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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775843/transfer-of-radionuclides-and-dose-assessment-to-ants-and-anthills-in-a-swedish-forest-ecosystem
#1
K Rosén, L Lenoir, K Stark, M Vinichuk, S Sundell-Bergman
In forest ecosystems soil organisms are important for immobilization, translocation and recycling of radionuclides. Still, there is a lack of studies on the role of insects such as ants in the turnover of radionuclides and how radioactivity affects an ant community. In this study seven anthills were sampled in an area that was heavily contaminated after the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Samples of ant and anthill materials were taken from different depths of the anthills as well as from the surrounding soil and the activity concentrations of 137 Cs were determined...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774220/serum-matrix-metalloproteinase-3-in-detecting-remitting-seronegative-symmetrical-synovitis-with-pitting-edema-syndrome-a-case-report
#2
Tsuneaki Kenzaka, Ken Goda
We report a case of remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome in a 71-year-old woman. She referred to our hospital with finger stiffness, edema of both hands and feet, pain of bilateral shoulder, wrist, metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and ankle joints. Rheumatoid factor was negative, human leukocyte antigen -B7 antigen was positive. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) was high. She was diagnosed with RS3PE syndrome, and treatment with prednisolone (15 mg/d) was started...
May 16, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773181/mercury-and-selenium-in-fishes-from-the-tapaj%C3%A3-s-river-in-the-brazilian-amazon-an-evaluation-of-human-exposure
#3
A S Lino, D Kasper, Y S Guida, J R Thomaz, O Malm
This work aimed to evaluate associated risks of fish consumption to human health, concerning mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in fish species largely consumed in the Tapajós River basin in the Brazilian Amazon. Total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and Se concentrations were measured in 129 fish specimens from four sites of the Tapajós River basin. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of Hg and Se were reported regarding fish consumption. EDI were compared with the reference value of provisional tolerable daily intake proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO)...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772064/impact-of-inter-patient-variability-on-organ-dose-estimates-according-to-mird-schema-uncertainty-and-variance-based-sensitivity-analysis
#4
Alexandra Zvereva, Florian Kamp, Helmut Schlattl, Maria Zankl, Katia Parodi
PURPOSE: Variance-based sensitivity analysis (SA) is described and applied to the radiation dosimetry model proposed by the Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) for the organ-level absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine. The uncertainties in the dose coefficients thus calculated are also evaluated. METHODS: A Monte Carlo approach was used to compute first-order and total-effect SA indices, which rank the input factors according to their influence on the uncertainty in the output organ doses...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770154/effects-of-platycodin-d-on-reflux-esophagitis-due-to-modulation-of-antioxidant-defense-systems
#5
Su-Yeon Cho, Chang-Hyun Song, Ji-Eun Lee, Seong Hun Choi, Sae-Kwang Ku, Soo-Jin Park
Aims: The effects of platycodin D (PD) pretreatment were examined in reflux esophagitis (RE) induced rats. Methods: Sham, control, and omeprazole (OMP) group were pretreated with distilled water or OMP as a reference, respectively, and PD pretreated groups were given 3 different PD doses once a day for 7 days. One hour after last pretreatment, RE was induced by ligation of the forestomach and pylorus. At 8 h after operation, all animals were sacrificed. Results: PD showed significant dose-dependent reduction of gastric secretion, myeloperoxidase activity, and RE lesion areas of esophagus and stomach mucosa...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769433/medical-imaging-dose-optimization-from-ground-up-expert-opinion-of-an-international-summit
#6
Ehsan Samei, Hannu Jarvinen, Mika Kortesniemi, Georgios Simantirakis, Charles Goh, Anthony Wallace, Eliseo Vano, Adrian Bejan, M M Rehani, J Vassileva
As in any medical intervention, there is either a known or an anticipated benefit to the patient from undergoing a medical imaging procedure. This benefit is generally significant as demonstrated by the manner in which medical imaging has transformed clinical medicine. At the same time, when it comes to imaging that deploys ionizing radiation, there is a potential associated risk from radiation. Radiation risk has been recognized as a key liability in the practice of medical imaging, creating a motivation for radiation dose optimization...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762057/comparison-of-image-quality-and-radiation-exposure-between-conventional-imaging-and-gemstone-spectral-imaging-in-abdominal-ct-examination
#7
Tianqi Fang, Wei Deng, Martin Wai-Ming Law, Liangping Luo, Liyun Zheng, Ying Guo, Hanwei Chen, Bingsheng Huang
OBJECTIVE: To compare patients' image quality and radiation exposure between gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) with rapid kV switching technique and conventional polychromatic imaging performed in abdominal CT examinations. METHODS: Adult patients who were referred to abdominal CT from October 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled. Unenhanced CT with conventional polychromatic imaging mode and tri-phase (arterial/portal/delayed phase) contrast-enhanced scan with GSI mode were performed with different protocols respectively...
May 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761211/comparative-study-of-uma-jeunesse-classic-%C3%A2-and-uma-jeunesse-ultra-%C3%A2
#8
Peeyush P Sharma, Dave Krishan Sharma, Andrew Carr
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of hyaluronic acid dermal fillers with lidocaine has transformed the minimally invasive treatment of wrinkles, lines and folds of the face. Patients can be treated quickly, painlessly and without the need for large doses of lidocaine. Therefore, it is important to scientifically evaluate the merits of lidocaine-containing products over those without. METHODS: The two products, with (UJU) and without lidocaine (UJ), were randomly injected into nasolabial folds of 75 healthy volunteers with varying skin types in a split face study, age ranging 26-60 years...
May 14, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758313/flavonoids-as-protective-agents-against-oxidative-stress-induced-by-gentamicin-in-systemic-circulation-potent-protective-activity-and-microbial-synergism-of-luteolin
#9
Pamela Soledad Bustos, Romina Deza-Ponzio, Paulina Laura Páez, José Luis Cabrera, Miriam Beatriz Virgolini, María Gabriela Ortega
The flavonoids effect on gentamicin (GEN)-induced oxidative stress (OS) in systemic circulation was evaluated in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, enzymatic antioxidant defenses superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation (LP) in vitro on human leukocytes and in vivo on rat whole blood. The inhibitory activity of ROS was ATS < QTS < isovitexin < vitexin < luteolin. Luteolin, the most active, showed more inhibition in ROS production than vitamin C (reference inhibitor) in mononuclear cells and a slightly lower protective behavior compared to this inhibitor in polymorphonuclear cells...
May 11, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757158/origins-of-the-changing-detector-response-in-small-megavoltage-photon-radiation-fields
#10
John D Fenwick, Georgios Georgiou, Carl Graham Rowbottom, Tracy S A Underwood, Sudhir Kumar, Alan E Nahum
Differences in detector response between measured small fields, fclin, and wider reference fields, fmsr, can be overcome by using correction factors or by designing detectors with field-size invariant responses. The changing response in small fields is caused by perturbations of the electron fluence within the detector sensitive volume. For solid-state detectors, it has recently been suggested that these perturbations might be caused by the non-water-equivalent effective atomic numbers Z of detector materials, rather than by their non-water-like densities...
May 14, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753411/solar-particle-event-storm-shelter-requirements-for-missions-beyond-low-earth-orbit
#11
REVIEW
L W Townsend, J H Adams, S R Blattnig, M S Clowdsley, D J Fry, I Jun, C D McLeod, J I Minow, D F Moore, J W Norbury, R B Norman, D V Reames, N A Schwadron, E J Semones, R C Singleterry, T C Slaba, C M Werneth, M A Xapsos
Protecting spacecraft crews from energetic space radiations that pose both chronic and acute health risks is a critical issue for future missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Chronic health risks are possible from both galactic cosmic ray and solar energetic particle event (SPE) exposures. However, SPE exposures also can pose significant short term risks including, if dose levels are high enough, acute radiation syndrome effects that can be mission- or life-threatening. In order to address the reduction of short term risks to spaceflight crews from SPEs, we have developed recommendations to NASA for a design-standard SPE to be used as the basis for evaluating the adequacy of proposed radiation shelters for cislunar missions beyond LEO...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753270/estimating-acute-and-chronic-exposure-of-children-and-adults-to-chlorpyrifos-in-fruit-and-vegetables-based-on-the-new-lower-toxicology-data
#12
Patrycja Mojsak, Bożena Łozowicka, Piotr Kaczyński
This paper presents, for the first time, results for chlorpyrifos (CHLP) in Polish fruits and vegetables over the course of a long period of research, 2007-2016, with toxicological aspects. The challenge of this study was to re-evaluate the impact of chlorpyrifos residues in fruit and vegetables on health risk assessed via acute and chronic exposure based on old and new, lower, established values of: Average Daily Intakes (ADIs)/Acute Reference Doses (ARfDs) and Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). A total of 3 530 samples were collected, and CHLP in the range of 0...
May 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752742/j-difference-edited-mrs-measures-of-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-before-and-after-acute-caffeine-administration
#13
Georg Oeltzschner, Helge J Zöllner, Marc Jonuscheit, Rotem S Lanzman, Alfons Schnitzler, Hans-Jörg Wittsack
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate potential effects of acute caffeine intake on J-difference-edited MRS measures of the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). METHODS: J-difference-edited Mescher-Garwood PRESS (MEGA-PRESS) and conventional PRESS data were acquired at 3T from voxels in the anterior cingulate and occipital area of the brain in 15 healthy subjects, before and after oral intake of a 200-mg caffeine dose. MEGA-PRESS data were analyzed with the MATLAB-based Gannet tool to estimate GABA+ macromolecule (GABA+) levels, while PRESS data were analyzed with LCModel to estimate levels of glutamate, glutamate+glutamine, N-acetylaspartate, and myo-inositol...
May 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749718/bioequivalence-evaluation-of-two-oral-formulations-of-acetaminophen-in-healthy-subjects-results-from-a-randomized-single-blind-crossover-study
#14
Luis García Aguirre, Carlos Bohorquez Nassar, Isabel Ruiz Olmedo, Lara Dennie, Araceli G Medina Nolasco
Despite widespread availability of acetaminophen in Mexico, data on its pharmacokinetic properties in Mexican populations are limited. This single-center, single-blind, randomized, 2-period, 2-treatment, crossover, single-dose-per-period, 2-sequence study evaluated the bioequivalence of a test acetaminophen product available in Mexico compared with a reference 500-mg acetaminophen product in 28 healthy adults under fasting conditions. Blood samples were collected predose and at specified intervals across a 16-hour period following administration and were analyzed for acetaminophen using a validated reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method...
May 11, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742927/tetracaine-induces-apoptosis-through-a-mitochondrion-dependent-pathway-in-human-corneal-stromal-cells-in-vitro
#15
Zhan Song, Ting-Jun Fan
PURPOSE: Tetracaine is a local anesthetic widely used in ocular diagnosis and ophthalmic surgery and may lead to some adverse effects and complications at a clinical dose. To assess the cytotoxicity and molecular toxicity mechanisms of tetracaine, we used human corneal stromal (HCS) cells as an in vitro model to study the effects of tetracaine on HCS cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxicity of tetracaine on HCS cells was investigated by examining the changes of cell growth, morphology, viability and cell cycle progressing when HCS cells were treated with tetracaine at concentrations from 10 g/L to 0...
May 9, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742267/epoetin-alfa-resistance-in-hemodialysis-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-longitudinal-study
#16
E J F Santos, E V Hortegal, H O Serra, J S Lages, N Salgado-Filho, A M Dos Santos
Anemia is an inevitable complication of hemodialysis, and the primary cause is erythropoietin deficiency. After diagnosis, treatment begins with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA). However, some patients remain anemic even after receiving this medication. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin therapy with epoetin alfa (αEPO). We performed a prospective, longitudinal study of hemodialysis patients receiving treatment with αEPO at our reference hospital from July 2015 to June 2016...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741664/estimation-of-adult-patient-doses-for-chest-x-ray-examinations-and-comparison-with-diagnostic-reference-levels-drls
#17
H Bas Mor, N Altinsoy, I Söyler
The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation doses to patient during chest (posterior anterior/and lateral) examinations. The study was performed in three public hospitals of İstanbul province with a total of 300 adult patients. Entrance surface dose (ESD) measurements were conducted on computed radiography, digital radiography and screen film system. ESD was estimated by using International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) model and Davies model which are the common indirect models. Results were compared with diagnostic reference levels from the European Commission, IAEA and National Radiological Protection Board...
May 8, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740925/metformin-directly-targets-the-h3k27me3-demethylase-kdm6a-utx
#18
Elisabet Cuyàs, Sara Verdura, Laura Llorach-Pares, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Fedra Luciano-Mateo, Noemí Cabré, Jan Stursa, Lukas Werner, Begoña Martin-Castillo, Benoit Viollet, Jiri Neuzil, Jorge Joven, Alfons Nonell-Canals, Melchor Sanchez-Martinez, Javier A Menendez
Metformin, the first drug chosen to be tested in a clinical trial aimed to target the biology of aging per se, has been clinically exploited for decades in the absence of a complete understanding of its therapeutic targets or chemical determinants. We here outline a systematic chemoinformatics approach to computationally predict biomolecular targets of metformin. Using several structure- and ligand-based software tools and reference databases containing 1,300,000 chemical compounds and more than 9,000 binding sites protein cavities, we identified 41 putative metformin targets including several epigenetic modifiers such as the member of the H3K27me3-specific demethylase subfamily, KDM6A/UTX...
May 8, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734810/theoretical-insights-into-the-retinal-dynamics-of-vegf-in-patients-treated-with-ranibizumab-based-on-an-ocular-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model
#19
Laurence A Hutton-Smith, Eamonn A Gaffney, Helen M Byrne, Antonello Caruso, Philip K Maini, Norman Alan Mazer
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) results from the pathological angiogenesis of choroidal capillaries, which leak fluid within or below the macular region of the retina. The current standard of care for treating wet AMD utilizes intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF antibodies or antibody fragments to suppress ocular VEGF levels. While VEGF suppression has been demonstrated in wet AMD patients by serial measurements of free-VEGF concentrations in aqueous humor samples, it is presumed that anti-VEGF molecules also permeate across the inner limiting membrane (ILM) of the retina as well as the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and suppress VEGF-levels in the retina and/or choroidal regions...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734397/evaluation-of-providencia-rettgeri-pathogenicity-against-laboratory-mediterranean-fruit-fly-strain-ceratitis-capitata
#20
Meriem Msaad Guerfali, Wafa Djobbi, Kamel Charaabi, Heithem Hamden, Salma Fadhl, Wafa Marzouki, Ferjani Dhaouedi, Claude Chevrier
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is often referred to as the most severe agricultural pest. Its biological control is mainly through the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Colonization, mass-rearing conditions and the irradiation process impact the competitiveness of sterile males and disrupt symbiotic associations by favoring some bacterial species and suppressing others. Levels of Providencia species have been shown to fluctuate considerably in the gut of the medfly laboratory strain Vienna 8 under irradiation, increasing by up to 22%...
2018: PloS One
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