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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776104/interplay-between-cost-and-benefits-triggers-nontrivial-vaccination-uptake
#1
Benjamin Steinegger, Alessio Cardillo, Paolo De Los Rios, Jesús Gómez-Gardeñes, Alex Arenas
The containment of epidemic spreading is a major challenge in science. Vaccination, whenever available, is the best way to prevent the spreading, because it eventually immunizes individuals. However, vaccines are not perfect, and total immunization is not guaranteed. Imperfect immunization has driven the emergence of antivaccine movements that totally alter the predictions about the epidemic incidence. Here, we propose a mathematically solvable mean-field vaccination model to mimic the spontaneous adoption of vaccines against influenzalike diseases and the expected epidemic incidence...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774229/web-pages-what-can-you-see-in-a-single-fixation
#2
Ali Jahanian, Shaiyan Keshvari, Ruth Rosenholtz
Research in human vision suggests that in a single fixation, humans can extract a significant amount of information from a natural scene, e.g. the semantic category, spatial layout, and object identities. This ability is useful, for example, for quickly determining location, navigating around obstacles, detecting threats, and guiding eye movements to gather more information. In this paper, we ask a new question: What can we see at a glance at a web page - an artificial yet complex "real world" stimulus? Is it possible to notice the type of website, or where the relevant elements are, with only a glimpse? We find that observers, fixating at the center of a web page shown for only 120 milliseconds, are well above chance at classifying the page into one of ten categories...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756402/-friends-that-last-a-lifetime-the-importance-of-emotions-amongst-volunteers-working-with-refugees-in-calais
#3
Mark Doidge, Elisa Sandri
The European 'refugee crisis' has generated a broad movement of volunteers offering their time and skills to support refugees across the continent, in the absence of nation states. This article focuses on volunteers who helped in the informal refugee camp in Calais called the 'Jungle'. It looks at the importance of emotions as a motivating factor for taking on responsibilities that are usually carried out by humanitarian aid organizations. We argue that empathy is not only the initial motivator for action, but it also sustains the voluntary activity as volunteers make sense of their emotions through working in the camp...
May 13, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751222/development-of-forensic-medicine-in-post-reform-indonesia
#4
Yoni Fuadah Syukriani, Nita Novita, Deni K Sunjaya
Forensic medicine practice in Indonesia was introduced through the Dutch colonial criminal justice system in the early twentieth century. After more than 70 years of national independence, the development of forensic medicine still faces fundamental challenges, including confusion in the distribution of responsibility with law enforcement agencies, difficulties in managing conflicts of interest, and impediments in scientific practice and professional development. Despite of the golden opportunity from the Indonesian Reform movement in the late 1990s, the impact on forensic medicine development has been less than expected...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741637/microscopic-analysis-of-sperm-movement-links-to-mechanisms-and-protein-components
#5
Kazuo Inaba, Kogiku Shiba
Cilia and flagella are cell machines that power hydrodynamic forces by fast beating. They are composed of bundles of 9 + 2 microtubules that associate with several protein structures including axonemal dyneins and their regulators. Spermatozoa are single cells with in most cases a single flagellum and are good cell models to study how flagellar movements are regulated and linked to cell behavior. In addition, the assessment of sperm motility is an important diagnostic tool for evaluating male fertility in human reproductive medicine, and in livestock and fisheries sciences...
May 8, 2018: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732306/the-effectiveness-of-corticotomy-and-piezocision-on-canine-retraction-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Nita Viwattanatipa, Satadarun Charnchairerk
The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of corticotomy and piezocision in canine retraction. Five electronic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Embase, and CENTRAL) were searched for articles published up to July 2017. The databases were searched for randomized control trials (RCTs), with a split-mouth design, using either corticotomy or piezocision. The primary outcome reported for canine retraction was either the amount of tooth movement, rate of tooth movement, or treatment time...
May 2018: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730533/establishing-the-reliability-of-a-novel-battery-of-range-of-motion-tests-to-enable-evidence-based-classification-in-para-swimming
#7
Vaughan P Nicholson, Jemima G Spathis, Luke W Hogarth, Mark J Connick, Emma M Beckman, Sean M Tweedy, Carl J Payton, Brendan J Burkett
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the reliability of swimming-specific range of movement tests developed in order to permit evidenced-based classification in the sport of para swimming. DESIGN: Test-retest intra- and inter-examiner reliability. SETTING: International Swimming training camps and university exercise science departments. PARTICIPANTS: 42 non-disabled participants (mean age 23.2 years) and 24 Para swimmers (mean age 28...
April 30, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729106/problems-and-challenges-of-predatory-journals
#8
REVIEW
Georg Richtig, Marina Berger, Bernhard Lange-Asschenfeldt, Werner Aberer, Erika Richtig
The companies publishing predatory journals are an emerging problem in the area of scientific literature since they only seek to drain money from authors without providing any customer service for the authors or their readership. These predatory journals try to attract new submissions by aggressive email advertising and high acceptance rates. But in turn, they do not provide proper peer-review and therefore the scientific quality of submitted articles is questionable. This is important because more and more people, including patients, are reading such journals and rely on the information they provide...
May 5, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726809/the-future-s-of-open-science
#9
Philip Mirowski
Almost everyone is enthusiastic that 'open science' is the wave of the future. Yet when one looks seriously at the flaws in modern science that the movement proposes to remedy, the prospect for improvement in at least four areas are unimpressive. This suggests that the agenda is effectively to re-engineer science along the lines of platform capitalism, under the misleading banner of opening up science to the masses.
April 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725619/the-role-of-electron-irradiation-history-in-liquid-cell-transmission-electron-microscopy
#10
Trevor H Moser, Hardeep Mehta, Chiwoo Park, Ryan T Kelly, Tolou Shokuhfar, James E Evans
In situ liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LC-TEM) allows dynamic nanoscale characterization of systems in a hydrated state. Although powerful, this technique remains impaired by issues of repeatability that limit experimental fidelity and hinder the identification and control of some variables underlying observed dynamics. We detail new LC-TEM devices that improve experimental reproducibility by expanding available imaging area and providing a platform for investigating electron flux history on the sample...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721811/life-quality-of-patients-who-underwent-breast-reconstruction-after-prophylactic-mastectomy-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Dilek Aygin, Hande Cengiz
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic mastectomy is used to reduce the incidence of breast cancer in women with genetic predisposition and family history of breast cancer, and the rate of application is increased nowadays. Chronic pain, body image, and sexuality may negatively affect quality of life, while patients generally have increased quality of life and satisfaction after prophylactic mastectomy. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the results of the studies about quality of life of patients who underwent breast reconstruction after prophylactic mastectomy...
May 2, 2018: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720876/can-a-single-session-of-motor-imagery-promote-motor-learning-of-locomotion-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Vaughan P Nicholson, Justin Wl Keogh, Nancy L Low Choy
Purpose: To investigate the influence of a single session of locomotor-based motor imagery training on motor learning and physical performance. Patients and methods: Thirty independent adults aged >65 years took part in the randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted within an exercise science laboratory. Participants were randomly divided into three groups following baseline locomotor testing: motor imagery training, physical training, and control groups...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715622/comparison-of-forensic-photo-documentation-to-a-photogrammetric-solution-using-the-multi-camera-system-botscan
#13
Ramona Michienzi, Seraina Meier, Lars C Ebert, Rosa Maria Martinez, Till Sieberth
As forensic science technologies progress, digital photography has become outdated for certain documentations that require exact measurements. Recording three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional photograph leads to a potential loss of relevant information. Photogrammetry has been utilized to record persons, objects or crime scenes and prevents this loss. Photogrammetry enables accurate documentation and visualization of events or matching of injuries and injury-causing instruments. To reduce inaccuracies during photogrammetric recording, a multi camera device, Botscan by Botspot, can be used to record living persons in three-dimensional space (3D)...
April 14, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713157/effectiveness-of-meditative-movement-on-copd-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Lu-Ling Wu, Zheng-Kun Lin, Hui-Dan Weng, Qiao-Fang Qi, Jun Lu, Kai-Xiong Liu
Background: The effectiveness of meditative movement (tai chi, yoga, and qigong) on COPD remained unclear. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of meditative movement on COPD patients. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Center Register of Controlled Trials for relevant studies. The methods of standard meta-analysis were utilized for identifying relevant researches (until August 2017), quality appraisal, and synthesis...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706132/when-complexity-science-meets-implementation-science-a-theoretical-and-empirical-analysis-of-systems-change
#15
Jeffrey Braithwaite, Kate Churruca, Janet C Long, Louise A Ellis, Jessica Herkes
BACKGROUND: Implementation science has a core aim - to get evidence into practice. Early in the evidence-based medicine movement, this task was construed in linear terms, wherein the knowledge pipeline moved from evidence created in the laboratory through to clinical trials and, finally, via new tests, drugs, equipment, or procedures, into clinical practice. We now know that this straight-line thinking was naïve at best, and little more than an idealization, with multiple fractures appearing in the pipeline...
April 30, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703261/biomechanical-analysis-of-plate-systems-for-proximal-humerus-fractures-a-systematic-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
Ali Jabran, Chris Peach, Lei Ren
BACKGROUND: Proximal humerus fractures are the third most common in the human body but their management remains controversial. Open reduction and internal fixation with plates is one of the leading modes of operative treatment for these fractures. The development of technologies and techniques for these plates, during the recent decades, promise a bright future for their clinical use. A comprehensive review of in vitro biomechanical studies is needed for the comparison of plates' mechanical performance and the testing methodologies...
April 27, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698454/relative-importance-of-population-size-fishing-pressure-and-temperature-on-the-spatial-distribution-of-nine-northwest-atlantic-groundfish-stocks
#17
Charles F Adams, Larry A Alade, Christopher M Legault, Loretta O'Brien, Michael C Palmer, Katherine A Sosebee, Michele L Traver
The spatial distribution of nine Northwest Atlantic groundfish stocks was documented using spatial indicators based on Northeast Fisheries Science Center spring and fall bottom trawl survey data, 1963-2016. We then evaluated the relative importance of population size, fishing pressure and bottom temperature on spatial distribution with an information theoretic approach. Northward movement in the spring was generally consistent with prior analyses, whereas changes in depth distribution and area occupancy were not...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696594/using-eye-movements-to-understand-the-leakage-of-information-during-chinese-reading
#18
Yanping Liu, Erik D Reichle
How is attention allocated during reading? The present eye-movement experiment used a paradigm developed by Liu and Reichle (Psychological Science, 29, 278-287, 2018) to examine object-based attention during reading: Participants were instructed to read one of two spatially overlapping sentences containing colocated target/distractor words of varying frequency. Although target-word frequency modulated fixation-duration measures on the target word, the distractor-word frequency also had a smaller, independent effect...
April 25, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696313/using-proprioception-to-control-ongoing-actions-dominance-of-vision-or-altered-proprioceptive-weighing
#19
Rachel Goodman, Luc Tremblay
Visual feedback is crucial for movement accuracy (e.g., Keele and Posner, J Exp Psychol 77:155-158, 1968). As well, proprioception has been argued to be important for the control of voluntary movements (e.g., Bagesteiro et al., Exp Brain Res 171:358-370, 2006; Rossetti et al., J Neurophysiol 74:457-463, 1995). While tendon vibration (TVib) has been used to perturb proprioceptive information during limb matching tasks (Goodwin et al., Science 175:1382-1384, 1972), the current study employed between-trial dual-muscle TVib, coupled with vision occlusion, to assess the use of vision and proprioception for the online control of voluntary movements...
April 25, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695993/the-efficacy-of-eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-in-children-and-adults-who-have-experienced-complex-childhood-trauma-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#20
Runsen Chen, Amy Gillespie, Yanhui Zhao, Yingjun Xi, Yanping Ren, Loyola McLean
Background: Survivors of complex childhood trauma (CT) such as sexual abuse show poorer outcomes compared to single event trauma survivors. A growing number of studies investigate Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but no systematic reviews have focused on EMDR treatment for CT as an intervention for both adults and children. This study therefore systematically reviewed all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of EMDR on PTSD symptoms in adults and children exposed to CT...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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