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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330669/hip-and-groin-injuries-in-baseball-players
#1
REVIEW
Ryan A Mlynarek, Struan H Coleman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the clinical significance of the most common hip and groin injuries in baseball players, as well as an algorithmic approach to diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. RECENT FINDINGS: (a) Limitations in throwing velocity, pitch control, and bat swing speed may be secondary to decreased mobility and strength within the proximal kinetic chain, which must harness power from the lower extremities and core. (b) Approximately 5.5% of all baseball injuries per year involve the hip/groin and may lead to a significant amount of time spent on the disabled list...
January 12, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330588/whole-body-3d-kinematics-of-bird-take-off-key-role-of-the-legs-to-propel-the-trunk
#2
Pauline Provini, Anick Abourachid
Previous studies showed that birds primarily use their hindlimbs to propel themselves into the air in order to take-off. Yet, it remains unclear how the different parts of their musculoskeletal system move to produce the necessary acceleration. To quantify the relative motions of the bones during the terrestrial phase of take-off, we used biplanar fluoroscopy in two species of birds, diamond dove (Geopelia cuneata) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We obtained a detailed 3D kinematics analysis of the head, the trunk and the three long bones of the left leg...
January 6, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328079/high-resolution-coherent-x-ray-diffraction-imaging-of-metal-coated-polymer-microspheres
#3
Eirik T B Skjønsfjell, David Kleiven, Nilesh Patil, Yuriy Chushkin, Federico Zontone, Alain Gibaud, Dag W Breiby
Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is becoming an important 3D quantitative microscopy technique, allowing structural investigation of a wide range of delicate mesoscale samples that cannot be imaged by other techniques like electron microscopy. Here we report high-resolution 3D CXDI performed on spherical microcomposites consisting of a polymer core coated with a triple layer of nickel-gold-silica. These composites are of high interest to the microelectronics industry, where they are applied in conducting adhesives as fine-pitch electrical contacts-which requires an exceptional degree of uniformity and reproducibility...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326025/how-age-and-frequency-impact-the-thyroid-cartilages-of-professional-singers
#4
Fabian Unteregger, Jan Thommen, Flurin Honegger, Silke Potthast, Salome Zwicky, Claudio Storck
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Young professional singers can easily reach very high pitches. In contrast, older singers often complain that they have to exert substantially more laryngopharyngeal force to reach the same high pitch compared with their earlier years. Various factors such as the property changes of the mucosa and ossification that impact the singing apparatus were suggested as explanations in the literature. The aim of this study was to analyze thyroid deformation-and thereby stiffness indirectly-during singing as a potential reason for this phenomenon...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325874/perceptual-changes-with-monopolar-and-phantom-electrode-stimulation
#5
Silke Klawitter, David M Landsberger, Andreas Büchner, Waldo Nogueira
Phantom electrode (PE) stimulation is achieved by simultaneously stimulating out-of-phase from two adjacent intra-cochlear electrodes with different amplitudes. If the basal electrode stimulates with a smaller amplitude than the apical electrode of the pair, the resulting electrical field is pushed away from the basal electrode producing a lower pitch. There is great interest in using PE stimulation in a processing strategy as it can be used to provide stimulation to regions of the cochlea located more apically than the most apical contact on the electrode array...
December 28, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325856/is-insufficient-pulmonary-air-support-the-cause-of-dysphonia-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
Megahed M Hassan, Mona T Hussein, Ahmed Mamdouh Emam, Usama M Rashad, Ibrahim Rezk, Al Hussein Awad
OBJECTIVE: Optimal pulmonary air support is essential pre-requisite for efficient phonation. The objective is to correlate pulmonary and vocal functions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to find out whether the reduced pulmonary function per se could induce dysphonia. METHODS: In this prospective case-control study, sixty subjects with stable COPD underwent evaluation of pulmonary and vocal functions. The pulmonary functions measured include {Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF)}...
January 8, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323196/the-rotation-of-microrobot-simplifies-3d-control-inside-microchannels
#7
Antoine Barbot, Dominique Decanini, Gilgueng Hwang
This paper focuses on the control of rotating helical microrobots inside microchannels. We first use a 50 μm long and 5 μm in diameter helical robot to prove that the proximity of the channel walls create a perpendicular force on the robot. This force makes the robot orbit around the channel center line. We also demonstrate experimentally that this phenomenon simplifies the robot control by guiding it on a channel even if the robot propulsion is not perfectly aligned with the channel direction. We then use numerical simulations, validated by real experimental cases, to show different implications on the microrobot control of this orbiting phenomenon...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322521/fitting-unanchored-puzzle-pieces-in-the-skeleton-appropriate-3d-scapular-positions-for-the-quadrupedal-support-in-tetrapods
#8
Shin-Ichi Fujiwara
Deducing the scapular positions of extinct tetrapod skeletons remains difficult, because the scapulae and rib cage are connected with each other not directly by skeletal joint, but by thoracic muscles. In extant non-testudine quadrupedal tetrapods, the top positions of the scapulae/suprascapulae occur at the anterior portion of the rib cage, above the vertebral column and near the median plane. The adequacy of this position was tested using three-dimensional mechanical models of Felis, Rattus and Chamaeleo that assumed stances on a forelimb on a single side and the hindlimbs...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322239/the-lateralized-arcuate-fasciculus-in-developmental-pitch-disorders-among-mandarin-amusics-left-for-speech-and-right-for-music
#9
Xizhuo Chen, Yanxin Zhao, Suyu Zhong, Zaixu Cui, Jiaqi Li, Gaolang Gong, Qi Dong, Yun Nan
The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a neural fiber tract that is critical to speech and music development. Although the predominant role of the left AF in speech development is relatively clear, how the AF engages in music development is not understood. Congenital amusia is a special neurodevelopmental condition, which not only affects musical pitch but also speech tone processing. Using diffusion tensor tractography, we aimed at understanding the role of AF in music and speech processing by examining the neural connectivity characteristics of the bilateral AF among thirty Mandarin amusics...
January 10, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318169/reasons-for-retirement-following-ulnar-collateral-ligament-reconstruction-among-major-league-baseball-pitchers
#10
Brandon J Erickson, Junyoung Ahn, Peter N Chalmers, Christopher S Ahmad, Bernard R Bach, Nikhil N Verma, Anthony A Romeo
Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become an increasingly common procedure among Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. The long-term effects of this procedure on the career of an MLB pitcher are largely unknown. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to determine why and when MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR during their careers retired from baseball as compared with controls. We hypothesized that pitchers who underwent UCLR are no more likely than control pitchers to retire from elbow or shoulder problems...
December 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315245/nanopatterning-via-self-assembly-of-a-lamellar-forming-polystyrene-block-poly-dimethylsiloxane-diblock-copolymer-on-topographical-substrates-fabricated-by-nanoimprint-lithography
#11
Dipu Borah, Cian Cummins, Sozaraj Rasappa, Ramsankar Senthamaraikannan, Mathieu Salaun, Marc Zelsmann, George Liontos, Konstantinos Ntetsikas, Apostolos Avgeropoulos, Michael A Morris
The self-assembly of a lamellar-forming polystyrene-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) diblock copolymer (DBCP) was studied herein for surface nanopatterning. The DBCP was synthesized by sequential living anionic polymerization of styrene and hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D₃). The number average molecular weight (Mn), polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) and PS volume fraction (φps) of the DBCP were MnPS = 23.0 kg mol-1, MnPDMS = 15.0 kg mol-1, Mw/Mn = 1.06 and φps = 0.6. Thin films of the DBCP were cast and solvent annealed on topographically patterned polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) substrates...
January 9, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313516/scleroderma-in-hospital-settings-in-lom%C3%A3-50%C3%A2-cases
#12
A S Akakpo, J N Teclessou, A Mouhari-Touré, B Saka, H Matakloe, K Kakpovi, K Kombate, P Pitché
The aim of this study was to document the epidemiological and clinical profile, treatment used, and outcome of patients with scleroderma in hospital settings in Lomé. This descriptive study examined the records of all patients seen as outpatients or admitted for scleroderma in hospital dermatology and rheumatology departments in Lomé during the 20-year period of 1993-2012. During the study period, 50 (0.04%) of the 121,021 patients seen in these departments had scleroderma. There were 29 cases of localized scleroderma and 21 systemic cases, predominantly women (sex-ratio=0...
November 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311675/sensorimotor-abilities-predict-on-field-performance-in-professional-baseball
#13
Kyle Burris, Kelly Vittetoe, Benjamin Ramger, Sunith Suresh, Surya T Tokdar, Jerome P Reiter, L Gregory Appelbaum
Baseball players must be able to see and react in an instant, yet it is hotly debated whether superior performance is associated with superior sensorimotor abilities. In this study, we compare sensorimotor abilities, measured through 8 psychomotor tasks comprising the Nike Sensory Station assessment battery, and game statistics in a sample of 252 professional baseball players to evaluate the links between sensorimotor skills and on-field performance. For this purpose, we develop a series of Bayesian hierarchical latent variable models enabling us to compare statistics across professional baseball leagues...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311143/neural-integration-of-stimulus-history-underlies-prediction-for-naturalistically-evolving-sequences
#14
Brian Maniscalco, Jennifer L Lee, Patrice Abry, Amy Lin, Tom Holroyd, Biyu J He
Forming valid predictions about the environment is crucial to survival. However, whether humans are able to form valid predictions about natural stimuli based on their temporal statistical regularities remains unknown. Here we presented subjects with tone sequences whose pitch fluctuation over time capture long-range temporal dependence structures prevalent in natural stimuli. We found that subjects were able to exploit such naturalistic statistical regularities to make valid predictions about upcoming items in a sequence...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309022/evaluation-of-a-stereo-music-preprocessing-scheme-for-cochlear-implant-users
#15
Wim Buyens, Bas van Dijk, Marc Moonen, Jan Wouters
BACKGROUND: Although for most cochlear implant (CI) users good speech understanding is reached (at least in quiet environments), the perception and the appraisal of music are generally unsatisfactory. PURPOSE: The improvement in music appraisal was evaluated in CI participants by using a stereo music preprocessing scheme implemented on a take-home device, in a comfortable listening environment. The preprocessing allowed adjusting the balance among vocals/bass/drums and other instruments, and was evaluated for different genres of music...
January 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307264/from-goals-to-muscles-motor-familiarity-shapes-the-representation-of-action-related-sounds-in-the-human-motor-system
#16
Luca F Ticini, Simone Schütz-Bosbach, Florian Waszak
Numerous studies corroborated the idea that the sound of familiar motor acts triggers a muscle-specific replica of the perceived actions in the listener's brain. We recently contradicted this conclusion by demonstrating that the representation of newly-learned action-related sounds is not somatotopically organised but rather it corresponds to the goal a particular action aims to achieve. In the present study, we reconciled these contrasting results by showing that a higher degree of motor familiarity obtained via long-term practice with auditory-motor associations shapes a somatotopically organised representation of action-related sounds...
January 8, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306985/children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-have-unstable-neural-responses-to-sound
#17
Sebastian Otto-Meyer, Jennifer Krizman, Travis White-Schwoch, Nina Kraus
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diverse, manifesting in a wide array of phenotypes. However, a consistent theme is reduced communicative and social abilities. Auditory processing deficits have been shown in individuals with ASD-these deficits may play a role in the communication difficulties ASD individuals experience. Specifically, children with ASD have delayed neural timing and poorer tracking of a changing pitch relative to their typically developing peers. Given that accurate processing of sound requires highly coordinated and consistent neural activity, we hypothesized that these auditory processing deficits stem from a failure to respond to sound in a consistent manner...
January 6, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305875/neural-discrimination-of-speech-sound-changes-in-a-variable-context-occurs-irrespective-of-attention-and-explicit-awareness
#18
P Virtala, E Partanen, M Tervaniemi, T Kujala
To process complex stimuli like language, our auditory system must tolerate large acoustic variance, like speaker variability, and still be sensitive enough to discriminate between phonemes and to detect complex sound relationships in, e.g., prosodic cues. Our study determined discrimination of speech sounds in input mimicking natural speech variability, and detection of deviations in regular pitch relationships (rule violations) between speech sounds. We investigated the automaticity and the influence of attention and explicit awareness on these changes by recording the neurophysiological mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a as well as task performance from 21 adults...
January 3, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300972/a-recurrent-de-novo-missense-mutation-in-ubtf-causes-developmental-neuroregression
#19
Camilo Toro, Roderick T Hori, May Christine V Malicdan, Cynthia J Tifft, Amy Goldstein, William A Gahl, David R Adams, Fauni Harper, Lynne A Wolfe, Jianfeng Xiao, Mohammad M Khan, Jun Tian, Kevin A Hope, Lawrence T Reiter, Michel G Tremblay, Thomas Moss, Alexis L Franks, Chris Balak, Mark S LeDoux
UBTF (upstream binding transcription factor) exists as two isoforms; UBTF1 regulates rRNA transcription by RNA polymerase 1, whereas UBTF2 regulates mRNA transcription by RNA polymerase 2. Herein, we describe 4 patients with very similar patterns of neuroregression due to recurrent de novo mutations in UBTF (GRCh37/hg19, NC_000017.10:g.42290219C>T, NM_014233.3:c.628G>A) resulting in the same amino acid change in both UBTF1 and UBTF2 (p.Glu210Lys [p.E210K]). Disease onset in our cohort was at 2.5 to 3 yrs and characterized by slow progression of global motor, cognitive and behavioral dysfunction...
January 2, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300173/a-tale-of-two-tails-developing-an-avian-inspired-morphing-actuator-for-yaw-control-and-stability
#20
Lawren L Gamble, Daniel J Inman
Motivated by the lack of research in tailless morphing aircraft in addition to the current inability to measure the resultant aerodynamic forces and moments of bird control maneuvers, this work aims to develop and test a multi-functional morphing control surface based on the horizontal tail of birds for a low-radar-signature UAV. Customized Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) actuators were designed to achieve yaw control across a range of sideslip angles by inducing three dimensional curvature as a result of bending-twisting coupling, a well-known phenomenon in classical fiber composite theory...
January 4, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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