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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628640/birds-of-a-feather-flock-together-insights-into-starling-murmuration-behaviour-revealed-using-citizen-science
#1
Anne E Goodenough, Natasha Little, William S Carpenter, Adam G Hart
Pre-roost murmuration displays by European starlings Sturnus vulgaris are a spectacular example of collective animal behaviour. To date, empirical research has focussed largely on flock movement and biomechanics whereas research on possible causal mechanisms that affect flock size and murmuration duration has been limited and restricted to a small number of sites. Possible explanations for this behaviour include reducing predation through the dilution, detection or predator confusion effects (the "safer together" hypotheses) or recruiting more birds to create larger (warmer) roosts (the "warmer together" hypothesis)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628595/activity-based-therapy-from-basic-science-to-clinical-application-for-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Andrea L Behrman, Elizabeth M Ardolino, Susan J Harkema
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Collaboration between scientists and clinicians effectively accelerated translation of scientific evidence for activity-based therapies (ABTs) into rehabilitation. This article addresses the basic scientific findings of activity-dependent plasticity that led to locomotor training, an ABT, and its principles to advance recovery in adult and pediatric populations with spinal cord injury (SCI). Expansion to new therapies based on these common principles is highlighted, for example, epidural stimulation...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628590/the-past-present-and-future-of-neurorehabilitation-from-nustep-through-iv-step-and-beyond
#3
Susan R Harris, Carolee J Winstein
PURPOSES: To present the history and aims of the STEP conferences; describe the interdependence of prevention, prediction, plasticity, and participation; reflect on where we stand today regarding those 4 Ps; and discuss how future neurorehabilitation should look for individuals with movement disorders. KEY POINTS: Physical therapists have focused primarily on tertiary prevention, emphasizing primary/secondary prevention far less. Predicting optimal response to intervention is essential for primary prevention...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617660/circuits-for-action-and-cognition-a-view-from-the-superior-colliculus
#4
Michele A Basso, Paul J May
The superior colliculus is one of the most well-studied structures in the brain, and with each new report, its proposed role in behavior seems to increase in complexity. Forty years of evidence shows that the colliculus is critical for reorienting an organism toward objects of interest. In monkeys, this involves saccadic eye movements. Recent work in the monkey colliculus and in the homologous optic tectum of the bird extends our understanding of the role of the colliculus in higher mental functions, such as attention and decision making...
June 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616427/specific-genes-associated-with-adverse-events-of-methylphenidate-use-in-the-pediatric-population-a-systematic-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
Beinta Joensen, Morten Meyer, Lise Aagaard
The aim of this study was to review empirical studies examining associations between candidate genes and adverse events (AEs) from methylphenidate (MPH) use in children and adolescents. The PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases were searched from their inception until March 2017. We included empirically based articles on pharmacogenetic studies in 0-17-year-old patients that investigated associations between specific candidate genes, their polymorphisms, and reported AEs. We extracted information about study design, setting, type of AE reporter, studied genes and their polymorphisms, age and gender, administered doses, method of genotyping, outcome measures, and main findings...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614812/the-discovery-of-water-channels-aquaporins
#6
Dennis Brown
The movement of water into and out of cells is a fundamental biological process that is essential for life. Such water movement not only regulates the activity of individual cells but also is responsible for the functioning of many organ systems and for maintaining whole body water balance. It had long been suspected that water movement across biological cell membranes was in some way enhanced or facilitated by pores or channels, but the search to identify these channels was long and tedious. As is often the case in science, the secret of the water channel was eventually discovered by chance in 1992 by Peter Agre and his colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, who were working on red blood cell membrane proteins...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606338/forensic-intelligence-applied-to-questioned-document-analysis-a-model-and-its-application-against-organized-crime
#7
Josep De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Katherine A Roberts
The capability of forensic sciences to fight crime, especially against organized criminal groups, becomes relevant in the recent economic downturn and the war on terrorism. In view of these societal challenges, the methods of combating crime should experience critical changes in order to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the current resources available. It is obvious that authorities have serious difficulties combating criminal groups of transnational nature. These are characterized as well structured organizations with international connections, abundant financial resources and comprised of members with significant and diverse expertise...
July 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597837/-effectiveness-of-selective-alveolar-decortication-in-accelerating-orthodontic-treatment-a-systematic-review
#8
Victor Fau, Dany Diep, Gérard Bader, Damien Brézulier, Olivier Sorel
INTRODUCTION: The number of scientific publications on accelerating orthodontic treatment, and especially surgical alveolar corticotomies techniques, has grown exponentially over the years. The objective of this systematic literature review was to assess the effectiveness of these corticotomies basing on human studies. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The review was conducted from Medline and Web of Science Core Collection to identify prospective controlled clinical trials with duration of orthodontic treatment or the tooth movement rate for primary endpoint...
June 2017: L' Orthodontie Française
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593605/online-webcam-based-eye-tracking-in-cognitive-science-a-first-look
#9
Kilian Semmelmann, Sarah Weigelt
Online experimentation is emerging in many areas of cognitive psychology as a viable alternative or supplement to classical in-lab experimentation. While performance- and reaction-time-based paradigms are covered in recent studies, one instrument of cognitive psychology has not received much attention up to now: eye tracking. In this study, we used JavaScript-based eye tracking algorithms recently made available by Papoutsaki et al. (International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2016) together with consumer-grade webcams to investigate the potential of online eye tracking to benefit from the common advantages of online data conduction...
June 7, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585719/toward-a-community-ecology-of-landscapes-predicting-multiple-predator-prey-interactions-across-geographic-space
#10
Oswald J Schmitz, Jennifer R B Miller, Anne M Trainor, Briana Abrahms
Community ecology was traditionally an integrative science devoted to studying interactions between species and their abiotic environments in order to predict species' geographic distributions and abundances. Yet for philosophical and methodological reasons it has become divided into two enterprises: one devoted to local experimentation on species interactions to predict community dynamics; the other devoted to statistical analyses of abiotic and biotic information to describe geographic distribution. Our goal here is to instigate thinking about ways to reconnect the two enterprises and thereby return to a tradition to do integrative science...
June 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584869/development-of-the-competency-based-medical-curriculum-for-the-new-augsburg-university-medical-school
#11
Anja Härtl, Pascal Berberat, Martin R Fischer, Helmuth Forst, Stefanie Grützner, Thomas Händl, Felix Joachimski, Renate Linné, Bruno Märkl, Markus Naumann, Reinhard Putz, Werner Schneider, Claus Schöler, Markus Wehler, Reinhard Hoffmann
Aim: With the resolution from April 28, 2014, the Bavarian state government in Germany decided to found a new medical school at Augsburg University, thereby requiring the development of a competency-based medical curriculum. Methods: Two interdisciplinary groups developed a spiral curriculum (following Harden) employing the model of Thumser-Dauth & Öchsner. The curriculum focuses on specifically defined competencies: medical expertise, independent scientific reasoning, argumentation and scholarship, as well as communication skills...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577440/effects-of-unstable-footwear-on-gait-characteristic-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Maede Farzadi, Zahra Nemati, Maryam Jalali, Roghaye Sheikhy Doulagh, Mohammd Kamali
BACKGROUND: Over the last three decades, several designs of unstable footwear have been developed in the forms of shoes, sandals and boots. There are marketing claims related to the positive effects of these shoes on the training of lower limb muscles and improving gait. Many studies have been performed on the effects of unstable footwear on muscle activity, balance, posture, energy expenditure, lower extremity disorders, and biomechanical changes. The analysis of the kinetics and kinematics characteristics of gait would provide objective representation of body movement...
June 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575309/nonhuman-primate-studies-to-advance-vision-science-and-prevent-blindness
#13
Michael J Mustari
Most primate behavior is dependent on high acuity vision. Optimal visual performance in primates depends heavily upon frontally placed eyes, retinal specializations, and binocular vision. To see an object clearly its image must be placed on or near the fovea of each eye. The oculomotor system is responsible for maintaining precise eye alignment during fixation and generating eye movements to track moving targets. The visual system of nonhuman primates has a similar anatomical organization and functional capability to that of humans...
May 31, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570562/anomalous-diffusion-on-the-servosphere-a-potential-tool-for-detecting-inherent-organismal-movement-patterns
#14
Naohisa Nagaya, Nobuaki Mizumoto, Masato S Abe, Shigeto Dobata, Ryota Sato, Ryusuke Fujisawa
Tracking animal movements such as walking is an essential task for understanding how and why animals move in an environment and respond to external stimuli. Different methods that implemented image analysis and a data logger such as GPS have been used in laboratory experiments and in field studies, respectively. Recently, animal movement patterns without stimuli have attracted an increasing attention in search for common innate characteristics underlying all of their movements. However, it is difficult to track the movements in a vast and homogeneous environment without stimuli because of space constraints in laboratories or environmental heterogeneity in the field, hindering our understanding of inherent movement patterns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569704/she-wears-the-pants-the-reform-dress-as-technology-in-nineteenth-century-america
#15
Catherine Mas
This article examines the American dress-reform movement, detailing the ways in which reformers conceptualized clothing as a social and bodily technology. In the mid-nineteenth century, women began making and wearing the "reform dress"-a costume consisting of pants and shortened, lightweight skirts-as an alternative to burdensome feminine fashions. When ridiculed in public for wearing overtly masculine garments, dress reformers insisted their clothing was healthful, functional, and natural. This article discusses women's use of medical science and technical knowledge in their rejection of fashion, promotion of sexual equality, and efforts to change mainstream clothing practices...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546675/anatomical-correlation-of-core-muscle-activation-in-different-yogic-postures
#16
REVIEW
Mrithunjay Rathore, Soumitra Trivedi, Jessy Abraham, Manisha B Sinha
Faulty postures due to sedentary lifestyle cause weakening of core muscles which contributes to increased incidence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Although a few research studies have quantified the core muscle activity in various yogic exercises used in rehabilitation programs, evidence correlating it to functional anatomy is scarce. Such information is important for exercise prescription when formulating treatment plans for MSDs. Therefore, the objective of this review article is to examine the literature and analyze the muscle activity produced across various yoga postures to determine which type of yoga posture elicits the highest activation for the core muscle in individuals...
May 2017: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539877/the-social-context-of-do-it-yourself-brain-stimulation-neurohackers-biohackers-and-lifehackers
#17
Anna Wexler
The "do-it-yourself" (DIY) brain stimulation movement began in earnest in late 2011, when lay individuals began building stimulation devices and applying low levels of electricity to their heads for self-improvement purposes. To date, scholarship on the home use of brain stimulation has focused on characterizing the practices of users via quantitative and qualitative studies, and on analyzing related ethical and regulatory issues. In this perspective piece, however, I take the opposite approach: rather than viewing the home use of brain stimulation on its own, I argue that it must be understood within the context of other DIY and citizen science movements...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539087/artificial-intelligence-methodologies-and-their-application-to-diabetes
#18
Mercedes Rigla, Gema García-Sáez, Belén Pons, Maria Elena Hernando
In the past decade diabetes management has been transformed by the addition of continuous glucose monitoring and insulin pump data. More recently, a wide variety of functions and physiologic variables, such as heart rate, hours of sleep, number of steps walked and movement, have been available through wristbands or watches. New data, hydration, geolocation, and barometric pressure, among others, will be incorporated in the future. All these parameters, when analyzed, can be helpful for patients and doctors' decision support...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526694/measuring-osmosis-and-hemolysis-of-red-blood-cells
#19
Lauren K Goodhead, Frances M MacMillan
Since the discovery of the composition and structure of the mammalian cell membrane, biologists have had a clearer understanding of how substances enter and exit the cell's interior. The selectively permeable nature of the cell membrane allows the movement of some solutes and prevents the movement of others. This has important consequences for cell volume and the integrity of the cell and, as a result, is of utmost clinical importance, for example in the administration of isotonic intravenous infusions. The concepts of osmolarity and tonicity are often confused by students as impermeant isosmotic solutes such as NaCl are also isotonic; however, isosmotic solutes such as urea are actually hypotonic due to the permeant nature of the membrane...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523452/training-for-leadership-roles-in-academic-medicine-opportunities-for-psychologists-in-the-aamc-lead-program
#20
Donna LaPaglia, Britta Thompson, Janet Hafler, Sheila Chauvin
Psychologists' roles within academic medicine have expanded well beyond research and scholarship. They are active as providers of patient care, medical education, and clinical supervision. Although the number of psychologists in academic health centers continues to grow, they represent a small portion of total medical school faculties. However, with the movement toward collaborative care models, emphasis on interprofessional teams, and increased emphasis on psychological science topics in medical curricula, psychologists are well-positioned to make further contributions...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
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