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Movement science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728887/effectiveness-of-exercise-intervention-on-improving-fundamental-movement-skills-and-motor-coordination-in-overweight-obese-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Ahreum Han, Allan Fu, Stephen Cobley, Ross H Sanders
OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity is negatively associated with fundamental movement skill and motor coordination, which in turn constrains physical activity participation and adherence thereby forming a 'vicious cycle'. However, developing motor skill and coordination in childhood could help to break the vicious cycle to reduce childhood obesity. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of exercise and physical activity interventions on improving fundamental movement skill and motor coordination in overweight/obese children and adolescents...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726381/impact-of-the-metallic-crystalline-structure-on-the-properties-of-nanocrystals-and-their-mesoscopic-assemblies
#2
Marie-Paule Pileni
The spontaneous assembly of uniform-sized globular entities into ordered arrays is a universal phenomenon observed for objects with diameters spanning a broad range of length scales. These extend from the atomic scale (10(-8) cm), through molecular and macromolecular scales with proteins, synthetic low polymers, and colloidal crystals (∼10(-6) cm), to the wavelength of visible light (∼10(-5) cm). The associated concepts of sphere packing have had an influence in diverse fields ranging from pure geometrical analysis to architectural models or ideals...
July 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716648/applications-of-high-speed-atomic-force-microscopy-to-real-time-visualization-of-dynamic-biomolecular-processes
#3
REVIEW
Takayuki Uchihashi, Simon Scheuring
BACKGROUND: Many biological processes in a living cell are consequences of sequential and hierarchical dynamic events of biological macromolecules such as molecular interactions and conformational changes. Hence, knowledge of structures, assembly and dynamics of proteins is the foundation for understanding how biological molecules work. Among several techniques to analyze dynamics of proteins, high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) is unique to provide direct information about both structure and dynamics of single proteins at work...
July 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716503/effectiveness-of-otolith-repositioning-maneuvers-and-vestibular-rehabilitation-exercises-in-elderly-people-with-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo-a-systematic-review
#4
Karyna Figueiredo Ribeiro, Bruna S Oliveira, Raysa V Freitas, Lidiane M Ferreira, Nandini Deshpande, Ricardo O Guerra
INTRODUCTION: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is highly prevalent in elderly people. This condition is related to vertigo, hearing loss, tinnitus, poor balance, gait disturbance, and an increase in risk of falls, leading to postural changes and quality of life decreasing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes obtained by clinical trials on the effectiveness of Otolith Repositioning Maneuver (ORM) and Vestibular Rehabilitation (VR) exercises in the treatment of BPPV in elderly...
June 29, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714731/falsifiability-is-not-optional
#5
Etienne P LeBel, Derek Berger, Lorne Campbell, Timothy J Loving
Finkel, Eastwick, and Reis (2016; FER2016) argued the post-2011 methodological reform movement has focused narrowly on replicability, neglecting other essential goals of research. We agree multiple scientific goals are essential, but argue, however, a more fine-grained language, conceptualization, and approach to replication is needed to accomplish these goals. Replication is the general empirical mechanism for testing and falsifying theory. Sufficiently methodologically similar replications, also known as direct replications, test the basic existence of phenomena and ensure cumulative progress is possible a priori...
August 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713281/effectiveness-of-traditional-strength-vs-power-training-on-muscle-strength-power-and-speed-with-youth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
David G Behm, James D Young, Joseph H D Whitten, Jonathan C Reid, Patrick J Quigley, Jonathan Low, Yimeng Li, Camila D Lima, Daniel D Hodgson, Anis Chaouachi, Olaf Prieske, Urs Granacher
Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708753/effectiveness-of-preoperative-intranasal-dexmedetomidine-compared-with-oral-midazolam-for-the-prevention-of-emergence-delirium-in-the-pediatric-patient-undergoing-general-anesthesia-a-systematic-review
#7
James FitzSimons, Laura S Bonanno, Stephanie Pierce, Jennifer Badeaux
BACKGROUND: Emergence delirium is defined as a cognitive disturbance during emergence from general anesthesia resulting in hallucinations, delusions and confusion manifested by agitation, restlessness, involuntary physical movement and extreme flailing in bed. Postoperative emergence delirium develops in 12% to 18% of all children undergoing general anesthesia for surgery. This post-anesthetic phenomenon changes cognitive and psychomotor behavior, and puts pediatric patients and health care personnel at risk of injury...
July 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705333/interdisciplinarity-in-norbert-wiener-a-mathematician-philosopher-of-our-time
#8
Leone Montagnini
The paper focuses on interdisciplinarity in Norbert Wiener looking at his scientific work from a unitary point of view. It begins with a bird's-eye view of the history of the term "interdisciplinarity", pointing out how the word was the result of a movement of ideas that took place in US science along the whole Twentieth century. This way, the Wiener's conceptions and practices concerning interdisciplinarity are compared with their historical context, showing analogies and peculiarities. For Wiener, interdisciplinary research by very small groups whose members have a very broad interdisciplinary basis is an essential prerequisite for new fundamental ideas for invention and discoveries...
June 28, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698778/eric-kandel-s-reductionism-in-art-and-brain-science-bridging-the-two-cultures
#9
Ed Bilsky
Reductive art is a term to describe an artistic style or an aesthetic, rather than an art movement. It is stripping down as a new way of seeing. Movements and other terms that are sometimes associated with reductive art include abstract art, minimalism, ABC art, anti-illusionism, cool art, and rejective art. Eric Kandel's fifth book focuses on reductionism as the principle guiding an ongoing dialogue between the worlds of science and art.
May 2017: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694718/what-i-learned-from-predatory-publishers
#10
REVIEW
Jeffrey Beall
This article is a first-hand account of the author's work identifying and listing predatory publishers from 2012 to 2017. Predatory publishers use the gold (author pays) open access model and aim to generate as much revenue as possible, often foregoing a proper peer review. The paper details how predatory publishers came to exist and shows how they were largely enabled and condoned by the open-access social movement, the scholarly publishing industry, and academic librarians. The author describes tactics predatory publishers used to attempt to be removed from his lists, details the damage predatory journals cause to science, and comments on the future of scholarly publishing...
June 15, 2017: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694221/nordic-walking-for-the-management-of-people-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Lucia Cugusi, Andrea Manca, Daniele Dragone, Franca Deriu, Paolo Solla, Claudio Secci, Marco Monticone, Giuseppe Mercuro
BACKGROUND: It is well known that physical exercise is the main therapeutic element of rehabilitation programs for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). As traditional forms of exercise can guarantee significant health benefits, the emergence of non-conventional physical activities, such as Nordic walking (NW), may add positive effects. OBJECTIVE: To appraise the available evidence on the main effects of NW in the rehabilitation programs for people with PD and to propose a design for upcoming research that might improve the uniformity of future trials...
July 7, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688389/elemental-and-cooperative-diffusion-in-a-liquid-supercooled-liquid-and-glass-resolved
#12
Daniel R Cassar, Ricardo F Lancelotti, Rafael Nuernberg, Marcio L F Nascimento, Alisson M Rodrigues, Luiza T Diz, Edgar D Zanotto
The diffusion mechanisms controlling viscous flow, structural relaxation, liquid-liquid phase separation, crystal nucleation, and crystal growth in multicomponent glass-forming liquids are of great interest and relevance in physics, chemistry, materials, and glass science. However, the diffusing entities that control each of these important dynamic processes are still unknown. The main objective of this work is to shed some light on this mystery, advancing the knowledge on this phenomenon. For that matter, we measured the crystal growth rates, the viscosity, and lead diffusivities in PbSiO3 liquid and glass in a wide temperature range...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686320/the-emerging-science-of-precision-medicine-and-pharmacogenomics-for-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Haydeh Payami
Current therapies for Parkinson's disease are problematic because they are symptomatic and have adverse effects. New drugs have failed in clinical trials because of inadequate efficacy. At the core of the problem is trying to make one drug work for all Parkinson's disease patients, when we know this premise is wrong because (1) Parkinson's disease is not a single disease, and (2) no two individuals have the same biological makeup. Precision medicine is the goal to strive for, but we are only at the beginning stages of building the infrastructure for one of the most complex projects in the history of science, and it will be a long time before Parkinson's disease reaps the benefits...
July 7, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675886/international-society-for-the-study-of-fatty-acids-and-lipids-2016-debate-for-science-based-dietary-guidelines-on-fats-meta-analysis-and-systematic-reviews-are-decisive
#14
Joyce A Nettleton, Clemens von Schacky, Ingeborg A Brouwer, Berthold Koletzko
This paper summarizes a debate on whether meta-analyses and systematic reviews are decisive in formulating guidelines for dietary fat. Held during the 12th congress of the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids in Stellenbosch, South Africa, September 7, 2016, the debate was hosted by the International Union of Nutritional Sciences and the International Expert Movement to Improve Dietary Fat Quality (IEM, www.theiem.org). Clemens von Schacky, Ludwig Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany, supported the statement, describing the types of weaknesses in individual studies and clinical trials...
July 4, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675422/reviving-cochrane-s-contribution-to-evidence-based-medicine-bridging-the-gap-between-evidence-of-efficacy-and-evidence-of-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness
#15
Jack E James
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been widely adopted as the main means for transforming medical practice informed by individual practitioner experience to that informed by science. Yet, as a movement for comprehensive change, EBM has not been as transformative as had been widely anticipated. Evidence of clinical efficacy is often organized hierarchically with the randomized controlled trial located towards the apex of an imaginary pyramid. This familiar hierarchy of evidence in medical education, practice, and science serves to guide evaluations of the internal validity of randomized controlled trials, thereby establishing the "efficacy" of clinical interventions...
July 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674463/degrowth-taking-stock-and-reviewing-an-emerging-academic-paradigm
#16
REVIEW
Martin Weiss, Claudio Cattaneo
Degrowth has evolved within a decade from an activist movement into a multi-disciplinary academic paradigm. However, an overview taking stock of the peer-refereed degrowth literature is yet missing. Here, we review 91 articles that were published between 2006 and 2015. We find that the academic degrowth discourse occupies a small but expanding niche at the intersection of social and applied environmental sciences. The discourse is shaped by authors from high-income, mainly Mediterranean, countries. Until 2012, articles largely constitute conceptual essays endorsed by normative claims...
July 2017: Ecological Economics: the Journal of the International Society for Ecological Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672138/does-the-surgery-first-approach-produce-better-outcomes-in-orthognathic-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Le Yang, Yu-Dong Xiao, Yu-Jie Liang, Xi Wang, Jing-Yuan Li, Gui-Qing Liao
PURPOSE: The surgery-first approach (SFA) in orthognathic surgery, performed without presurgical orthodontic treatment, has gained attention, but the results remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the current evidence on stability, efficacy, and surgical results of SFA versus conventional 3-stage method (CTM) orthognathic surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive search in PubMed and Web of Science was conducted. A systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis of all comparative studies were performed to assess the 2 strategies (SFA and CTM) using a random- or a fixed-effects model...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661364/recombinant-antibodies-for-academia-a-practical-approach
#18
Pierre Cosson, Oliver Hartley
After several decades of optimization, phage display technology enables the routine isolation and production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies in vitro. As such it has the potential to provide the academic community with a vast, inexpensive and renewable supply of well-characterized reagents, reducing bottlenecks in basic science, helping increase reproducibility of experiments, and phasing out the use of animals for production and discovery of antibodies. Yet the overwhelming majority of fundamental research laboratories still use incompletely characterized antibodies developed in animals...
December 21, 2016: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659934/morphological-plant-modeling-unleashing-geometric-and-topological-potential-within-the-plant-sciences
#19
REVIEW
Alexander Bucksch, Acheampong Atta-Boateng, Akomian F Azihou, Dorjsuren Battogtokh, Aly Baumgartner, Brad M Binder, Siobhan A Braybrook, Cynthia Chang, Viktoirya Coneva, Thomas J DeWitt, Alexander G Fletcher, Malia A Gehan, Diego Hernan Diaz-Martinez, Lilan Hong, Anjali S Iyer-Pascuzzi, Laura L Klein, Samuel Leiboff, Mao Li, Jonathan P Lynch, Alexis Maizel, Julin N Maloof, R J Cody Markelz, Ciera C Martinez, Laura A Miller, Washington Mio, Wojtek Palubicki, Hendrik Poorter, Christophe Pradal, Charles A Price, Eetu Puttonen, John B Reese, Rubén Rellán-Álvarez, Edgar P Spalding, Erin E Sparks, Christopher N Topp, Joseph H Williams, Daniel H Chitwood
The geometries and topologies of leaves, flowers, roots, shoots, and their arrangements have fascinated plant biologists and mathematicians alike. As such, plant morphology is inherently mathematical in that it describes plant form and architecture with geometrical and topological techniques. Gaining an understanding of how to modify plant morphology, through molecular biology and breeding, aided by a mathematical perspective, is critical to improving agriculture, and the monitoring of ecosystems is vital to modeling a future with fewer natural resources...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659842/functional-synchronization-the-emergence-of-coordinated-activity-in-human-systems
#20
Andrzej Nowak, Robin R Vallacher, Michal Zochowski, Agnieszka Rychwalska
The topical landscape of psychology is highly compartmentalized, with distinct phenomena explained and investigated with recourse to theories and methods that have little in common. Our aim in this article is to identify a basic set of principles that underlie otherwise diverse aspects of human experience at all levels of psychological reality, from neural processes to group dynamics. The core idea is that neural, behavioral, mental, and social structures emerge through the synchronization of lower-level elements (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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