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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911827/tau-prions-from-alzheimer-s-disease-and-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-patients-propagate-in-cultured-cells
#1
Amanda L Woerman, Atsushi Aoyagi, Smita Patel, Sabeen A Kazmi, Iryna Lobach, Lea T Grinberg, Ann C McKee, William W Seeley, Steven H Olson, Stanley B Prusiner
Tau prions are thought to aggregate in the central nervous system, resulting in neurodegeneration. Among the tauopathies, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common, whereas argyrophilic grain disease (AGD), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), Pick's disease (PiD), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) are less prevalent. Brain extracts from deceased individuals with PiD, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by three-repeat (3R) tau prions, were used to infect HEK293T cells expressing 3R tau fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896452/optimization-of-image-quality-and-dose-in-digital-mammography
#2
Agnes M F Fausto, M C Lopes, M C de Sousa, Tânia A C Furquim, Anderson W Mol, Fermin G Velasco
Nowadays, the optimization in digital mammography is one of the most important challenges in diagnostic radiology. The new digital technology has introduced additional elements to be considered in this scenario. A major goal of mammography is related to the detection of structures on the order of micrometers (μm) and the need to distinguish the different types of tissues, with very close density values. The diagnosis in mammography faces the difficulty that the breast tissues and pathological findings have very close linear attenuation coefficients within the energy range used in mammography...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872679/the-oxidative-and-inflammatory-state-in-patients-with-acute-renal-graft-dysfunction-treated-with-tacrolimus
#3
Sandra Carrillo-Ibarra, José Ignacio Cerrillos-Gutiérrez, Ariadna Escalante-Núñez, Enrique Rojas-Campos, Benjamín Gómez-Navarro, Sonia Sifuentes-Franco, Ernesto Germán Cardona-Muñoz, Alejandra Guillermina Miranda-Díaz
Objective. To determine the oxidative stress/inflammation behavior in patients with/without acute graft dysfunction (AGD) with Tacrolimus. Methods. Cross-sectional study, in renal transplant (RT) recipients (1-yr follow-up). Patients with AGD and without AGD were included. Serum IL-6, TNF-α, 8-isoprostanes (8-IP), and Nitric Oxide (NO) were determined by ELISA; C-reactive protein (CRP) was determined by nephelometry; lipid peroxidation products (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined by colorimetry...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862129/anogenital-distance-a-biomarker-of-prenatal-androgen-exposure-is-associated-with-prostate-cancer-severity
#4
Ana B Maldonado-Cárceles, Carlos Sánchez-Rodríguez, Eva M Vera-Porras, Julián J Árense-Gonzalo, Julián Oñate-Celdrán, Paula Samper-Mateo, Damián García-Escudero, Marcos Torres-Roca, Francisco Martínez-Díaz, Jaime Mendiola, Alberto M Torres-Cantero
BACKGROUND: Anogenital distance (AGD), the distance from the centre of the anus to the genitals, is a sexually dimorphic phenotype in mammals. Experimental studies have shown that AGD is a biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure during the masculinisation period of development. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between anogenital distance (AGD), as an indirect marker of prenatal hormonal environment, and prostate cancer (PCa) severity. MATERIALS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a total of 120 PCa patients with confirmed biopsy of the tumour from April 2007 to July 2015...
November 16, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852690/maternal-use-of-mild-analgesics-during-pregnancy-associated-with-reduced-anogenital-distance-in-sons-a-cohort-study-of-1027-mother-child-pairs
#5
Dorte Vesterholm Lind, Katharina M Main, Henriette Boye Kyhl, David Møbjerg Kristensen, Jorma Toppari, Helle Raun Andersen, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Niels E Skakkebæk, Tina Kold Jensen
STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal use of mild analgesics in pregnancy associated with anogenital distance (AGD)-the distance from the anus to the genitals-in the offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Maternal use of mild analgesics [especially simultaneous use of paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)] during pregnancy was associated with a shorter AGD in boys whereas no effect was found in girls. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mild analgesics including paracetamol (acetaminophen) and NSAIDs (e...
November 16, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814383/adult-gli2-gli3%C3%AE-699-male-and-female-mice-display-a-spectrum-of-genital-malformation
#6
Fei He, Pedram Akbari, Rong Mo, Jennifer J Zhang, Chi-Chung Hui, Peter C Kim, Walid A Farhat
Disorders of sexual development (DSD) encompass a broad spectrum of urogenital malformations and are amongst the most common congenital birth defects. Although key genetic factors such as the hedgehog (Hh) family have been identified, a unifying postnatally viable model displaying the spectrum of male and female urogenital malformations has not yet been reported. Since human cases are diagnosed and treated at various stages postnatally, equivalent mouse models enabling analysis at similar stages are of significant interest...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776658/replacing-single-view-mediolateral-oblique-mlo-digital-mammography-dm-with-synthesized-mammography-sm-with-digital-breast-tomosynthesis-dbt-images-comparison-of-the-diagnostic-performance-and-radiation-dose-with-two-view-dm-with-or-without-mlo-dbt
#7
Hyo-Jin Kang, Jung Min Chang, Joongyub Lee, Sung Eun Song, Sung Ui Shin, Won Hwa Kim, Min Sun Bae, Woo Kyung Moon
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic performance and radiation dose of single view cranio-caudal (CC) digital mammography (DM) plus mediolateral oblique (MLO) digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) combined with synthesized mammography (SM) in comparison with two-view DM with or without DBT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was approved by our institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from 130 women. Paired two-view DM and single MLO-DBT with SM images were acquired, and four independent retrospective reading sessions of different combinations of DM, SM and DBT were performed for the presence of malignant tumors using jackknife alternative free-response receiver operator curve (JAFROC) methods...
November 2016: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775519/single-image-super-resolution-via-adaptive-high-dimensional-non-local-total-variation-and-adaptive-geometric-feature
#8
Chao Ren, Xiaohai He, Truong Nguyen
Single image super-resolution (SR) is very important in many computer vision systems. However, as a highly ill-posed problem, its performance mainly relies on the prior knowledge. Among these priors, the non-local total variation (NLTV) prior is very popular and has been thoroughly studied in recent years. Nevertheless, technical challenges remain. Because NLTV only exploits a fixed non-shifted target patch in the patch search process, a lack of similar patches is inevitable in some cases. Thus, the non-local similarity cannot be fully characterized, and the effectiveness of NLTV cannot be ensured...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754820/an-extended-one-generation-reproductive-toxicity-test-of-1-2-4-triazol-5-one-nto-in-rats
#9
Emily May Lent, Lee C B Crouse, Allison M Jackovitz, Erica E Carroll, Mark S Johnson
Nitrotriazolone (1,2,4-triazol-5-one; NTO), an insensitive, energetic material used in explosive formulations, induced testicular toxicity and oligospermia in repeated-dose oral toxicity tests in rats. To evaluate whether NTO produces additional reproductive and developmental effects, a modified extended one-generation reproductive toxicity test was conducted. Rats were provided ad libitum access to NTO in drinking water at 0-, 144-, 720-, or 3600-mg/L NTO. Treatment of the parental generation began 2 (females) and 4 (males) wk premating and continued until weaning of litters...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728837/ehb1-and-agd12-two-calcium-dependent-proteins-affect-gravitropism-antagonistically-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#10
Michaela Dümmer, Christian Michalski, Lars-Oliver Essen, Magnus Rath, Paul Galland, Christoph Forreiter
The ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR GTPase-ACTIVATING PROTEIN (AGD) 12, a member of the ARF-GAP protein family, affects gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. A loss-of-function mutant lacking AGD12 displayed diminished gravitropism in roots and hypocotyls indicating that both organs are affected by this regulator. AGD12 is structurally related to ENHANCED BENDING (EHB) 1, previously described as a negative effector of gravitropism. In contrast to agd12 mutants, ehb1 loss-of function seedlings displayed enhanced gravitropic bending...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685638/human-exposure-to-environmental-contaminants-and-congenital-anomalies-a-critical-review
#11
Warren G Foster, Jane A Evans, Julian Little, Laura Arbour, Aideen Moore, Reg Sauve, Juan Andrés León, Wei Luo
Congenital anomalies are an important cause of infant mortality and disability. Developmental exposure to environmental contaminants is thought to increase the risk for congenital anomalies. Herein, we describe a critical review of the literature conducted between February and March 2014 yielding 3057 references from which 97 unique relevant articles published from 2003 through 2014 were evaluated. Common congenital anomalies including hypospadias, cryptorchidism, anogenital distance (AGD), congenital heart defects and oral clefts were well represented in the literature whereas other outcomes such as neural tube defects, limb deficiency defects and gastroschisis were rarely described...
August 11, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670783/shorter-anogenital-and-anoscrotal-distances-correlate-with-the-severity-of-hypospadias-a-prospective-study
#12
K Cox, A Kyriakou, B Amjad, S O'Toole, M E Flett, M Welsh, S F Ahmed, S Cascio
INTRODUCTION: Anogenital distance (AGD) is a recognised marker of in utero androgen action. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between severity of hypospadias and AGD. STUDY DESIGN: Boys undergoing hypospadias repair in a single tertiary centre between May 2012 and February 16 were included in the study. Anogenital distance was measured from the centre of the anus to the base of the penis, and anoscrotal distance (ASD) from the centre of the anus to the junction between the smooth perineal skin and scrotal skin...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639664/manipulation-of-pre-and-postnatal-androgen-environments-and-anogenital-distance-in-rats
#13
Diogo H Kita, Katlyn B Meyer, Amanda C Venturelli, Rafaella Adams, Daria L B Machado, Rosana N Morais, Shanna H Swan, Chris Gennings, Anderson J Martino-Andrade
We examined the anogenital distance (AGD) plasticity in rats through the manipulation of the androgen environment in utero and during puberty. Dams were treated from gestation days 13-20 with vehicle, flutamide (20mg/kg/day), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP, 750mg/kg/day), or testosterone (1.0mg/kg/day). After weaning, male pups were randomly assigned to one of four postnatal groups, which received the same treatments given prenatally. Sixteen treatment groups were established based on the combination of pre- and postnatal exposures...
August 10, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616700/concerted-functions-of-streptococcus-gordonii-surface-proteins-pada-and-hsa-mediate-activation-of-human-platelets-and-interactions-with-extracellular-matrix
#14
Jennifer A Haworth, Howard F Jenkinson, Helen J Petersen, Catherine R Back, Jane L Brittan, Steve W Kerrigan, Angela H Nobbs
A range of Streptococcus bacteria are able to interact with blood platelets to form a thrombus (clot). Streptococcus gordonii is ubiquitous within the human oral cavity and amongst the common pathogens isolated from subjects with infective endocarditis. Two cell surface proteins, Hsa and Platelet adherence protein A (PadA), in S. gordonii mediate adherence and activation of platelets. In this study, we demonstrate that PadA binds activated platelets and that an NGR (Asparagine-Glycine-Arginine) motif within a 657 amino acid residue N-terminal fragment of PadA is responsible for this, together with two other integrin-like recognition motifs RGT and AGD...
September 11, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614299/definition-of-local-diagnostic-reference-levels-in-a-radiology-department-using-a-dose-tracking-software
#15
C Ghetti, O Ortenzia, F Palleri, M Sireus
Dose optimization in radiological examinations is a mandatory issue: in this study local Diagnostic Reference Levels (lDRLs) for Clinical Mammography (MG), Computed Tomography (CT) and Interventional Cardiac Procedures (ICP) performed in our Radiology Department were established. Using a dose tracking software, we have collected Average Glandular Dose (AGD) for two clinical mammographic units; CTDIvol, Size-Specific Dose Estimate (SSDE), Dose Length Product (DLP) and total DLP (DLPtot) for five CT scanners; Fluoro Time, Fluoro Dose Area Product (DAP) and total DAP (DAPtot) for two angiographic systems...
September 10, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609981/prenatal-paracetamol-exposure-is-associated-with-shorter-anogenital-distance-in-male-infants
#16
B G Fisher, A Thankamony, I A Hughes, K K Ong, D B Dunger, C L Acerini
STUDY QUESTION: What is the relationship between maternal paracetamol intake during the masculinisation programming window (MPW, 8-14 weeks of gestation) and male infant anogenital distance (AGD), a biomarker for androgen action during the MPW? SUMMARY ANSWER: Intrauterine paracetamol exposure during 8-14 weeks of gestation is associated with shorter AGD from birth to 24 months of age. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: The increasing prevalence of male reproductive disorders may reflect environmental influences on foetal testicular development during the MPW...
November 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594383/pcr-survey-for-paramoeba-perurans-in-fauna-environmental-samples-and-fish-associated-with-marine-farming-sites-for-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l
#17
A Hellebø, A Stene, V Aspehaug
Amoebic gill disease (AGD) caused by the amoeba Paramoeba perurans is an increasing problem in Atlantic salmon aquaculture. In the present PCR survey, the focus was to identify reservoir species or environmental samples where P. perurans could be present throughout the year, regardless of the infection status in farmed Atlantic salmon. A total of 1200 samples were collected at or in the proximity to farming sites with AGD, or with history of AGD, and analysed for the presence of P. perurans. No results supported biofouling organisms, salmon lice, biofilm or sediment to maintain P...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592399/prenatal-exposure-to-perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-anogenital-distance-at-3-months-of-age-in-a-danish-mother-child-cohort
#18
Dorte Vesterholm Lind, Lærke Priskorn, Tina Harmer Lassen, Flemming Nielsen, Henriette Boye Kyhl, David Møbjerg Kristensen, Henrik Thybo Christesen, Jan Steener Jørgensen, Philippe Grandjean, Tina Kold Jensen
In the Odense child cohort, serum concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were measured in 638 pregnant women. Birth weight, head and abdominal circumferences and gestational age were determined. Anogenital distance (AGD), the distance from the anus to the genital organs, and penile width were measured 3 months after expected date of birth in 511 children. PFOS, PFHxS, PFNA and PFDA were associated with a decreased AGD in girls (p-trend<0...
August 31, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588040/lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenases-and-other-oxidative-enzymes-are-abundantly-secreted-by-aspergillus-nidulans-grown-on-different-starches
#19
Laura Nekiunaite, Magnus Ø Arntzen, Birte Svensson, Gustav Vaaje-Kolstad, Maher Abou Hachem
BACKGROUND: Starch is the second most abundant plant-derived biomass and a major feedstock in non-food industrial applications and first generation biofuel production. In contrast to lignocellulose, detailed insight into fungal degradation of starch is currently lacking. This study explores the secretomes of Aspergillus nidulans grown on cereal starches from wheat and high-amylose (HA) maize, as well as legume starch from pea for 5 days. RESULTS: Aspergillus nidulans grew efficiently on cereal starches, whereas growth on pea starch was poor...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577613/maternal-treatment-with-dexamethasone-during-gestation-alters-sexual-development-markers-in-the-f1-and-f2-male-offspring-of-wistar-rats
#20
S O Jeje, Y Raji
Maternal treatment with dexamethasone (Dex) in threatening preterm delivery alters activities at the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the offspring. This alteration may interfere with reproductive function. The impact of gestational Dex exposure on male reproductive function of the offspring was investigated. A total of 25 pregnant rats randomly assigned to five groups (n=5) were treated with normal saline (control), Dex (100 μg/kg/day sc) during gestation days (GD) 1-7, 8-14, 15-21 and 1-21, respectively...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
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