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sibling competition

Wencai Lu, Yuan Hu, Peng Wei, Qiang Xu, Christian Bowman, Ming Li, Lin He
The carmine spider mite (Tetranychus cinnabarinus [Acarifonnes: Tetranychidae]) and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae [Acarifonnes: Tetranychidae]) are two notorious pests of agricultural crops. Control of these pests has been dependent upon using different kinds of acaricides. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential responses of these two pest species collected from crops in the same field to acaricide treatments. Field trials have shown that without spraying acaricides, T...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jiří Reif, Radka Reifová, Anna Skoracka, Lechosław Kuczyński
1.The role of interspecific competition for generating patterns in species' distribution is hotly debated and studies taking into account processes occurring at both large and small spatial scales are almost missing. Theoretically, competition between species with overlapping niches should result in divergence of their niches in sympatry to reduce the costs of competition. Many species show a mosaic distribution within sympatric zones, with the syntopic sites occupied by both species, and allotopic sites where only one species occurs...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Petra Sumasgutner, Marius Adrion, Anita Gamauf
As the world experiences rapid urban expansion, natural landscapes are being transformed into cities at an alarming rate. Consequently, urbanization is identified as one of the biggest environmental challenges of our time, yet we lack a clear understanding of how urbanization affects free-living organisms. Urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and increased impervious surfaces affecting for example availability and quality of food. Urbanization is also associated with increased pollution levels that can affect organisms directly, via ecophysiological constraints and indirectly by disrupting trophic interactions in multi-species networks...
2018: PloS One
Aitor Arrizabalaga-Escudero, Elizabeth L Clare, Egoitz Salsamendi, Antton Alberdi, Inazio Garin, Joxerra Aihartza, Urtzi Goiti
Niche partitioning through foraging is a mechanism likely involved in facilitating the coexistence of ecologically similar and co-occurring animal species by separating their use of resources. Yet, this mechanism is not well understood in flying insectivorous animals. This is particularly true of bats, where many ecologically similar or cryptic species coexist. The detailed analysis of the foraging niche in sympatric, cryptic sibling species provides an excellent framework to disentangle the role of specific niche factors likely involved in facilitating coexistence...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Da Yin, Erich M Schwarz, Cristel G Thomas, Rebecca L Felde, Ian F Korf, Asher D Cutter, Caitlin M Schartner, Edward J Ralston, Barbara J Meyer, Eric S Haag
To reveal impacts of sexual mode on genome content, we compared chromosome-scale assemblies of the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis nigoni to its self-fertile sibling species, C. briggsaeC. nigoni's genome resembles that of outcrossing relatives but encodes 31% more protein-coding genes than C. briggsaeC. nigoni genes lacking C. briggsae orthologs were disproportionately small and male-biased in expression. These include the male secreted short (mss) gene family, which encodes sperm surface glycoproteins conserved only in outcrossing species...
January 5, 2018: Science
Marcos Roberto Dias Batista, Felipe Bastos Rocha, Louis Bernard Klaczko
Variation of ecophysiological traits may help to explain geographic distribution patterns of Drosophila sibling species. Many traits in ectotherms have optimal performance within specific temperature ranges. Altitudinal gradients are potentially informative for characterizing differences of sibling species distributions. We collected two sibling species of the tripunctata group - Drosophila mediopunctata (MPT) and D. unipunctata (UNI) - at eight altitudes (ranging from 593 to 1185m above sea level) located at a continuous Atlantic Rainforest reserve in consecutive years (2009-2011), with two collections at the hot-rainy season and two at the cold-dry season...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Emily K Elderbrock, Thomas W Small, Stephan J Schoech
Altricial young are dependent on adults for protection and food, and they display nutritional need by begging to elicit feeding from parents. Begging at high levels can be energetically expensive and attract predators; thus, an individual must balance its nutritional needs with these potential costs. Further, because a parent is limited in the amount of food it can provide, begging can contribute to both parent-offspring conflict and sibling-sibling competition. Many extrinsic and intrinsic factors may contribute to begging behavior...
April 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Janina Stauffer, Bineet Panda, Petteri Ilmonen
Antioxidants and telomere length are potential biomarkers for individuals' exposure and ability to cope with environmental stressors. However, intraspecific variations in antioxidant alterations due to natural, life cycle related stress, have been rarely estimated. We investigated those changes in wild-derived house mice in a longitudinal study with natural sibling competition as a stressor. Blood was used for telomere length measurements at 8-weeks age and for several selected antioxidants at 8-weeks and 6-months age...
October 7, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Maki Ikebuchi, Kazuo Okanoya, Toshikazu Hasegawa, Hans-Joachim Bischof
The mode of hatching in birds has important impacts on both parents and chicks, including the costs and risks of breeding for parents, and sibling competition in a clutch. Birds with multiple eggs in a single clutch often begin incubating when most eggs are laid, thereby reducing time of incubation, nursing burden, and sibling competition. In some songbirds and some other species, however, incubation starts immediately after the first egg is laid, and the chicks thus hatch asynchronously. This may result in differences in parental care and in sibling competition based on body size differences among older and younger chicks, which in turn might produce asynchronous development among siblings favoring the first hatchling, and further affect the development and fitness of the chicks after fledging...
October 2017: Zoological Science
David G Ashbrook, Naorin Sharmin, Reinmar Hager
Family members show behavioural strategies predicted to maximize individual fitness. These behaviours depend directly on genes expressed in focal individuals but also indirectly on genes expressed in other family members. However, how sibling and parental behavioural strategies are modified by genes expressed in family members, and to what degree, remains unclear. To answer this question, we have used a split litter design in an experimental population of genetically variable mouse families, and identified loci that indirectly affected sibling and maternal behaviour simultaneously...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
M Gebiola, S E Kelly, L Velten, R Zug, P Hammerstein, M Giorgini, M S Hunter
When allopatric species with incomplete prezygotic isolation come into secondary contact, the outcome of their interaction is not easily predicted. The parasitoid wasp Encarsia suzannae (iES), infected by Cardinium inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), and its sibling species E. gennaroi (EG), not infected by bacterial endosymbionts, may have diverged because of the complementary action of CI and asymmetric hybrid incompatibilities. Whereas postzygotic isolation is now complete because of sterility of F1 hybrid progeny, prezygotic isolation is still incipient...
December 2017: Heredity
Noraine Salleh Hudin, Liesbeth De Neve, Diederik Strubbe, Graham D Fairhurst, Carl Vangestel, Will J Peach, Luc Lens
Several studies on birds have proposed that a lack of invertebrate prey in urbanized areas could be the main cause for generally lower levels of breeding success compared to rural habitats. Previous work on house sparrows Passer domesticus found that supplemental feeding in urbanized areas increased breeding success but did not contribute to population growth. Here, we hypothesize that supplementary feeding allows house sparrows to achieve higher breeding success but at the cost of lower nestling quality. As abundant food supplies may permit both high- and low-quality nestlings to survive, we also predict that within-brood variation in proxies of nestling quality would be larger for supplemental food broods than for unfed broods...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Jason N Marsh, Regina Vega-Trejo, Michael D Jennions, Megan L Head
Mating with relatives has often been shown to negatively affect offspring fitness (inbreeding depression). There is considerable evidence for inbreeding depression due to effects on naturally selected traits, particularly those expressed early in life, but there is less evidence of it for sexually selected traits. This is surprising because sexually selected traits are expected to exhibit strong inbreeding depression. Here, we experimentally created inbred and outbred male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)...
November 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Marie-Sophie García-Heras, Beatriz Arroyo, Robert E Simmons, Pablo R Camarero, Rafael Mateo, Jesús T García, Francois Mougeot
Carotenoid-based traits or ornaments, such as yellow-red integuments (feathers, beaks, legs or eye-rings) displayed by birds, play key roles in social communication by reliably advertising an individual's quality or health. In some species, these traits are displayed not only by adults but also by nestlings, and function in parent-offspring communication or sibling competition by advertising an individual's physical or physiological condition. Pollutants such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) could have disruptive effects on the coloration of these traits, thereby interfering with communication processes...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Amando Bautista, José Alfredo Zepeda, Verónica Reyes-Meza, Christophe Féron, Heiko G Rödel, Robyn Hudson
Altricial mammals typically lack the physiological capacity to thermoregulate independently during the early postnatal period, and in litter-bearing species the young benefit strongly from huddling together with their litter siblings. Such litter huddles are highly dynamic systems, often characterized by competition for energetically favorable, central positions. In the present study, carried out in domestic rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus, we asked whether individual differences in body mass affect changes in body temperature during changes in the position within the huddle...
June 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Franco Locatelli, Pietro Merli, Daria Pagliara, Giuseppina Li Pira, Michela Falco, Daniela Pende, Roberto Rondelli, Barbarella Lucarelli, Letizia Pomponia Brescia, Riccardo Masetti, Giuseppe Maria Milano, Valentina Bertaina, Mattia Algeri, Rita Maria Pinto, Luisa Strocchio, Raffaella Meazza, Lavinia Grapulin, Rupert Handgretinger, Alessandro Moretta, Alice Bertaina, Lorenzo Moretta
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from an HLA-haploidentical relative (haplo-HSCT) is a suitable option for children with acute leukemia (AL) either relapsed or at high-risk of treatment failure. We developed a novel method of graft manipulation based on negative depletion of αβ T and B cells and conducted a prospective trial evaluating the outcome of children with AL transplanted with this approach. Eighty AL children, transplanted between September 2011 and September 2014, were enrolled in the trial...
August 3, 2017: Blood
Blanca Jimeno, Michael Briga, Simon Verhulst, Michaela Hau
Developmental conditions in early life frequently have long-term consequences on the adult phenotype, but the adult environment can modulate such long-term effects. Glucocorticoid hormones may be instrumental in mediating developmental effects, but the permanency of such endocrine changes is still debated. Here, we manipulated environmental conditions during development (small vs. large brood size, and hence sibling competition) and in adulthood (easy vs. hard foraging conditions) in a full factorial design in zebra finches, and studied effects on baseline (Bas-CORT) and stress-induced (SI-CORT) corticosterone in adulthood...
June 9, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Sara L Martin, Leshawn Benedict, Connie A Sauder, Wei Wei, Leandro Oliveira da Costa, Linda M Hall, Hugh J Beckie
Glyphosate is considered the world's most important herbicide, but widespread and continual use has resulted in the evolution of resistance. Kochia scoparia (kochia) has evolved resistance via tandem gene amplification of glyphosate's target, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) and resistant populations have been reported from the Canadian Prairies and the Northern Great Plains. Here, we evaluated the fitness costs of EPSPS amplification in kochia by comparing susceptible and resistant full siblings from segregating F2 populations generated from within six populations...
August 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Simone A Campbell, Michelle L Beck, Kendra B Sewall
Conditions experienced early in life can shape brain development and later cognition. Altricial songbirds are particularly vulnerable to early environmental perturbations. Research on "Developmental Stress" in songbirds has addressed how early-life conditions may impair song learning and has been extended to consider other components of adult phenotype. Early-life challenges ranging from ectoparasites to competition with siblings have been shown to compromise song learning and other measures of cognition, as well as behavioral strategy...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
David N Fisher, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Murray M Humphries, Jeffrey E Lane, Andrew G McAdam
Individuals often interact more closely with some members of the population (e.g., offspring, siblings, or group members) than they do with other individuals. This structuring of interactions can lead to multilevel natural selection, where traits expressed at the group-level influence fitness alongside individual-level traits. Such multilevel selection can alter evolutionary trajectories, yet is rarely quantified in the wild, especially for species that do not interact in clearly demarcated groups. We quantified multilevel natural selection on two traits, postnatal growth rate and birth date, in a population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)...
July 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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