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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148810/enhancement-of-light-absorption-in-silicon-nanowire-photovoltaic-devices-with-dielectric-and-metallic-grating-structures
#1
Jin-Sung Park, Kyoung-Ho Kim, Min-Soo Hwang, Xing Zhang, Jung Min Lee, Jungkil Kim, Kyung-Deok Song, You-Shin No, Kwang-Yong Jeong, James F Cahoon, Sun-Kyung Kim, Hong-Gyu Park
We report the enhancement of light absorption in Si nanowire photovoltaic devices with one-dimensional dielectric or metallic gratings that are fabricated by a damage-free, precisely aligning, polymer-assisted transfer method. Incorporation of a Si3N4 grating with a Si nanowire effectively enhances the photocurrents for transverse-electric polarized light. The wavelength at which a maximum photocurrent is generated is readily tuned by adjusting the grating pitch. Moreover, the electrical properties of the nanowire devices are preserved before and after transferring the Si3N4 gratings onto Si nanowires, ensuring that the quality of pristine nanowires is not degraded during the transfer...
November 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146645/logistic-regression-analysis-of-factors-influencing-the-effectiveness-of-intensive-sound-masking-therapy-in-patients-with-tinnitus
#2
Yuexin Cai, Qian Zhou, Haidi Yang, Jiajia Jiang, Fei Zhao, Xiayin Huang, Hanjie Mo, Xiaoting Chen, Hao Xiong, Suijun Chen, Xueyuan Zhang, Yiqing Zheng
OBJECTIVES: To investigate factors influencing the effectiveness of intensive sound masking therapy on tinnitus using logistic regression analysis. DESIGN: The study used a retrospective cross-section analysis. PARTICIPANTS: 102 patients with tinnitus were recruited at the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, China. INTERVENTION: Intensive sound masking therapy was used as an intervention approach for patients with tinnitus...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146377/cortical-processing-of-pitch-model-based-encoding-and-decoding-of-auditory-fmri-responses-to-real-life-sounds
#3
REVIEW
Vittoria De Angelis, Federico De Martino, Michelle Moerel, Roberta Santoro, Lars Hausfeld, Elia Formisano
Pitch is a perceptual attribute related to the fundamental frequency (or periodicity) of a sound. So far, the cortical processing of pitch has been investigated mostly using synthetic sounds. However, the complex harmonic structure of natural sounds may require different mechanisms for the extraction and analysis of pitch. This study investigated the neural representation of pitch in human auditory cortex using model-based encoding and decoding analyses of high field (7 T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected while participants listened to a wide range of real-life sounds...
November 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142848/injury-of-the-external-branch-of-the-superior-laryngeal-nerve-in-thyroid-surgery
#4
REVIEW
Andre S Potenza, Vergilius J F Araujo Filho, Claudio R Cernea
The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) innervates the cricothyroid muscle (CTM) to promote lengthening and thinning of the vocal fold, thus increasing voice pitch. The close relation with the superior thyroid vessels (STV) puts the EBSLN in risk every time the superior pole of the thyroid is dissected. It travels downward to innervate the CTM, lateral to the thyroid cartilage and to the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (IPCM), being eventually covered by this muscle fibers as it approaches its entry point...
October 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142585/trade-offs-in-the-production-of-animal-vocal-sequences-insights-from-the-structure-of-wild-chimpanzee-pant-hoots
#5
Pawel Fedurek, Klaus Zuberbühler, Stuart Semple
Background: Vocal sequences - utterances consisting of calls produced in close succession - are common phenomena in animal communication. While many studies have explored the adaptive benefits of producing such sequences, very little is known about how the costs and constraints involved in their production affect their form. Here, we investigated this issue in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) pant hoot, a long and structurally complex vocal sequence comprising four acoustically distinct phases - introduction, build-up, climax and let-down...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141304/-the-role-of-temporal-fine-structure-in-tone-recognition-and-music-perception
#6
Q Zhou, X Gu, B Liu
The sound signal can be decomposed into temporal envelope and temporal fine structure information. The temporal envelope information is crucial for speech perception in quiet environment, and the temporal fine structure information plays an important role in speech perception in noise, Mandarin tone recognition and music perception, especially the pitch and melody perception.
November 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140349/all-fiber-mode-converter-based-on-long-period-fiber-gratings-written-in-few-mode-fiber
#7
Yunhe Zhao, Yunqi Liu, Chenyi Zhang, Liang Zhang, Guangjun Zheng, Chengbo Mou, Jianxiang Wen, Tingyun Wang
We investigated an all-fiber mode converter based on long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) written in the few-mode fiber. Mode conversion between the fundamental core mode and different higher-order core modes (LP11, LP21, and LP02 modes) can be realized via a single LPFG with an efficiency of 99% at the resonance wavelength. Moreover, optimized mode conversion between the LP01 and LP21 modes can be realized by cascading two LPFGs with different grating pitches. The maximum conversion efficiency is estimated to be ∼99...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140178/infraspinatus-cross-sectional-area-and-shoulder-range-of-motion-change-following-live-game-baseball-pitching
#8
Brett S Pexa, Eric D Ryan, Elizabeth E Hibberd, Elizabeth Teel, Terri Jo Rucinski, Joseph B Myers
CONTEXT: Following a baseball pitching bout, changes can occur to glenohumeral range of motion that could be linked to injury. These effects are in part due to the posterior shoulder's eccentric muscle activity, which can disrupt muscle contractile elements and lead to changes in muscle cross sectional area (CSA), as measured by ultrasound. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in muscle CSA, and range of motion immediately before and after pitching, and days 1-5 following pitching...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138785/microstructural-metrology-of-tobacco-mosaic-virus-nanorods-during-radial-compression-and-heating
#9
C Riekel, M Burghammer, I Snigirev, M Rosenthal
We determined stress-induced deformations and the thermal stability of nanorod-shaped tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) capsids in coffee-ring structures by X-ray nanodiffraction. The hexagonal capsids lattice transforms under compression in the outer boundary zone of the coffee-ring into a tetragonal lattice. The helical pitch of the nanorods increases by about 2.5% across the outer boundary zone while the lateral distance between nanorods decreases continuously across the whole coffee-ring structure by about 2% due to compressive forces...
November 15, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137204/optically-controllable-linear-polarization-rotator-using-chiral-azobenzene-doped-liquid-crystals
#10
Cheng-Kai Liu, Chian-Yu Chiu, Stephen M Morris, Min-Cheng Tsai, Chii-Chang Chen, Ko-Ting Cheng
A linear-polarization rotator based on the optically tunable pitch of chiral-azobenzene-doped liquid crystals (CAdLCs) has been investigated. It is shown that the orientation of linearly polarized (LP) light can be optically tuned using CAdLCs and that the transmitted light possesses a good degree of linear polarization (DoLP). Experimental and simulation (4 × 4 Berreman matrix) results show that the rotation angle is dependent on the pitch as well as the number of turns of the cholesteric LC helix. Some causes to affect the DoLP of the output LP lights during photoisomerization are also discussed...
November 13, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135866/importance-of-perimodiolar-electrode-position-for-psychoacoustic-discrimination-in-cochlear-implantation
#11
Angel Ramos Macias, Maria Teresa Perez Zaballos, Angel Ramos de Miguel, Javier Cervera Paz
HYPOTHESIS: Modiolar proximity of the cochlear implant electrodes and low impedance values have a positive effect on electrical pitch discrimination. BACKGROUND: The proximity of the cochlear electrode to the modiolar wall can determine changes in tissue and fluid environment. With the onset of soft-surgery techniques, the trauma caused during surgery has been reduced, minimizing fibrous growth. METHODS: Computed tomography-scan measurements of electrode-inner wall distance and psychoacoustic electrode discrimination tests were done...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134790/soybean-mosaic-virus-a-successful-potyvirus-with-a-wide-distribution-but-restricted-natural-host-range
#12
M R Hajimorad, L L Domier, S A Tolin, S A Whitham, M A Saghai Maroof
Taxonomy. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a species within the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae that includes almost a quarter of all known plant RNA viruses affecting agriculturally important plants. The Potyvirus genus is the largest of all genera of plant RNA viruses with 160 species. Particle. The filamentous particles of SMV, typical of potyviruses, are about 7,500 Å long and 120 Å in diameter with a central hole of about 15 Å in diameter. Coat protein residues are arranged in helice of about 34 Å pitch having slightly less than 9 subunits per turn...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133923/alignment-of-multiple-electrospun-piezoelectric-fiber-bundles-across-serrated-gaps-at-an-incline-a-method-to-generate-textile-strain-sensors
#13
Yu-Hsiang Hsu, Chen-Hao Chan, William C Tang
In this paper, we report a new type of electrospinning collector that allows simultaneous collection and alignment of multiple poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) piezoelectric fiber bundles with a controlled separation. The key enabling feature is the serrated teeth along the edges across an inclined gap as a part of the conductive collector. As a result, the electrical field across the gap is shaped to direct the electrospun fibers to merge into multiple bundles. The sharp points on the serrated teeth provide favorable charge dissipation points and thus fibers are preferentially formed bridging two closest sharp points across the gap...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133907/a-primacy-code-for-odor-identity
#14
Christopher D Wilson, Gabriela O Serrano, Alexei A Koulakov, Dmitry Rinberg
Humans can identify visual objects independently of view angle and lighting, words independently of volume and pitch, and smells independently of concentration. The computational principles underlying invariant object recognition remain mostly unknown. Here we propose that, in olfaction, a small and relatively stable set comprised of the earliest activated receptors forms a code for concentration-invariant odor identity. One prediction of this "primacy coding" scheme is that decisions based on odor identity can be made solely using early odor-evoked neural activity...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133819/low-perceptual-sensitivity-to-altered-video-speed-in-viewing-a-soccer-match
#15
Claudio de'Sperati, Gabriel Baud Bovy
When watching videos, our sense of reality is continuously challenged. How much can a fundamental dimension of experience such as visual flow be modified before breaking the perception of real time? Here we found a remarkable indifference to speed manipulations applied to a popular video content, a soccer match. In a condition that mimicked real-life TV watching, none of 100 naïve observers spontaneously noticed speed alterations up/down to 12%, even when asked to report motion anomalies, and showed very low sensitivity to video speed changes (Just Noticeable Difference, JND = 18%)...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133295/head-injury-mechanisms-in-fis-world-cup-alpine-and-freestyle-skiers-and-snowboarders
#16
Sophie Elspeth Steenstrup, Arnhild Bakken, Tone Bere, Declan Alexander Patton, Roald Bahr
INTRODUCTION: Head injuries represent a concern in skiing and snowboarding, with traumatic brain injuries being the most common cause of death. AIM: To describe the mechanisms of head and face injuries among World Cup alpine and freestyle skiers and snowboarders. METHODS: We performed a qualitative analysis of videos obtained of head and face injuries reported through the International Ski Federation Injury Surveillance System during 10 World Cup seasons (2006-2016)...
November 13, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132263/movement-pattern-and-physiological-response-in-recreational-small-sided-football-effect-of-number-of-players-with-a-fixed-pitch-size
#17
Morten B Randers, Christina Ørntoft, Marie Hagman, Jens J Nielsen, Peter Krustrup
Recreational soccer is an effective health-promoting activity, but it is unclear how different game formats influence internal and external load. Thus, to be able to advise how to maximise the outcome of recreational football, we examined movement pattern and physiological response in 11 untrained men (32.6 ± 6.7 yrs, 23.3 ± 4.9 fat%, 43.4 ± 5.3 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) during three football sessions comprising 4 × 12 min of 3v3, 5v5 or 7v7 with a constant pitch size of 20 × 40 m. Movement pattern, heart rate (HR), blood lactate and RPE were measured during and after the 12-min periods...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132089/neural-effects-of-environmental-advertising-an-fmri-analysis-of-voice-age-and-temporal-framing
#18
Luis-Alberto Casado-Aranda, Myriam Martínez-Fiestas, Juan Sánchez-Fernández
Ecological information offered to society through advertising enhances awareness of environmental issues, encourages development of sustainable attitudes and intentions, and can even alter behavior. This paper, by means of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and self-reports, explores the underlying mechanisms of processing ecological messages. The study specifically examines brain and behavioral responses to persuasive ecological messages that differ in temporal framing and in the age of the voice pronouncing them...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131541/rhombic-shaped-nanostructures-and-mechanical-properties-of-2d-dna-origami-constructed-with-different-crossover-nick-designs
#19
Zhipeng Ma, Yunfei Huang, Seongsu Park, Kentaro Kawai, Do-Nyun Kim, Yoshikazu Hirai, Toshiyuki Tsuchiya, Hirofumi Yamada, Osamu Tabata
DNA origami methods enable the fabrication of various nanostructures and nanodevices, but their effective use depends on an understanding of their structural and mechanical properties and the effects of basic structural features. Frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy is introduced to directly characterize, in aqueous solution, the crossover regions of sets of 2D DNA origami based on different crossover/nick designs. Rhombic-shaped nanostructures formed under the influence of flexible crossovers placed between DNA helices are observed in DNA origami incorporating crossovers every 3, 4, or 6 DNA turns...
November 13, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125551/assembly-modulated-by-particle-position-and-shape-a-new-concept-in-self-assembly
#20
Joe W Tavacoli, Julien Heuvingh, Olivia Du Roure
In this communication we outline how the bespoke arrangements and design of micron-sized superparamagnetic shapes provide levers to modulate their assembly under homogeneous magnetic fields. We label this new approach, 'assembly modulated by particle position and shape' (APPS). Specifically, using rectangular lattices of superparamagnetic micron-sized cuboids, we construct distinct microstructures by adjusting lattice pitch and angle of array with respect to a magnetic field. Broadly, we find two modes of assembly: (1) immediate 2D jamming of the cuboids as they rotate to align with the applied field (rotation-induced jamming) and (2) aggregation via translation after their full alignment (dipole-dipole assembly)...
November 10, 2017: Materials
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