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Movement science

Elizabeth Watts, Uwe Hossfeld, Irina Tolstikova, Georgy S Levit
This paper provides a detailed look at how creationism originated in the United States and then explores how this evangelical trend was exported to Russia by American missionaries following the fall of the USSR. The comparison between these two countries is particularly interesting since the rivalry between the US and the USSR during the race to space caused both countries to revamp their science education. Yet, while political interests led both governments to focus on science education, creationist activities were simultaneously focused on diminishing the coverage of evolution in science classrooms...
October 20, 2016: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
Alexander N Shikov, Olga N Pozharitskaya, Valery G Makarov
PURPOSE: Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen syn. A. mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim is evaluated for its medicinal application. The aim of this study is to analyze pharmacological studies on A. elata var. mandshurica published until December 2015. METHODS: The information regarding the chemistry, safety, effectiveness, and pharmacological and clinical effects of A. elata was systematically collected from the scientific literature through library catalogs; online services such as E-library...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Cynthia N Fuhrmann
PhD-trained biomedical scientists are moving into an increasingly diverse variety of careers within the sciences. However, our graduate and postdoctoral training programs have historically focused on academic career preparation, and have not sufficiently prepared trainees for transitioning into other scientific careers. Advocates for science have raised the concern that our collective disregard of the broader career development needs for predoctoral and postdoctoral trainees could drive talent away from science in upcoming generations...
October 20, 2016: Human Gene Therapy
Shannon Dorsey, Katie A McLaughlin, Suzanne E U Kerns, Julie P Harrison, Hilary K Lambert, Ernestine C Briggs, Julia Revillion Cox, Lisa Amaya-Jackson
Child and adolescent trauma exposure is prevalent, with trauma exposure-related symptoms, including posttraumatic stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms often causing substantial impairment. This article updates the evidence base on psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent trauma exposure completed for this journal by Silverman et al. (2008). For this review, we focus on 37 studies conducted during the seven years since the last review. Treatments are grouped by overall treatment family (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy), treatment modality (e...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Shan Jiang, Stephen Verderber
OBJECTIVE: This present literature review explores current issues and research inconsistencies regarding the design of hospital circulation zones and the associated health-related outcomes. BACKGROUND: Large general hospitals are immense, highly sophisticated institutions. Empirical studies have indicated excessively institutional environments in large medical centers are a cause of negative effects to occupants, including stress, anxiety, wayfinding difficulties and spatial disorientation, lack of cognitional control, and stress associated with inadequate access to nature...
October 14, 2016: HERD
Dan W Teng, Charles L Eddy, Damian G Kelty-Stephen
Blindwalking to replicate an instructed distance requires various sensory signals. Recent evidence in movement science across many organisms suggests that multifractal organization of connective tissue supports the use of these signals. Multifractal structure is a multiplicity of power laws defining distribution of proportion across many time scales that helps predict judgments of the objects' length. Present work tests whether the multifractal structure in postural accelerometry during blindwalking predicts blindwalking distance replications...
October 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Andrew D Nordin, Janet S Dufek, C Roger James, Barry T Bates
Our purpose was to use group and single-case methods to examine inter-individual variability in the context of factors related to landing injuries. We tested the load accommodation strategies model (An exploration of load accommodation strategies during walking with extremity-carried weights. Human Movement Science, 35, 17-29) using landing impulse, revealing pre-landing strategies following height and external load manipulations. Ten healthy volunteers (8 male, 2 female, 24.0 ± 1.4 years, 1.72 ± 0.06 m, 73...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
James L Cook, Keiichi Kuroki, Aaron M Stoker, Farrah A Monibi, Brandon L Roller
The knee is a fascinating yet complex joint. Researchers and clinicians agree that the joint is an organ comprised of highly specialized intrinsic and extrinsic tissues contributing to both health and disease. Key to the function and movement of the knee are the menisci, exquisite fibrocartilage structures that are critical structures for maintaining biologic and biomechanical integrity of the joint. The biologic/physiologic functions of the menisci must be understood at the tissue, cellular and even molecular levels in order to determine clinically relevant methods for assessing it and influencing it...
October 7, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
Julián Benito-León, Ángela Domingo-Santos
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic tremor (OT) remains among the most intriguing and poorly understood of movement disorders. Compared to Parkinson's disease or even essential tremor, there are very few articles addressing more basic science issues. In this review, we will discuss the findings of main case series on OT, including data on etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, treatment strategies, and outcome. METHODS: Data for this review were identified by searching PUBMED (January 1966 to August 2016) for the terms "orthostatic tremor" or "shaky leg syndrome," which yielded 219 entries...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Honesty Kim, Lukas Cyrill Gerber, Daniel Chiu, Seung Ah Lee, Nate J Cira, Sherwin Yuyang Xia, Ingmar H Riedel-Kruse
For centuries, observational microscopy has greatly facilitated biology education, but we still cannot easily and playfully interact with the microscopic world we see. We therefore developed the LudusScope, an accessible, interactive do-it-yourself smartphone microscopy platform that promotes exploratory stimulation and observation of microscopic organisms, in a design that combines the educational modalities of build, play, and inquire. The LudusScope's touchscreen and joystick allow the selection and stimulation of phototactic microorganisms such as Euglena gracilis with light...
2016: PloS One
Andoret van Wyk, Carina A Eksteen, Piet J Becker, Barbara M Heinze
INTRODUCTION: Visual impairment, specifically eye movement disorders and vestibular dysfunction may have a negative influence on the functional recovery in post-stroke patients. This type of sensory dysfunction may further be associated with poor functional outcome in patients' post-stroke. METHODS: In phase 1, a cross-sectional survey (n = 100) will be conducted to determine the prevalence of eye movement disorders and vestibular dysfunction in patients who sustained a stroke...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Alaa M H Alfawal, Mohammad Y Hajeer, Mowaffak A Ajaj, Omar Hamadah, Bassel Brad
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess systematically the available scientific evidence relating the efficiency of minimally invasive surgical procedures in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement and the adverse effects associated with these procedures. METHODS: Electronic search of these databases CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar Beta, Trip, OpenGrey and PQDT OPEN was performed (last updated January 2016). The reference lists of the included studies were hand searched...
December 2016: Progress in Orthodontics
Rory P Wilson, Mark D Holton, James S Walker, Emily L C Shepard, D Mike Scantlebury, Vianney L Wilson, Gwendoline I Wilson, Brenda Tysse, Mike Gravenor, Javier Ciancio, Melitta A McNarry, Kelly A Mackintosh, Lama Qasem, Frank Rosell, Patricia M Graf, Flavio Quintana, Agustina Gomez-Laich, Juan-Emilio Sala, Christina C Mulvenna, Nicola J Marks, Mark W Jones
BACKGROUND: We are increasingly using recording devices with multiple sensors operating at high frequencies to produce large volumes of data which are problematic to interpret. A particularly challenging example comes from studies on animals and humans where researchers use animal-attached accelerometers on moving subjects to attempt to quantify behaviour, energy expenditure and condition. RESULTS: The approach taken effectively concatinated three complex lines of acceleration into one visualization that highlighted patterns that were otherwise not obvious...
2016: Movement Ecology
Michael A Carter, Dwayne Accardo, Thomas Cooper, Patricia Cowan, Wendy Likes, Donna Lynch-Smith, Laura Melaro
BACKGROUND: Many changes have occurred in DNP programs since they first began. University of Tennessee Health Science Center began the practice doctoral program in 1999 and today enrolls over 100 new baccalaureate nursing (BSN)-to-Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) students each year. More than 500 DNPs have graduated to date. METHOD: A review of the history and challenges of this program are presented as a potential exemplar for other programs to consider. RESULTS: Several changes have taken place, including a shift from Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)-to-DNP programs to almost all BSN-to-DNP programs, a new appreciation for writing skills, and movement away from a separate DNP project...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Education
Richard Hammerschlag, Ann Linda Baldwin, Gary E Schwartz
CONTEXT: When a human subject sits beneath a wire mesh, hemispheric torsion pendulum (TP) a rapid-onset series of oscillations at frequencies both higher and lower than the fundamental frequency of the TP have been consistently observed. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to replicate and extend prior findings that suggest the human subject effect on TP behavior is due to subject-generated, heat-induced convection currents. DESIGN: Effects on pendulum behavior were tested after draping an aluminized "space blanket" over the subject and by replacing the subject with a thermal mattress pad shaped to approximate the human form...
August 18, 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Black Hawk Hancock, Daniel R Morrison
Drawing on and extending the Foucaultian philosophical framework that Jeffrey Bishop develops in his masterful book, The Anticipatory Corpse: Medicine, Power, and the Care of the Dying, we undertake a sociological analysis of the neurological procedure-deep brain stimulation (DBS)-which implants electrodes in the brain, powered by a pacemaker-like device, for the treatment of movement disorders. Following Bishop's work, we carry out this analysis through a two-fold strategy. First, we examine how a multidisciplinary team evaluates candidates for this implant at a major medical center...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Joseph S Ross
The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recently announced a bold step forward to require data generated by interventional clinical trials that are published in its member journals to be responsibly shared with external investigators. The movement toward a clinical research culture that supports data sharing has important implications for the design, conduct, and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. While data sharing is likely to enhance the science of evidence synthesis, facilitating the identification and inclusion of all relevant research, it will also pose key challenges, such as requiring broader search strategies and more thorough scrutiny of identified research...
2016: Systematic Reviews
Paul Macadam, John B Cronin, Kim D Simperingham
BACKGROUND: Wearable resistance training (WRT) provides a means of activity- or movement-specific overloading, supposedly resulting in better transference to dynamic sporting performance. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to quantify the acute and longitudinal metabolic, kinematic and/or kinetic changes that occur with WRT during walking, running, sprint running or jumping movements. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and MEDLINE (EBSCO) were searched using the Boolean phrases (limb OR vest OR trunk) AND (walk* OR run* OR sprint* OR jump* OR bound*) AND (metabolic OR kinetic OR kinematic) AND (load*)...
September 16, 2016: Sports Medicine
Timothy E Higham, Sean M Rogers, R Brian Langerhans, Heather A Jamniczky, George V Lauder, William J Stewart, Christopher H Martin, David N Reznick
Speciation is a multifaceted process that involves numerous aspects of the biological sciences and occurs for multiple reasons. Ecology plays a major role, including both abiotic and biotic factors. Whether populations experience similar or divergent ecological environments, they often adapt to local conditions through divergence in biomechanical traits. We investigate the role of biomechanics in speciation using fish predator-prey interactions, a primary driver of fitness for both predators and prey. We highlight specific groups of fishes, or specific species, that have been particularly valuable for understanding these dynamic interactions and offer the best opportunities for future studies that link genetic architecture to biomechanics and reproductive isolation (RI)...
September 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Francesca Gallè, Valeria Di Onofrio, Vincenzo Romano Spica, Roberto Mastronuzzi, Pio Russo Krauss, Patrizia Belfiore, Pasqualina Buono, Giorgio Liguori
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a physical activity promotion intervention in community-dwelling older adults based on a free program of exercise adapted for older adults aged ≥60 years managed by trainees from the Movement Sciences degree course. METHODS: A total of 160 adults aged 60-82 years were randomly allocated into the intervention and control group. The exercise program consisted of 1-h sessions carried out twice a week for a year. Control participants received recommendations about an active lifestyle from their physicians...
September 15, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
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