' treatment for such patients, who may be referred to as having treatment-resistant depression (TRD). National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance suggests that the 'next step' for those who do not respond to antidepressants may include a change in the dose or type of antidepressant medication, the addition of another medication, or the start of psychotherapy...
May 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760179/time-restricted-feeding-prevents-ablation-of-diurnal-rhythms-in-gastric-vagal-afferent-mechanosensitivity-observed-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#18
Stephen J Kentish, George Hatzinikolas, Hui Li, Claudine A Frisby, Gary A Wittert, Amanda J Page
Mechanosensitive gastric vagal afferents (GVAs) are involved in the regulation of food intake. GVAs exhibit diurnal rhythmicity in their response to food related stimuli allowing time of day specific satiety signalling. This diurnal rhythmicity is ablated in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Time restricted feeding (TRF) has a strong influence on peripheral clocks. This study aimed to determine whether diurnal patterns in GVA mechanosensitivity are entrained by TRF.Eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice (N=256) were fed a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or HFD for 12wks...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759082/barriers-to-identifying-eating-disorders-in-pregnancy-and-in-the-postnatal-period-a-qualitative-approach
#19
Amanda Bye, Jill Shawe, Debra Bick, Abigail Easter, Megan Kash-Macdonald, Nadia Micali
BACKGROUND: Eating Disorders (ED) are mental health disorders that typically effect women of childbearing age and are associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes. UK healthcare guidance recommends routine enquiry for current and past mental illness in antenatal and postnatal care for all women, and that pregnant women with a known ED are offered enhanced monitoring and support. Midwives and health visitors are ideally placed to identify and support women with ED as they are often the primary point of contact during the antenatal and postnatal periods...
May 15, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758544/conduct-and-reporting-of-acceptability-attitudes-beliefs-and-experiences-of-pregnant-women-in-randomised-trials-on-diet-and-lifestyle-interventions-a-systematic-review
#20
E Adela A Hamilton, Ann K Nowell, Angela Harden, Shakila Thangaratinam
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the conduct and reporting of views of pregnant women on the acceptability, attitudes, beliefs and their experiences in randomised trials on diet and lifestyle interventions. STUDY DESIGN: We undertook a systematic review of literature of randomised trials identified from our previous search in major electronic databases (until February 2017) without language restrictions. We included trials on diet and lifestyle interventions that reported acceptability, attitudes, beliefs and experiences of pregnant women...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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