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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729228/tangled-history-of-the-european-uses-of-sphagnum-moss-and-sphagnol
#1
REVIEW
Jacek Drobnik, Adam Stebel
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sphagnum mosses and peat could have been utilized as wound dressings for centuries, however reliable data on this subject are ambiguous; sometimes even no distinction between peat moss (Sphagnum spp.) and peat is made or these terms become confused. The first scientific account on surgical use of peat comes from 1882: a peat digger who successfully, by himself and in the way unknown to the then medicine, cured an open fracture of his forearm with peat. The peat, and very soon the peat moss itself (which is the major constituent of peat) drew attention of the 19(th)-century surgeons...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727776/language-related-differences-of-the-sustained-response-evoked-by-natural-speech-sounds
#2
Christina Siu-Dschu Fan, Xingyu Zhu, Hans Günter Dosch, Christiane von Stutterheim, André Rupp
In tonal languages, such as Mandarin Chinese, the pitch contour of vowels discriminates lexical meaning, which is not the case in non-tonal languages such as German. Recent data provide evidence that pitch processing is influenced by language experience. However, there are still many open questions concerning the representation of such phonological and language-related differences at the level of the auditory cortex (AC). Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we recorded transient and sustained auditory evoked fields (AEF) in native Chinese and German speakers to investigate language related phonological and semantic aspects in the processing of acoustic stimuli...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727559/a-microfluidic-cytometer-for-complete-blood-count-with-a-3-2-megapixel-1-1-%C3%AE-m-pitch-super-resolution-image-sensor-in-65-nm-bsi-cmos
#3
Xu Liu, Xiwei Huang, Yu Jiang, Hang Xu, Jing Guo, Han Wei Hou, Mei Yan, Hao Yu
Based on a 3.2-Megapixel 1.1- μm-pitch super-resolution (SR) CMOS image sensor in a 65-nm backside-illumination process, a lens-free microfluidic cytometer for complete blood count (CBC) is demonstrated in this paper. Backside-illumination improves resolution and contrast at the device level with elimination of surface treatment when integrated with microfluidic channels. A single-frame machine-learning-based SR processing is further realized at system level for resolution correction with minimum hardware resources...
July 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727219/fractal-crystals-hunting-the-hidden-dimension-in-nanoporous-materials
#4
Lei Wang, Shengcai Zhu, Meikun Shen, Haiwen Tian, Songhai Xie, Hongbin Zhang, Yahong Zhang, Yi Tang
Screw dislocation structure in crystal are origin of symmetry breaking in a wide range of dense phase crystals. Preparation of such analogous structure in framework phase crystals is of great importance in zeolites but still a challenge. On the basis of crystal structure-solving and model building, we found that the two specific intergrowths in MTW zeolite produce this complex fractal and spiral structure. With the structure determined parameters (spiral pitch h, screw angle θ and spatial angle ψ) of Burgers circuit, the screw dislocation structure can be constructed by two different dimensional intergrowth sections...
July 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726592/effect-of-extreme-adaptive-frequency-compression-in-bimodal-listeners-on-sound-localization-and-speech-perception
#5
Lidwien C E Veugen, Josef Chalupper, Lucas H M Mens, Ad F M Snik, A John van Opstal
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to improve access to high-frequency interaural level differences (ILD), by applying extreme frequency compression (FC) in the hearing aid (HA) of 13 bimodal listeners, using a cochlear implant (CI) and conventional HA in opposite ears. DESIGN: An experimental signal-adaptive frequency-lowering algorithm was tested, compressing frequencies above 160 Hz into the individual audible range of residual hearing, but only for consonants (adaptive FC), thus protecting vowel formants, with the aim to preserve speech perception...
July 20, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724589/affective-prosody-in-frontotemporal-dementia-the-importance-of-pitching-it-right
#6
EDITORIAL
Cristian E Leyton, Argye E Hillis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724588/automatic-measurement-of-prosody-in-behavioral-variant-ftd
#7
Naomi Nevler, Sharon Ash, Charles Jester, David J Irwin, Mark Liberman, Murray Grossman
OBJECTIVE: To help understand speech changes in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), we developed and implemented automatic methods of speech analysis for quantification of prosody, and evaluated clinical and anatomical correlations. METHODS: We analyzed semi-structured, digitized speech samples from 32 patients with bvFTD (21 male, mean age 63 ± 8.5, mean disease duration 4 ± 3.1 years) and 17 matched healthy controls (HC). We automatically extracted fundamental frequency (f0, the physical property of sound most closely correlating with perceived pitch) and computed pitch range on a logarithmic scale (semitone) that controls for individual and sex differences...
July 19, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723818/somatotype-and-body-composition-in-young-soccer-players-according-to-the-playing-position-and-sport-success
#8
Víctor Cárdenas-Fernández, José Luis Chinchilla-Minguet, Alfonso Castillo-Rodríguez
Soccer players undergo an evolution in their body composition throughout the growth and passage through the different base stages, that is, childhood, puberty and adolescence. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology and body composition of U14, U16, and U19 soccer players, taking into account in addition, their sport success endorsed through the regularity participation and their relation with the different playing positions occupied during competition (goalkeeper, external defender, central defender, midfielder and forward/extreme)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723600/detailed-analysis-of-high-frequency-auditory-brainstem-response-in-patients-with-tinnitus-a-preliminary-study
#9
Joseph Pinkl, Matthew J Wilson, Danica Billingsly, Raymundo Munguia-Vazquez
Increased spontaneous activity and aberrant neural synchrony is thought to be the underlying cause of tinnitus. The perceived pitch of tinnitus may be dictated by frequency specific neural fibers of the subcortical pathway, or the projection of altered cortical activity by-way-of tonotopic reorganizations. Subcortical neural activity in relation to tinnitus was characterized using ABR measurements. In the present study, 11 patients (21 ears) with constant tonal tinnitus underwent a two-part experiment. Experiment 1 involved click ABR measurements and included two experimental groups: tinnitus with normal hearing from 2000-4000 Hz (GI) and tinnitus with hearing loss within the range of 2000-4000 Hz (GII)...
June 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721574/operant-discrimination-of-relative-frequency-ratios-in-black-capped-chickadee-song
#10
Sean P Roach, Daniel J Mennill, Leslie S Phillmore
The two-note fee bee song of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) is sung at many different absolute frequencies, but the relative frequencies, or "pitch ratios", between the start and end of the fee note (glissando) and the fee and the bee notes (inter-note interval) are preserved with each pitch-shift. Ability to perceive these ratios and their relative salience varies with sex of the bird and setting: while both sexes appear to perceive changes in the inter-note interval, males appear to attend to the glissando in the field, and females appear to attend to both ratios...
July 18, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721358/utah-optrode-array-customization-using-stereotactic-brain-atlases-and-3-d-cad-modeling-for-optogenetic-neocortical-interrogation-in-small-rodents-and-nonhuman-primates
#11
Ronald W Boutte, Sam Merlin, Guy Yona, Brandon Griffiths, Alessandra Angelucci, Itamar Kahn, Shy Shoham, Steve Blair
As the optogenetic field expands, the need for precise targeting of neocortical circuits only grows more crucial. This work demonstrates a technique for using Solidworks(®) computer-aided design (CAD) and readily available stereotactic brain atlases to create a three-dimensional (3-D) model of the dorsal region of area visual cortex 4 (V4D) of the macaque monkey (Macaca fascicularis) visual cortex. The 3-D CAD model of the brain was used to customize an [Formula: see text] Utah optrode array (UOA) after it was determined that a high-density ([Formula: see text]) UOA caused extensive damage to marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) primary visual cortex as assessed by electrophysiological recording of spiking activity through a 1...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720803/contingent-sounds-change-the-mental-representation-of-one-s-finger-length
#12
Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Maria Vakali, Merle T Fairhurst, Alisa Mandrigin, Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze, Ophelia Deroy
Mental body-representations are highly plastic and can be modified after brief exposure to unexpected sensory feedback. While the role of vision, touch and proprioception in shaping body-representations has been highlighted by many studies, the auditory influences on mental body-representations remain poorly understood. Changes in body-representations by the manipulation of natural sounds produced when one's body impacts on surfaces have recently been evidenced. But will these changes also occur with non-naturalistic sounds, which provide no information about the impact produced by or on the body? Drawing on the well-documented capacity of dynamic changes in pitch to elicit impressions of motion along the vertical plane and of changes in object size, we asked participants to pull on their right index fingertip with their left hand while they were presented with brief sounds of rising, falling or constant pitches, and in the absence of visual information of their hands...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719740/tuning-superhydrophobic-nanostructures-to-enhance-jumping-droplet-condensation
#13
Megan D Mulroe, Bernadeta R Srijanto, S Farzad Ahmadi, C Patrick Collier, Jonathan B Boreyko
It was recently discovered that condensation growing on a nanostructured superhydrophobic surface can spontaneously jump off the surface, triggered by naturally occurring coalescence events. Many reports have observed that droplets must grow to a size of order 10 μm before jumping is enabled upon coalescence; however, it remains unknown how the critical jumping size relates to the topography of the underlying nanostructure. Here, we characterize the dynamic behavior of condensation growing on six different superhydrophobic nanostructures, where the topography of the nanopillars was systematically varied...
July 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717627/the-influence-of-playing-surface-on-injury-risk-in-italian-elite-rugby-players
#14
Riccardo Maria Lanzetti, Domenico Lupariello, Teresa Venditto, Pierpaolo Rota, Matteo Guzzini, Antonio Vadalà, Attilio Rota, Andrea Ferretti
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in the use of artificial turf surfaces in rugby. In particular, artificial surfaces may be an useful means of increasing participation in the sport by allowing greater usage of a given pitch, especially in regions where natural turf pitches are difficult to maintain. METHODS: The incidence of site, nature, cause, and severity of training and match injuries was prospectively recorded in two professional teams (one equipped with World Rugby certified third generation artificial turf and the other with natural grass over the 2014-2015 season)...
January 2017: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716762/selective-window-application-of-gentamicin-dexamethasone-in-meniere-s-disease
#15
Fazıl Necdet Ardıç, Funda Tümkaya, Kamil Aykal, Burçin Çabuk
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to prevent hearing loss when using intratympanic (IT) gentamicin for intractable Meniere's disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a retrospective case review study. Twenty five patients who had definite Meniere's disease and had either selective window application or weekly IT gentamicin were included into the study. First group (selective) had dexamethasone on the round window and gentamicin on oval window during exploratory tympanotomy procedure...
July 17, 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716543/a-novel-method-for-ct-dosimetry-with-a-suspended-phantom-setup
#16
Mariaconcetta Longo, Elisabetta Genovese, Chiara Orlandi, Salvatore Donatiello, Bartolomeo Cassano, Mauro Colajacomo, Andrea Magistrelli, Paolo Tomà, Vittorio Cannatà
PURPOSE: This work presents a method for estimating CT dosimetric indices with a prototype designed for suspending the phantom/ion chamber system fixed at the CT isocenter. The purpose of this study was to validate the proposed methodology, which can be used to provide a direct assessment of dosimetric indices in helical scans. METHODS: The method is based on a reference setup in which the measuring system for CT dosimetry is in a stationary configuration, i.e. not bound to the CT table, and on a mathematical formalism developed for the proposed reference system...
July 14, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716541/development-and-validation-of-an-accurate-gate-model-for-neuropet-scanner
#17
Peyman Sheikhzadeh, Hamid Sabet, Hossein Ghadiri, Parham Geramifar, Hojjat Mahani, Pardis Ghafarian, Mohammad Reza Ay
NeuroPET is a cylindrical full ring mobile PET/CT scanner for brain imaging that was developed by Photo Diagnostic Systems, Inc. The scanner has 7 modules, each with 3×4 detector blocks. The detectors have two layers of scintillator arrays with a half pixel pitch offset to realize two levels of depth of interaction. In this study, we evaluated the NeuroPET scanner modeled in the GATE simulation tool and analyzed the acquired data to better understand the contribution of inter-detector scattering (IDS). The results show that the average difference between simulated and measured data for a point-like source is 2...
July 14, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715197/spectroelectrochemical-characterization-of-the-dynamic-carbon-fiber-surface-in-response-to-electrochemical-conditioning
#18
Edwin C Mitchell, Lars E Dunaway, Gregory S McCarty, Leslie A Sombers
The effects of electrochemical preconditioning of p-55 pitch-based carbon-fiber microelectrodes were quantitatively examined in this study. Microstructural characterization of the electrode surface was done using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical performance was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry. The data show that application of positive potentials provides beneficial structural modifications to the electrode surface. Electrodes that were preconditioned using a static potential of +1...
July 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714459/a-comprehensive-model-for-sub-10-nm-electron-beam-patterning-through-the-short-time-and-cold-development
#19
Li-Cheng Chang, Chun Nien, Jia-Hao Ye, Cheng-Huan Chung, Vincent Su, Chao-Hsin Wu, Chieh-Hsiung Kuan
In this study, we propose a set of single-spot experiment to construct a comprehensive model of electron-beam lithography to describe the relation among the incident electrons, resist, and the development conditions such as durations and temperatures. Through the experiments, small feature can be achieved by performing a short-time development due to the high acceleration voltage and large depth of focus of electron-beam system. The singular point in the beginning of the development is also observed in our model and supported by the experimental data...
July 17, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713201/language-dependent-changes-in-pitch-relevant-neural-activity-in-the-auditory-cortex-reflect-differential-weighting-of-temporal-attributes-of-pitch-contours
#20
Ananthanarayan Krishnan, Jackson T Gandour, Yi Xu, Chandan H Suresh
There remains a gap in our knowledge base about neural representation of pitch attributes that occur between onset and offset of dynamic, curvilinear pitch contours. The aim is to evaluate how language experience shapes processing of pitch contours as reflected in the amplitude of cortical pitch-specific response components. Responses were elicited from three nonspeech, bidirectional (falling-rising) pitch contours representative of Mandarin Tone 2 varying in location of the turning point with fixed onset and offset...
February 2017: Journal of Neurolinguistics
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