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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527912/implicit-variations-of-temporal-predictability-shaping-the-neural-oscillatory-and-behavioural-response
#1
Sophie K Herbst, Jonas Obleser
Being able to predict when an event will occur (temporal predictability) can help us prepare and time our responses. We here sought to delineate the neural and behavioural corollaries of highly implicit, probabilistic temporal predictability in an auditory foreperiod paradigm. To this end, we measured electroencephalography (EEG) and response times in two independent experiments (total N = 46). Unbeknownst to participants, we induced a probabilistic variation of cue-target delays (i.e., foreperiods) in a pitch-discrimination task on a noise-embedded tone: The smaller the standard deviation of the underlying foreperiod distribution, the more predictable the time of target occurrence should be...
May 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527037/frequency-voltage-controlled-light-transmittance-in-ferroelectric-liquid-crystal-cells
#2
Aleksey A Kudreyko, Nail G Migranov, Olga V Bachurina, Song Wanqing
Light transmittance of a short-pitch deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystal cell was numerically studied when low and high voltage frequencies ([Formula: see text] kHz and [Formula: see text] kHz, respectively) are applied to the cell. The reported finding in the decay of light transmittance at increasing frequency is obtained due to reasonable simplifications of the temporal dependence of director's azimuthal angle. By taking experimentally known data, we numerically demonstrate that the increase in temperature of ferroelectric liquid crystals yields an insignificant change of light transmittance within all visible spectra...
May 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523983/ear-advantage-for-musical-location-and-relative-pitch-effects-of-musical-training-and-attention
#3
Joanna L Hutchison, Timothy L Hubbard, Nicholas A Hubbard, Bart Rypma
Trained musicians have been found to exhibit a right-ear advantage for high tones and a left-ear advantage for low tones. We investigated whether this right/high, left/low pattern of musical processing advantage exists in listeners who had varying levels of musical experience, and whether such a pattern might be modulated by attentional strategy. A dichotic listening paradigm was used in which different melodic sequences were presented to each ear, and listeners attended to (a) the left ear or the right ear or (b) the higher pitched tones or the lower pitched tones...
June 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522983/a-dynamical-model-of-pitch-memory-provides-an-improved-basis-for-implied-harmony-estimation
#4
Ji Chul Kim
Tonal melody can imply vertical harmony through a sequence of tones. Current methods for automatic chord estimation commonly use chroma-based features extracted from audio signals. However, the implied harmony of unaccompanied melodies can be difficult to estimate on the basis of chroma content in the presence of frequent nonchord tones. Here we present a novel approach to automatic chord estimation based on the human perception of pitch sequences. We use cohesion and inhibition between pitches in auditory short-term memory to differentiate chord tones and nonchord tones in tonal melodies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521964/there-is-variability-in-our-perception-of-the-standard-head-orientation
#5
G N Hughes, J Gateño, J D English, J F Teichgraeber, J J Xia
The purposes of this study were to determine: (1) whether an observer's perception of the correct anatomical alignment of the head changes with time, and (2) whether different observers agree on the correct anatomical alignment. To determine whether the perception of the correct anatomical alignment changes with time (intra-observer comparison), a group of 30 observers were asked to orient, into anatomical alignment, the three-dimensional (3D) head photograph of a normal man, on two separate occasions. To determine whether different observers agree on the correct anatomical alignment (inter-observer comparison), the observed orientations were compared...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516227/impairment-in-mismatch-negativity-but-not-repetition-suppression-in-schizophrenia
#6
Brian A Coffman, Sarah M Haigh, Tim K Murphy, Dean F Salisbury
Schizophrenia is characterized by impaired auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs), mismatch negativity (MMN), and sensory gating of AEPs to repeated stimuli (repetition suppression, RS). In the predictive modeling framework, MMN and RS reflect encoding of prediction error and model sharpening, respectively. We compared P50, N100, P200 RS, and pitch and duration MMN in 26 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ) and 26 matched healthy controls (HC), and assessed relationships between MMN, RS, and SZ diagnosis...
May 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515977/establishing-normative-change-values-in-visual-acuity-loss-during-the-dynamic-visual-acuity-test
#7
Chris Marquez, Monica Lininger, Scot Raab
BACKGROUND: Baseline visual acuity (VA) loss from static to dynamic head conditions assessed using the Dynamic Visual Acuity Testing (DVAT) have not been established in NCAA football players. DVAT assesses the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) which is measured in Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR). Decreased VA beyond baseline measures may detect VOR impairment and impact treatment protocols and assist in return to play decisions post-concussion. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: To establish normative VA mean scores during a static head posture as well as dynamically during the DVAT with a head speed of 150 deg/s in the pitch (vertical) and yaw (horizontal) planes rotating 20 degrees in each direction...
April 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513674/molecular-organization-in-the-twist-bend-nematic-phase-by-resonant-x-ray-scattering-at-the-se-k-edge-and-by-saxs-waxs-and-gixrd
#8
W D Stevenson, Z Ahmed, X B Zeng, C Welch, G Ungar, G H Mehl
Using a magnetically aligned liquid crystal mixture containing a novel Se-labelled dimer and the difluoroterphenyl dimer DTC5C7, the twist-bend nematic phase (Ntb) was studied by the resonant scattering of hard X-rays and by conventional small and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS). Resonant diffraction spots indicated a helix with a 9-12 nm pitch in the Ntb phase and an unprecedentedly high helix orientation. This enabled deconvolution of global and local order parameters. These findings, combined with the simultaneously recorded resonant and non-resonant SAXS and WAXS data, allowed us to construct a locally layered molecular model of the Ntb phase, where the average twisted conformation of each molecule was idealised as a helical segment, matching the local heliconical director field...
May 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513211/image-quality-of-low-radiation-dose-left-atrial-ct-using-filtered-back-projection-and-an-iterative-reconstruction-algorithm-intra-individual-comparison-in-unselected-patients-undergoing-pulmonary-vein-isolation
#9
Ute Lina Fahlenkamp, Ivan Diaz Ramirez, Moritz Wagner, Carsten Schwenke, Alexander Huppertz, Bernd Hamm, Alexander Lembcke
Background Computed tomography (CT) of the left atrium (LA) is performed prior to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) to improve success of circumferential ablation for atrial fibrillation. The ablation procedure itself exposes patients to substantial radiation doses, therefore radiation dose reduction in pre-ablational imaging is of concern. Purpose To assess and compare diagnostic performance of low-radiation dose preprocedural CT in patients scheduled for PVI using two types of reconstruction algorithms. Material and Methods Forty-six patients (61 ± 10 years) scheduled for PVI were enrolled in this study irrespective of body-mass-index or cardiac rhythm at examination...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506707/complex-mismatch-negativity-to-tone-pair-deviants-in-long-term-schizophrenia-and-in-the-first-episode-schizophrenia-spectrum
#10
Dean F Salisbury, Alexis G McCathern, Brian A Coffman, Timothy K Murphy, Sarah M Haigh
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential to stimulus change. MMN to infrequent deviant tones that differs in a simple physical parameter from repetitive standard tones is reduced in patients with long-term schizophrenia (Sz; d=~1). However, this simple MMN is not uniformly reduced at the first-episode of schizophrenia-spectrum psychosis (FESz; d<0.1 for pitch; <0.4 for duration). Deviant stimuli that violate pattern rules also evoke MMN. This complex MMN is evoked by deviations in the relation of sounds to each other...
May 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506677/controller-design-for-a-class-of-nonlinear-mimo-coupled-system-using-multiple-models-and-second-level-adaptation
#11
Vinay Kumar Pandey, Indrani Kar, Chitralekha Mahanta
In this paper, an adaptive control method using multiple models with second level adaptation is proposed for a class of nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) coupled systems. Multiple estimation models are used to tune the unknown parameters at the first level. The second level adaptation provides a single parameter vector for the controller. A feedback linearization technique is used to design a state feedback control. The efficacy of the designed controller is validated by conducting real time experiment on a laboratory setup of twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS)...
May 13, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506004/relationships-between-geometrical-parameters-and-mechanical-properties-for-a-helical-braided-flow-diverter-stent
#12
Takashi Suzuki, Hiroyuki Takao, Soichiro Fujimura, Chihebeddine Dahmani, Toshihiro Ishibashi, Hiroya Mamori, Naoya Fukushima, Yuichi Murayama, Makoto Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Although flow diversion is a promising procedure for aneurysm treatment, the safety and efficacy of this strategy have not been sufficiently characterized. Both mechanical properties and flow reduction effects are important factors in the design of an optimal stent. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to clarify the contributions of strut size and pitch to the mechanical properties (radial stiffness and longitudinal flexibility) and geometric characteristics (porosity and pore density) related to flow reduction effects...
May 1, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504727/reduced-symmetry-lma-rod-type-fiber-for-enhanced-higher-order-mode-delocalization
#13
Z Sanjabi Eznaveh, J E Antonio-Lopez, J Anderson, A Schülzgen, R Amezcua-Correa
We present a novel design of a micro-structured large-pitch, large-mode-area (LMA) asymmetric rod-type fiber. By reducing the cladding symmetry through six high-refractive index germanium-doped silica inclusions, the fiber features strong higher-order mode (HOM) delocalization, leading to a potentially enhanced preferential gain for the fundamental mode in active fibers. In addition, high resolution spatially and spectrally (S<sup>2</sup>) resolved mode analysis measurements confirm HOM contributions below 1% and LP<sub>1m</sub>-like HOM contributions below the detection limit...
May 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503459/changes-in-resting-calcaneal-stance-position-angle-following-insole-fitting-in-children-with-flexible-flatfoot
#14
Eui Chang Lee, Myeong Ok Kim, Hyo Sang Kim, Sang Eun Hong
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the relationship of the initial radiologic and a biomechanical parameter at first clinical visit, and define the effectiveness of modified insole, following insole fitting in children with flexible flatfoot. METHODS: Children aged less than 13 years with flexible flatfoot were enrolled. The total number of subjects was 66 (33 boys, 33 girls). The subjects were divided into 5 subgroups, based on age: 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-9, and 10-12 years. The mean time period between the initial & final examination for their resting calcaneal stance position angle (RCSPA) was 24 months...
April 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500954/finger-forces-in-fastball-baseball-pitching
#15
Hiroshi Kinoshita, Satoshi Obata, Daiki Nasu, Koji Kadota, Tomoyuki Matsuo, Glenn S Fleisig
Forces imparted by the fingers onto a baseball are the final, critical aspects for pitching, however these forces have not been quantified previously as no biomechanical technology was available. In this study, an instrumented baseball was developed for direct measurement of ball reaction force by individual fingers and used to provide fundamental information on the forces during a fastball pitch. A tri-axial force transducer with a cable having an easily-detachable connector were installed in an official baseball...
May 10, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500790/accuracy-evaluation-of-a-six-degree-of-freedom-couch-using-conebeam-ct-and-isocal-phantom-with-an-in-house-algorithm
#16
Qinghui Zhang, Joseph Driewer, Shuo Wang, Sicong Li, Xiaofeng Zhu, Dandan Zheng, Yijian Cao, Jiaju Zhang, Abolghassem Jamshidi, Brett W Cox, Jonathan P S Knisely, Louis Potters, Eric E Klein
PURPOSE: The accuracy of a Six Degree of Freedom (6DoF) couch was evaluated using a novel method. METHODS: Cone beam CT (CBCT) images of a 3D phantom (IsoCal) were acquired with different, known combinations of couch pitch and roll angles. Pitch and roll angles between the maximum allowable values of 357 and 3 degrees were tested in one degree increments. A total of 49 combinations were tested at zero degrees of yaw (couch rotation angle). The 3D positions of 16 tungsten carbide BBs, each 4 mm in diameter and arranged in a known geometry within the IsoCal phantom, were determined in the 49 image sets with in-house software...
May 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500350/formants-provide-honest-acoustic-cues-to-body-size-in-american-alligators
#17
Stephan A Reber, Judith Janisch, Kevin Torregrosa, Jim Darlington, Kent A Vliet, W Tecumseh Fitch
In many vertebrates, acoustic cues to body size are encoded in resonance frequencies of the vocal tract ("formants"), rather than in the rate of tissue vibration in the sound source ("pitch"). Anatomical constraints on the vocal tract's size render formants honest cues to size in many bird and mammal species, but it is not clear whether this correlation evolved convergently in these two clades, or whether it is widespread among amniotes (mammals, birds, and non-avian reptiles). We investigated the potential for honest acoustic cues in the bellows of adult American alligators and found that formant spacing provided highly reliable cues to body size, while presumed correlates of the source signal did not...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490602/processes-on-the-emergent-landscapes-of-biochemical-reaction-networks-and-heterogeneous-cell-population-dynamics-differentiation-in-living-matters
#18
REVIEW
Sui Huang, Fangting Li, Joseph X Zhou, Hong Qian
The notion of an attractor has been widely employed in thinking about the nonlinear dynamics of organisms and biological phenomena as systems and as processes. The notion of a landscape with valleys and mountains encoding multiple attractors, however, has a rigorous foundation only for closed, thermodynamically non-driven, chemical systems, such as a protein. Recent advances in the theory of nonlinear stochastic dynamical systems and its applications to mesoscopic reaction networks, one reaction at a time, have provided a new basis for a landscape of open, driven biochemical reaction systems under sustained chemostat...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489951/direct-observation-of-changes-in-focal-conic-domains-of-cholesteric-films-induced-by-ultraviolet-irradiation
#19
Olga Valentinovna Sinitsyna, Alexey Yu Bobrovsky, Georgy Borisovich Meshkov, Igor V Yaminsky, Valery P Shibaev
The helical supramolecular structure of cholesteric liquid crystalline (LC) films predetermines their outstanding optical properties and the unique nanostructure of their surface. The introduction of photochromic dopants in these films opens up an interesting possibility for creation of smart cholesteric materials with photo-controllable optical and photovariable surface properties. Using atomic force microscope (AFM), we performed in situ measurements of the surface topography of cyclosiloxane LC cholesteric oligomer films during the cholesteric helix twisting caused by their preliminary ultraviolet (UV) irradiation...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489948/cellulose-nanocrystals-polyacrylamide-composites-of-high-sensitivity-and-cycling-performance-to-gauge-humidity
#20
Tao Lu, Hui Pan, Jun Ma, Yao Li, Syeda Wishal Bokhari, Xueliang Jiang, Shenmin Zhu, Di Zhang
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have attracted much interest due to their unique optical property, rich resource, environment friendliness, and templating potentials. CNCs have been reported as novel photonic humidity sensors, which are unfortunately limited by the dissolution and unideal moisture absorption of CNCs. We, in this study, developed a high-performance photonic humidity composite sensor that consisted of CNCs and polyacrylamide; chemical bonding was induced between the two components by using glutaraldehyde as a bridging agent...
May 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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