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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912014/why-do-larger-mothers-produce-larger-offspring-a-test-of-classic-theory
#1
Hayley Cameron, Keyne Monro, Martino Malerba, Stephan Munch, Dustin Marshall
Across a wide range of taxa, larger mothers produce larger offspring. Theory assumes that larger, more fecund mothers create higher local densities of siblings, and so larger mothers produce larger offspring to offset sibling competition. This assumption has been debated for over 30 yr, but direct empirical tests are surprisingly rare. Here, we test two key assumptions of classic theories that predict sibling competition drives maternal-size-offspring-size (MSOS) correlations: (1) independent effects of offspring size and sibling density on offspring performance or (2) as a product of an interaction between these two factors...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904806/dominance-relationships-in-a-family-pack-of-captive-arctic-wolves-canis-lupus-arctos-the-influence-of-competition-for-food-age-and-sex
#2
Simona Cafazzo, Martina Lazzaroni, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
BACKGROUND: Dominance is one of the most pervasive concepts in the study of wolf social behaviour but recently its validity has been questioned. For some authors, the bonds between members of wolf families are better described as parent-offspring relationships and the concept of dominance should be used just to evaluate the social dynamics of non-familial captive pack members (e.g., Mech & Cluff, 2010). However, there is a dearth of studies investigating dominance relationships and its correlates in wolf family packs...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902754/how-do-growth-and-sibling-competition-affect-telomere-dynamics-in-the-first-month-of-life-of-long-lived-seabird
#3
Yuichi Mizutani, Yasuaki Niizuma, Ken Yoda
Telomeres are nucleotide sequences located at the ends of chromosomes that promote genome stability. Changes in telomere length (dynamics) are related to fitness or life expectancy, and telomere dynamics during the development phase are likely to be affected by growth and stress factors. Here, we examined telomere dynamics of black-tailed gull chicks (Larus crassirostris) in nests with and without siblings. We found that the initial telomere lengths of singletons at hatching were longer than those of siblings, indicating that singletons are higher-quality chicks than siblings in terms of telomere length...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852800/kin-selection-and-the-evolution-of-plant-reproductive-traits
#4
REVIEW
Kamaljit S Bawa
Competition among developing seeds and sibling rivalry within multiovulated ovaries can be deleterious for both the maternal parent and the siblings. Increased genetic relatedness of seeds within the ovary may foster kin selection and reduce the deleterious consequences of sibling competition. The pollen parent may also be selected for siring all progeny within a fruit. I propose a series of hypotheses to explain the evolution of a number of reproductive traits in angiosperms in the context of kin selection and sibling rivalry within the ovaries of angiosperms...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821738/sibling-conflict-and-dishonest-signaling-in-birds
#5
Shana M Caro, Stuart A West, Ashleigh S Griffin
Offspring survival can often depend on successful communication with parents about their state of need. Theory suggests that offspring will be less likely to honestly signal their need when they experience greater competition from either a greater number of nestmates or less-related nestmates. We found support for this hypothesis with a comparative analysis, examining data from across 60 species of birds. We found that offspring are less honest about their level of need when (i) they face competition from current siblings; (ii) their parents are likely to breed again, and so they are in competition with future siblings; and (iii) parental divorce or death means that they are likely to be less related to future siblings...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793750/being-a-weakling-and-surviving-keep-the-fittest-siblings-close-by-when-eating
#6
Janko Skok
Weaklings serve as a buffer, allowing an increase in the overall prospect of offspring survival. Whereas birds are able to directly determine which offspring to invest in via selective feeding, multiparous mammals have fewer methods of excluding weaklings from milk provision. In pigs the maternal investment strategy is based on the vigorousness of the progeny, whereby weaklings can suffer hunger due to an inability to sufficiently stimulate the mammary gland. However, the vigorous massage might stimulate higher milk production in the surrounding glands and it is possible that a weakling's survivability is conditioned also by suckling at a position adjacent to heaviest littermate...
December 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761007/only-child-syndrome-in-snakes-eggs-incubated-alone-produce-asocial-individuals
#7
Fabien Aubret, Florent Bignon, Philippe J R Kok, Gaëlle Blanvillain
Egg-clustering and communal nesting behaviours provide advantages to offspring. Advantages range from anti-predatory benefits, maintenance of moisture and temperature levels within the nest, preventing the eggs from rolling, to enabling hatching synchrony through embryo communication. It was recently suggested that embryo communication may extend beyond development fine-tuning, and potentially convey information about the quality of the natal environment as well as provide an indication of forthcoming competition amongst siblings, conspecifics or even heterospecifics...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723824/cdia-effectors-from-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-use-heterotrimeric-osmoporins-as-receptors-to-recognize-target-bacteria
#8
Christina M Beck, Julia L E Willett, David A Cunningham, Jeff J Kim, David A Low, Christopher S Hayes
Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens express contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems that promote cell-cell interaction. CDI+ bacteria express surface CdiA effector proteins, which transfer their C-terminal toxin domains into susceptible target cells upon binding to specific receptors. CDI+ cells also produce immunity proteins that neutralize the toxin domains delivered from neighboring siblings. Here, we show that CdiAEC536 from uropathogenic Escherichia coli 536 (EC536) uses OmpC and OmpF as receptors to recognize target bacteria...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693158/telomere-damage-and-redox-status-alterations-in-free-living-passerines-exposed-to-metals
#9
Janina Stauffer, Bineet Panda, Tapio Eeva, Miia Rainio, Petteri Ilmonen
Telomere length may reflect the expected life span and possibly individual quality. Environmental stressors are known to increase oxidative stress and accelerate telomere attrition: however the interactions between redox status and telomere dynamics are not fully understood. We investigated whether exposure to heavy metal pollution is associated with oxidative stress and telomere damage in two insectivorous passerines, the Great tit (Parus major) and the Pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). We were also interested to know whether within-brood competition could influence the nestling redox status or telomere length...
September 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644420/guy1-confers-complete-female-lethality-and-is-a-strong-candidate-for-a-male-determining-factor-in-anopheles-stephensi
#10
Frank Criscione, Yumin Qi, Zhijian Tu
Despite their importance in sexual differentiation and reproduction, Y chromosome genes are rarely described because they reside in repeat-rich regions that are difficult to study. Here, we show that Guy1, a unique Y chromosome gene of a major urban malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi, confers 100% female lethality when placed on the autosomes. We show that the small GUY1 protein (56 amino acids in length) causes female lethality and that males carrying the transgene are reproductively more competitive than their non-transgenic siblings under laboratory conditions...
September 20, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385040/the-relationship-between-sex-change-and-reproductive-success-in-a-protandric-marine-gastropod
#11
Antonio Brante, Adriana Quiñones, Francisco Silva
Protandric species switch sex during their lifetime. According to theory, the time (body size) at which sex change occurs is determined by the reproductive success of individuals affected by social interactions as well as by post-copulatory factors. Experimental evidence is biased to few social systems making the exploration of general patterns difficult. We used the protandric marine gastropod Crepidula coquimbensis that partakes in intrabrood sibling cannibalism to test the following hypotheses: 1. Male-male competition for access to females and sibling cannibalism determine male reproductive success; 2...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355474/cdi-systems-are-stably-maintained-by-a-cell-contact-mediated-surveillance-mechanism
#12
Zachary C Ruhe, Josephine Y Nguyen, Annette J Chen, Nicole Y Leung, Christopher S Hayes, David A Low
Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems are widespread amongst Gram-negative bacteria where they play important roles in inter-cellular competition and biofilm formation. CDI+ bacteria use cell-surface CdiA proteins to bind neighboring bacteria and deliver C-terminal toxin domains. CDI+ cells also express CdiI immunity proteins that specifically neutralize toxins delivered from adjacent siblings. Genomic analyses indicate that cdi loci are commonly found on plasmids and genomic islands, suggesting that these Type 5 secretion systems are spread through horizontal gene transfer...
June 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354510/effects-of-self-superparasitism-and-temperature-on-biological-traits-of-two-neotropical-trichogramma-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae-species
#13
C S B DaSilva, Renata Morelli, J R P Parra
It is common for a female trichogrammatid to lay more than one egg per host, a phenomenon known as self-superparasitism, which exposes her offspring to intraspecific, intrinsic competition (IIC) with its own siblings. Information about how often self-superparasitism occurs and how IIC interacts with abiotic factors is rare, especially regarding the Neotropical Trichogramma species. Here we determined the frequency of self-superparasitism in Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Ta) and T. pretiosum Riley (Tp), and the effects of IIC and temperature on the sex ratio, egg-to-adulthood period, and survivorship of both species' offspring...
August 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318237/sibship-effects-on-dispersal-behaviour-in-a-preindustrial-human-population
#14
Aïda Nitsch, Virpi Lummaa, Charlotte Faurie
Understanding dispersal behaviour and its determinants is critical for studies on life-history maximising strategies. Though many studies have investigated the causes of dispersal, few have focused on the importance of sibship, although sibling interactions are predicted to lead to intra-familial differences in dispersal patterns. Using a large demographic dataset from preindustrial Finland (n=9,000), we tested whether the sex-specific probability of dispersal depended on the presence of same-sex or opposite-sex elder siblings who can both compete and cooperate in the family...
June 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270106/selfish-drive-can-trump-function-when-animal-mitochondrial-genomes-compete
#15
Hansong Ma, Patrick H O'Farrell
Mitochondrial genomes compete for transmission from mother to progeny. We explored this competition by introducing a second genome into Drosophila melanogaster to follow transmission. Competitions between closely related genomes favored those functional in electron transport, resulting in a host-beneficial purifying selection. In contrast, matchups between distantly related genomes often favored those with negligible, negative or lethal consequences, indicating selfish selection. Exhibiting powerful selfish selection, a genome carrying a detrimental mutation displaced a complementing genome, leading to population death after several generations...
July 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27254975/sibling-experiences-living-with-young-persons-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
Beth Ward, Brianna Smith Tanner, Barbara Mandleco, Tina T Dyches, Donna Freeborn
Like other young people, those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an impact on siblings in both positive and negative ways. Research indicates positive attributes include maturity and responsibility; positive self-concept; less quarrelling and competition; admiration for the person with ASD; and satisfactory sibling relationships. Negative attributes include fear of frightening or violent behavior, decreased sibling intimacy, and social and emotional difficulties. However, most research relies on information from parents/teachers, rather than from siblings...
March 2016: Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242813/biological-implications-in-cassava-for-the-production-of-amylose-free-starch-impact-on-root-yield-and-related-traits
#17
Amanda Karlström, Fernando Calle, Sandra Salazar, Nelson Morante, Dominique Dufour, Hernán Ceballos
Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an important food security crop, but it is becoming an important raw material for different industrial applications. Cassava is the second most important source of starch worldwide. Novel starch properties are of interest to the starch industry, and one them is the recently identified amylose-free (waxy) cassava starch. Waxy mutants have been found in different crops and have been often associated with a yield penalty. There are ongoing efforts to develop commercial cassava varieties with amylose-free starch...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239093/family-and-friends-which-types-of-personal-relationships-go-together-in-a-network
#18
Jesper Rözer, Gerald Mollenhorst, Anne-Rigt Poortman
We examine the link between family and personal networks. Using arguments about meeting opportunities, competition and social influence, we hypothesise how the presence of specific types of family members (i.e., a partner, children, parents and siblings) and non-family members (i.e., friends, neighbours and colleagues) in the network mutually affect one another. In addition, we propose that-beyond their mere presence-the active role of family members in the network strongly affects the presence of non-family members in the network...
2016: Social Indicators Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038075/lactation-and-suckling-behavior-in-the-iberian-lynx
#19
Javier Yerga, Javier Calzada, Xavier Manteca, Irene Herrera, Astrid Vargas, Antonio Rivas
Understanding the behavior of endangered species is crucial to improve the management tools to breed animals in captivity and, thus, to increase the success of ex situ conservation programs. In this study, we monitored suckling behavior of 26 cubs born between 2008 and 2012 at "El Acebuche" Iberian Lynx Breeding Centre. The cubs devoted 251 ± 19.7 min (mean ± SE) to lactation on the day of birth, while mothers spent 426 ± 27 min (mean ± SE) nursing their offspring. The time cubs spent suckling decreased exponentially as they grown, until they were fully weaned at 65 ± 2...
May 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023400/a-comparison-of-salivary-iga-in-children-with-down-syndrome-and-their-family-members
#20
Karthika Balaji, Trudy J Milne, Bernadette K Drummond, Mary P Cullinan, Dawn E Coates
The aim of this study was to compare total IgA in the whole saliva of children with Down syndrome with levels in sibling and parent groups. IgA measurements were presented as the concentration in saliva (μg/ml) and also adjusted for salivary flow rate (SFR; μg/min). Twenty children with Down syndrome, ten siblings and twenty parents were recruited. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from the participants and SFR calculated. The measurement of salivary IgA (sIgA) was carried out using an indirect competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay...
July 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
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