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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749784/concentrations-of-leptin-adiponectin-and-other-metabolic-parameters-in-non-obese-children-with-down-syndrome
#1
Nikhil Tenneti, Devi Dayal, Sheetal Sharda, Inusha Panigrahi, Mohammed Didi, Savita Verma Attri, Naresh Sachdeva, Anil Kumar Bhalla
BACKGROUND: Recent data indicates that adults with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that significantly contributes to their morbidity and mortality. Although identification of cardiometabolic risk factors during childhood is desirable to design preventive interventions, the data on such risk factors in children with DS is scarce. The aim of this study was to study the cardiometabolic risk factors such as insulin resistance (IR), leptin and adiponectin concentrations, lipid abnormalities and leptin resistance in non-obese children with DS...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733328/thermal-imprinting-modifies-bone-homeostasis-in-cold-challenged-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-l
#2
Ana Patrícia Mateus, Rita Costa, Enric Gisbert, Patricia I S Pinto, Karl B Andree, Alicia Estévez, Deborah M Power
Fish are ectotherms and temperature plays a determinant role in their physiology, biology and ecology and is a driver of seasonal responses. The present study assessed how thermal imprinting during embryonic and larval stages modified the response of adult fish to low water temperature. We targeted the gilthead sea bream that develops a condition known as winter syndrome when it is exposed to low water temperatures. Eggs and larvae of sea bream were exposed to four different thermal regimes and then the response of the resulting adults to a low temperature challenge was assessed...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726593/validation-and-normalization-of-the-tower-of-london-drexel-university-test-2nd-edition-in-an-adult-population-with-intellectual-disability
#3
Javier García-Alba, Susanna Esteba-Castillo, Miguel Ángel Castellanos López, Emili Rodríguez Hidalgo, Nuria Ribas Vidal, Fernando Moldenhauer Díaz, Ramón Novell-Alsina
Despite how important it is to assess executive functioning in persons with Intellectual Disability (ID), instruments adapted and validated for this population are scarce. This study's primary goal was to find evidence for the validity of the ID version of the Tower of London (TOLDXtm) test in persons with mild (IDMi) and moderate (IDMo) levels of ID with Down Syndrome (DS). A multicenter study was carried out. Subjects (n = 63, ≥ 39 years old) had DS with mild (n = 39) or moderate ID (n = 24) with no minor neurocognitive disorder or Alzheimer's disease...
July 20, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726285/a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-executive-function-in-down-syndrome-from-2-to-35%C3%A2-years
#4
S J Loveall, F A Conners, A S Tungate, L J Hahn, T D Osso
BACKGROUND: Previous research has indicated a unique profile of executive function (EF) in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). However, there is a paucity of research on EF in adults with DS. This study aimed to gain a broader understanding of strengths and weaknesses in EF in DS from 2 to 35 years. METHOD: Parents of 112 individuals with DS between 2 and 35 years participated in this study. Parents either completed the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function - for individuals 6+ years - or the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version - for children 2-5 years...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720071/developmental-expression-and-dysregulation-of-mir-146a-and-mir-155-in-down-s-syndrome-and-mouse-models-of-down-s-syndrome-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
A Arena, A M Iyer, I Milenkovic, G G Kovács, I Ferrer, M Perluigi, E Aronica
miR-146a and miR-155 are key regulators of the innate immune response. We hypothesized that an inflammation-mediated dysregulation of these miRNAs may occur in patients with Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The miRNA expression patterns were investigated by in situ hybridization in developing hippocampus from controls, patients with DS and in adults with AD pathology (DS and sporadic AD; sAD). quantitative real-time PCR was employed to evaluate the miRNA levels in the hippocampus of sAD and in mouse models of DS and AD...
July 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715661/cognitive-decline-and-brain-amyloid-%C3%AE-accumulation-across-3-years-in-adults-with-down-syndrome
#6
Sigan L Hartley, Benjamin L Handen, Darlynne Devenny, Iulia Mihaila, Regina Hardison, Patrick J Lao, William E Klunk, Peter Bulova, Sterling C Johnson, Bradley T Christian
Adults with Down syndrome (DS) have a high incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), providing a unique opportunity to explore the early, preclinical stages of AD neuropathology. We examined change in brain amyloid-β accumulation via the positron emission tomography tracer [11C] Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) across 2 data collection cycles, spaced 3 years apart, and decline in cognitive functioning in 58 adults with DS without clinical AD. PiB retention increased in the anterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus cortex, parietal cortex, and anterior ventral striatum...
June 2, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697486/oxidant-production-and-sod1-protein-expression-in-single-skeletal-myofibers-from-down-syndrome-mice
#7
Patrick M Cowley, Divya R Nair, Lara R DeRuisseau, Stefan Keslacy, Mustafa Atalay, Keith C DeRuisseau
Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic condition caused by the triplication of chromosome 21. Persons with DS exhibit pronounced muscle weakness, which also occurs in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Oxidative stress is thought to be an underlying factor in the development of DS-related pathologies including muscle dysfunction. High-levels of oxidative stress have been attributed to triplication and elevated expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1); a gene located on chromosome 21. The elevated expression of SOD1 is postulated to increase production of hydrogen peroxide and cause oxidative injury and cell death...
July 4, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694327/efficacy-of-nutritional-interventions-to-lower-circulating-ceramides-in-young-adults-fruvedomic-pilot-study
#8
Alice T Mathews, Oluremi A Famodu, Melissa D Olfert, Pamela J Murray, Christopher F Cuff, Marianne T Downes, Norman J Haughey, Sarah E Colby, Paul D Chantler, I Mark Olfert, Joseph W McFadden
The 2010 USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends a diet largely composed of fruit and vegetables. Consuming a diet high in fruit and vegetables and low in refined carbohydrates and saturated fat may reduce an individual's risk for type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, low-grade chronic inflammation, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Several recent studies have implicated the bioactive sphingolipid ceramide as an associative and causative biomarker for the development of these conditions...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685282/bone-mineral-density-in-adults-with-down-syndrome
#9
A Carfì, R Liperoti, D Fusco, S Giovannini, V Brandi, D L Vetrano, E Meloni, D Mascia, E R Villani, E Manes Gravina, R Bernabei, G Onder
This study analyzed data of bone mineral density (BMD) from a large cohort of adults with Down syndrome (DS). BMD was found to decrease with age more rapidly in these subjects than in the general population, exposing adults with DS to an increased risk of osteoporosis and bone fracture. INTRODUCTION: Down syndrome (DS) in adulthood presents with a high prevalence of osteoporosis. However, in DS, bone mineral density (BMD) can be underestimated due to short stature. Furthermore, the rate of age-related decline in BMD and its association with gender in DS has been rarely evaluated or compared with the general population...
July 6, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677372/early-increased-density-of-cyclooxygenase-2-cox-2-immunoreactive-neurons-in-down-syndrome
#10
Maria Mulet, José Miguel Blasco-Ibáńez, Carlos Crespo, Juan Nácher, Emilio Varea
<i>Neuroinflammation is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. One of the enzymes involved in neuroinflammation, even in early stages of the disease, is COX-2, an inducible cyclooxygenase responsible for the generation of eicosanoids and for the generation of free radicals. Individuals with Down syndrome develop Alzheimer's disease early in life. Previous studies pointed to the possible overexpression of COX-2 and correlated it to brain regions affected by the disease. We analysed the COX-2 expression levels in individuals with Down syndrome and in young, adult and old mice of the Ts65Dn mouse model for Down syndrome...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674290/elucidating-pathogenic-mechanisms-of-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-in-down-syndrome-patients
#11
Masashi Asai, Takashi Kawakubo, Ryotaro Mori, Nobuhisa Iwata
 Down syndrome (DS) patients demonstrate the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) characterized by the formation of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles by age 40-50 years. It has been considered for a number of years that 1.5-fold expression of the gene for the amyloid precursor protein (APP) located on chromosome 21 leading to overproduction of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) results in the early onset of AD in adults with DS. However, the mean age of onset of familial AD with the Swedish mutation on APP which has high affinity for β-secretase associated with a dramatic increase in Aβ production is about 55 years...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674041/transient-notch-activation-induces-long-term-gene-expression-changes-leading-to-sick-sinus-syndrome-in-mice
#12
Yun Qiao, Catherine Lipovsky, Stephanie Hicks, Somya Bhatnagar, Gang Li, Aditi Khandekar, Robert Guzy, Kel Vin Woo, Colin G Nichols, Igor R Efimov, Stacey Rentschler
Rationale: Notch signaling programs cardiac conduction during development, and in the adult ventricle, injury-induced Notch reactivation initiates global transcriptional and epigenetic changes. Objective: To determine whether Notch reactivation may stably alter atrial ion channel gene expression and arrhythmia inducibility. Methods and Results: To model an injury response and determine the effects of Notch signaling on atrial electrophysiology, we transiently activate Notch signaling within adult myocardium using a doxycycline-inducible genetic system (iNICD)...
July 3, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663364/platelet-count-and-mean-platelet-volume-predict-outcome-in-adults-with-eisenmenger-syndrome
#13
Agustin C Martin-Garcia, Deepa Rj Arachchillage, Aleksander Kempny, Rafael Alonso-Gonzalez, Ana Martin-Garcia, Anselm Uebing, Lorna Swan, Stephen J Wort, Laura C Price, Colm McCabe, Pedro Luis Sanchez, Konstantinos Dimopoulos, Michael A Gatzoulis
OBJECTIVES: Although a significant proportion of patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease are thrombocytopaenic, its prevalence and clinical significance in adults with Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) is not well studied. Accordingly, we examined the relationship of thrombocytopaenia and mean platelet volume (MPV) to bleeding or thrombotic complications and survival in a contemporary cohort of patients with ES, including patients with Down syndrome. METHODS: Demographics, laboratory and clinical data were analysed from 226 patients with ES under active follow-up over 11 years...
June 29, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662986/therapy-options-for-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction-bronchiolitis-obliterans-syndrome-following-first-line-immunosuppressive-strategies-a-systematic-review
#14
Christian Benden, Maria Haughton, Saoirse Leonard, Lars C Huber
BACKGROUND: Long-term success of lung transplantation is limited by the development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), of which bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is the most common form. This systematic review sought to identify the current evidence base for CLAD-BOS therapies after initial immunosuppressive treatment strategies. METHODS: The MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to May 3, 2016, were searched using keywords relating to CLAD-BOS, study designs, and treatments of interest, including extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP), aerosolized cyclosporine, total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), alemtuzumab, and montelukast...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654414/handwriting-in-children-and-adults-with-down-syndrome-developmental-delay-or-specific-features
#15
Raphaele Tsao
While there is a long history and tradition of behavioral research on basic motor skills in Down syndrome (DS), there has been only limited research on handwriting ability. We analyzed the spatiotemporal features of handwriting produced by children and adults with DS (n = 24), and compared their productions with those of comparison groups matched for developmental (n = 24) or chronological (n = 24) age. Results indicated that the participants with DS performed an alphabet letter-writing task just as efficiently as the children of the same developmental age, in terms of the length, duration and speed of their handwriting, and the number and duration of their pauses...
July 2017: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654410/audiologic-assessment-in-adults-with-down-syndrome
#16
Pasqualina M Picciotti, Angelo Carfì, Roberta Anzivino, Gaetano Paludetti, Guido Conti, Vincenzo Brandi, Roberto Bernabei, Graziano Onder
Increased life expectancy in persons with Down syndrome (DS) is associated with premature age-related changes. The aim of this study was to assess auditory function in adults with DS and to evaluate the prevalence of hearing loss in this population. Audiometric tests were performed in 72 adults with DS (mean age 37.3±10.1 years, 51.4% females). Air conduction pure tone average (PTA) thresholds at frequencies 0.5-1-2-4 kHz were calculated to assess hearing function. Hearing loss was present if the PTA threshold was > 20 dB hearing level...
July 2017: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651891/neuroanatomical-alterations-and-synaptic-plasticity-impairment-in-the-perirhinal-cortex-of-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#17
Vincenzo Roncacé, Costanza Burattini, Fiorenza Stagni, Sandra Guidi, Andrea Giacomini, Marco Emili, Giorgio Aicardi, Renata Bartesaghi
Down syndrome (DS), a genetic condition due to triplication of Chromosome 21, is characterized by numerous neurodevelopmental alterations and intellectual disability. Individuals with DS and DS mouse models are impaired in several memory domains, including hippocampus-dependent declarative (spatial, in rodents) memory and visual recognition memory, a form of memory in which the perirhinal cortex (PRC) plays a fundamental role. The anatomo-functional substrates of hippocampus-dependent memory impairment have been largely elucidated in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS...
June 23, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649192/deleterious-effects-of-chronic-folate-deficiency-in-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#18
Susan Helm, Morgan Blayney, Taylor Whited, Mahjabin Noroozi, Sen Lin, Semira Kern, David Green, Ahmad Salehi
Folate is an important B vitamin naturally found in the human diet and plays a critical role in methylation of nucleic acids. Indeed, abnormalities in this major epigenetic mechanism play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cognitive deficit and intellectual disability in humans. The most common cause of cognitive dysfunction in children is Down syndrome (DS). Since folate deficiency is very common among the pediatric population, we questioned whether chronic folate deficiency (CFD) exacerbates cognitive dysfunction in a mouse model of DS...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647555/normalizing-the-gene-dosage-of-dyrk1a-in-a-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome-rescues-several-alzheimer-s-disease-phenotypes
#19
Susana García-Cerro, Noemí Rueda, Verónica Vidal, Sara Lantigua, Carmen Martínez-Cué
The intellectual disability that characterizes Down syndrome (DS) is primarily caused by prenatal changes in central nervous system growth and differentiation. However, in later life stages, the cognitive abilities of DS individuals progressively decline due to accelerated aging and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. The AD neuropathology in DS has been related to the overexpression of several genes encoded by Hsa21 including DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), which encodes a protein kinase that performs crucial functions in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways that contribute to normal brain development and adult brain physiology...
June 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638720/negative-emotion-evoked-by-viewing-snakes-has-a-motivating-effect-on-cognitive-processing-in-human-children-with-or-without-intellectual-disability
#20
Nobuo Masataka
BACKGROUND: It is well known that prioritization of the processing of threatening stimuli generally induces deleterious effects on task performance. However, a study recently reported that emotion (possibly fear) evoked by viewing images of snakes exerts a facilitating effect upon making judgments of the images' color in neurotypical adults and schoolchildren. Here, the author has attempted to confirm the relevance of this notion in children with and without intellectual disability. METHODS: The author here compared the reaction time required to name the colors of snake and flower images between children with Down syndrome (DS) and mental age matched, typically-developing (TD) children...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
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