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Emily May Lent, Lee C B Crouse, Allison M Jackovitz, Erica E Carroll, Mark S Johnson
Nitrotriazolone (1,2,4-triazol-5-one; NTO), an insensitive, energetic material used in explosive formulations, induced testicular toxicity and oligospermia in repeated-dose oral toxicity tests in rats. To evaluate whether NTO produces additional reproductive and developmental effects, a modified extended one-generation reproductive toxicity test was conducted. Rats were provided ad libitum access to NTO in drinking water at 0-, 144-, 720-, or 3600-mg/L NTO. Treatment of the parental generation began 2 (females) and 4 (males) wk premating and continued until weaning of litters...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Michaela Dümmer, Christian Michalski, Lars-Oliver Essen, Magnus Rath, Paul Galland, Christoph Forreiter
The ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR GTPase-ACTIVATING PROTEIN (AGD) 12, a member of the ARF-GAP protein family, affects gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. A loss-of-function mutant lacking AGD12 displayed diminished gravitropism in roots and hypocotyls indicating that both organs are affected by this regulator. AGD12 is structurally related to ENHANCED BENDING (EHB) 1, previously described as a negative effector of gravitropism. In contrast to agd12 mutants, ehb1 loss-of function seedlings displayed enhanced gravitropic bending...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Warren G Foster, Jane A Evans, Julian Little, Laura Arbour, Aideen Moore, Reg Sauve, Juan Andrés León, Wei Luo
Congenital anomalies are an important cause of infant mortality and disability. Developmental exposure to environmental contaminants is thought to increase the risk for congenital anomalies. Herein, we describe a critical review of the literature conducted between February and March 2014 yielding 3057 references from which 97 unique relevant articles published from 2003 through 2014 were evaluated. Common congenital anomalies including hypospadias, cryptorchidism, anogenital distance (AGD), congenital heart defects and oral clefts were well represented in the literature whereas other outcomes such as neural tube defects, limb deficiency defects and gastroschisis were rarely described...
August 11, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
K Cox, A Kyriakou, B Amjad, S O'Toole, M E Flett, M Welsh, S F Ahmed, S Cascio
INTRODUCTION: Anogenital distance (AGD) is a recognised marker of in utero androgen action. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between severity of hypospadias and AGD. STUDY DESIGN: Boys undergoing hypospadias repair in a single tertiary centre between May 2012 and February 16 were included in the study. Anogenital distance was measured from the centre of the anus to the base of the penis, and anoscrotal distance (ASD) from the centre of the anus to the junction between the smooth perineal skin and scrotal skin...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Diogo H Kita, Katlyn B Meyer, Amanda C Venturelli, Rafaella Adams, Daria L B Machado, Rosana N Morais, Shanna H Swan, Chris Gennings, Anderson J Martino-Andrade
We examined the anogenital distance (AGD) plasticity in rats through the manipulation of the androgen environment in utero and during puberty. Dams were treated from gestation days 13-20 with vehicle, flutamide (20mg/kg/day), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP, 750mg/kg/day), or testosterone (1.0mg/kg/day). After weaning, male pups were randomly assigned to one of four postnatal groups, which received the same treatments given prenatally. Sixteen treatment groups were established based on the combination of pre- and postnatal exposures...
August 10, 2016: Toxicology
Jennifer A Haworth, Howard F Jenkinson, Helen J Petersen, Catherine R Back, Jane L Brittan, Steve W Kerrigan, Angela H Nobbs
A range of Streptococcus bacteria are able to interact with blood platelets to form a thrombus (clot). Streptococcus gordonii is ubiquitous within the human oral cavity and amongst the common pathogens isolated from subjects with infective endocarditis. Two cell surface proteins, Hsa and Platelet adherence protein A (PadA), in S. gordonii mediate adherence and activation of platelets. In this study, we demonstrate that PadA binds activated platelets and that an NGR (Asparagine-Glycine-Arginine) motif within a 657 amino acid residue N-terminal fragment of PadA is responsible for this, together with two other integrin-like recognition motifs RGT and AGD...
September 11, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
C Ghetti, O Ortenzia, F Palleri, M Sireus
Dose optimization in radiological examinations is a mandatory issue: in this study local Diagnostic Reference Levels (lDRLs) for Clinical Mammography (MG), Computed Tomography (CT) and Interventional Cardiac Procedures (ICP) performed in our Radiology Department were established. Using a dose tracking software, we have collected Average Glandular Dose (AGD) for two clinical mammographic units; CTDIvol, Size-Specific Dose Estimate (SSDE), Dose Length Product (DLP) and total DLP (DLPtot) for five CT scanners; Fluoro Time, Fluoro Dose Area Product (DAP) and total DAP (DAPtot) for two angiographic systems...
September 10, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
B G Fisher, A Thankamony, I A Hughes, K K Ong, D B Dunger, C L Acerini
STUDY QUESTION: What is the relationship between maternal paracetamol intake during the masculinisation programming window (MPW, 8-14 weeks of gestation) and male infant anogenital distance (AGD), a biomarker for androgen action during the MPW? SUMMARY ANSWER: Intrauterine paracetamol exposure during 8-14 weeks of gestation is associated with shorter AGD from birth to 24 months of age. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: The increasing prevalence of male reproductive disorders may reflect environmental influences on foetal testicular development during the MPW...
September 8, 2016: Human Reproduction
A Hellebø, A Stene, V Aspehaug
Amoebic gill disease (AGD) caused by the amoeba Paramoeba perurans is an increasing problem in Atlantic salmon aquaculture. In the present PCR survey, the focus was to identify reservoir species or environmental samples where P. perurans could be present throughout the year, regardless of the infection status in farmed Atlantic salmon. A total of 1200 samples were collected at or in the proximity to farming sites with AGD, or with history of AGD, and analysed for the presence of P. perurans. No results supported biofouling organisms, salmon lice, biofilm or sediment to maintain P...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Dorte Vesterholm Lind, Lærke Priskorn, Tina Harmer Lassen, Flemming Nielsen, Henriette Boye Kyhl, David Møbjerg Kristensen, Henrik Thybo Christesen, Jan Steener Jørgensen, Philippe Grandjean, Tina Kold Jensen
In the Odense child cohort, serum concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were measured in 638 pregnant women. Birth weight, head and abdominal circumferences and gestational age were determined. Anogenital distance (AGD), the distance from the anus to the genital organs, and penile width were measured 3 months after expected date of birth in 511 children. PFOS, PFHxS, PFNA and PFDA were associated with a decreased AGD in girls (p-trend<0...
August 31, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Laura Nekiunaite, Magnus Ø Arntzen, Birte Svensson, Gustav Vaaje-Kolstad, Maher Abou Hachem
BACKGROUND: Starch is the second most abundant plant-derived biomass and a major feedstock in non-food industrial applications and first generation biofuel production. In contrast to lignocellulose, detailed insight into fungal degradation of starch is currently lacking. This study explores the secretomes of Aspergillus nidulans grown on cereal starches from wheat and high-amylose (HA) maize, as well as legume starch from pea for 5 days. RESULTS: Aspergillus nidulans grew efficiently on cereal starches, whereas growth on pea starch was poor...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
S O Jeje, Y Raji
Maternal treatment with dexamethasone (Dex) in threatening preterm delivery alters activities at the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the offspring. This alteration may interfere with reproductive function. The impact of gestational Dex exposure on male reproductive function of the offspring was investigated. A total of 25 pregnant rats randomly assigned to five groups (n=5) were treated with normal saline (control), Dex (100 μg/kg/day sc) during gestation days (GD) 1-7, 8-14, 15-21 and 1-21, respectively...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
C Collins, M Hall, D Bruno, J Sokolowska, L Duncan, R Yuecel, U McCarthy, M J Fordyce, C C Pert, R McIntosh, Z MacKay
Amoebic gill disease (AGD) in farmed Atlantic salmon is caused by the amoeba Paramoeba perurans. The recent establishment of in vitro culture techniques for P. perurans has provided a valuable tool for studying the parasite in detail. In this study, flow cytometry was used to generate clonal cultures from single-sorted amoeba, and these were used to successfully establish AGD in experimental Atlantic salmon. The clonal cultures displayed differences in virulence, based on gill scores. The P. perurans load on gills, determined by qPCR analysis, showed a positive relationship with gill score, and with clonal virulence, indicating that the ability of amoebae to proliferate and/or remain attached on gills may play a role in virulence...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Harish Chandra, Jagjit S Yadav
The dataset described herein is related to our article entitled "T-cell antigens of Mycobacterium immunogenum (MI), an etiological agent of occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis'' (Chandra and Yadav, 2016) [1]. The data include in silico-predicted T-cell epitopes of the T-cell antigens AgA and AgD of MI predicted to bind to HLA-I or HLA-II alleles. Data on two reference T-cell antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv are included for comparison. The data for each antigen include the predicted epitope׳s amino acid sequence, its first amino acid position, and its ability to bind HLA-I or HLA-II allele(s)...
September 2016: Data in Brief
Rizwan S Akhtar, Sharon X Xie, Laura Brennan, Michael J Pontecorvo, Howard I Hurtig, John Q Trojanowski, Daniel Weintraub, Andrew D Siderowf
BACKGROUND: Neuronal loss and α-synuclein (α-syn) pathology are diagnostic of PD in the appropriate clinical context. However, some PD patients have co-morbid Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology on autopsy, including amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Florbetapir((18)F) is a PET ligand that detects Aβ pathology. We hypothesized that florbetapir((18)F) imaging could detect Aβ pathology in Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) patients prior to death. OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of florbetapir((18)F) PET imaging in detecting Aβ pathology in patients with autopsy-confirmed PDD...
July 2016: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
Y Raghu, R Ravisankar, A Chandrasekaran, P Vijayagopal, B Venkatraman
The activity concentration of Ra, Th and K in brick samples used in Tiruvannamalai District of Tamilnadu has been determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration ranges from BDL to 16.02 Bq kg, 17.86 to 120.19 Bq kg, 240.09 to 481.35 Bq kg for Ra, Th, and K, respectively. The concentration of these radionuclides is compared with reported data from other countries. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), absorbed gamma dose rate (DR), annual effective dose rate (HR), annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE), criteria formula (CF), representative level index (RLI), activity utilization index (AUI), gamma index (Iγ), alpha index (Iα), the external hazard (Hex), and internal hazard (Hin) indices are calculated for the measured samples to assess the radiation hazards due to the use of these materials in the construction of dwellings...
September 2016: Health Physics
Dorte Vesterholm Lind, Lærke Priskorn, Tina Harmer Lassen, Flemming Nielsen, Henriette Boye Kyhl, David Møbjerg Kristensen, Henrik Thybo Christesen, Jan Steener, Philippe Grandjean, Tina Kold Jensen
In the Odense child cohort, serum concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were measured in 649 pregnant women at approximately 12 weeks of gestation. Birth weight, head and abdominal circumferences were measured, and gestational age determined. Anogenital distance (AGD), i.e., the distance from the anus to the genital organs, penile width and body weight were measured 3 months after the expected date of birth in 511 children...
July 12, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Juan Antonio Ortega-García, Henry Andrés Olano-Soler, Ana Martínez-Álvarez, Ferran Campillo-López, Virtudes Gomariz-Peñalver, Jaime Mendiola-Olivares, Carlos Iglesias-Gómez, Arancha Escribano-Muñoz
BACKGROUND: The anogenital distance (AGD) is an anthropometric marker determined by exposures to androgens in utero and throughout the first few months of life. Early exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as phthalates have been significantly associated with shortened AGD in boys. Limited studies have explored phthalate concentrations in breast milk and infant formula. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between breastfeeding duration and AGD measures in infants...
September 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Rongju Liu, Xijin Xu, Yuling Zhang, Xiangbin Zheng, Stephani S Kim, Kim N Dietrich, Shuk-Mei Ho, Tiina Reponen, Aimin Chen, Xia Huo
CONTEXT: In human adults and adolescents, thyroid function affects sex hormones and male reproductive functions. Little is known about the thyroid function effects on the gonadal development in human infants. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine the association between thyroid hormones (THs) and sexually dimorphic genital development or fetal growth. DESIGN: This is a birth cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 616 mothers and newborns were analyzed from two local hospitals...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jaime Mendiola, María L Sánchez-Ferrer, Raquel Jiménez-Velázquez, Laura Cánovas-López, Ana I Hernández-Peñalver, Shiana Corbalán-Biyang, Ana Carmona-Barnosi, María T Prieto-Sánchez, Aníbal Nieto, Alberto M Torres-Cantero
STUDY QUESTION: Is the length of the anogenital distance (AGD), a biomarker of the in-utero prenatal hormonal environment, associated with the presence of endometriomas and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Shorter AGD is associated with presence of endometriomas and DIE. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: It is debated whether hormonal exposure to estrogens in utero may be a risk factor for endometriosis in adulthood. AGD is a biomarker of prenatal hormonal environment and observational studies have shown an association between AGD and reproductive parameters in both sexes...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
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