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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993210/telomere-length-sibling-competition-and-development-of-antioxidant-defense-in-wild-house-mice
#1
Janina Stauffer, Bineet Panda, Petteri Ilmonen
Antioxidants and telomere length are potential biomarkers for individuals' exposure and ability to cope with environmental stressors. However, intraspecific variations in antioxidant alterations due to natural, life cycle related stress, have been rarely estimated. We investigated those changes in wild-derived house mice in a longitudinal study with natural sibling competition as a stressor. Blood was used for telomere length measurements at 8-weeks age and for several selected antioxidants at 8-weeks and 6-months age...
October 7, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990473/chick-development-and-asynchroneous-hatching-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata-castanotis
#2
Maki Ikebuchi, Kazuo Okanoya, Toshikazu Hasegawa, Hans-Joachim Bischof
The mode of hatching in birds has important impacts on both parents and chicks, including the costs and risks of breeding for parents, and sibling competition in a clutch. Birds with multiple eggs in a single clutch often begin incubating when most eggs are laid, thereby reducing time of incubation, nursing burden, and sibling competition. In some songbirds and some other species, however, incubation starts immediately after the first egg is laid, and the chicks thus hatch asynchronously. This may result in differences in parental care and in sibling competition based on body size differences among older and younger chicks, which in turn might produce asynchronous development among siblings favoring the first hatchling, and further affect the development and fitness of the chicks after fledging...
October 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954905/offspring-genes-indirectly-influence-sibling-and-maternal-behavioural-strategies-over-resource-share
#3
David G Ashbrook, Naorin Sharmin, Reinmar Hager
Family members show behavioural strategies predicted to maximize individual fitness. These behaviours depend directly on genes expressed in focal individuals but also indirectly on genes expressed in other family members. However, how sibling and parental behavioural strategies are modified by genes expressed in family members, and to what degree, remains unclear. To answer this question, we have used a split litter design in an experimental population of genetically variable mouse families, and identified loci that indirectly affected sibling and maternal behaviour simultaneously...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902188/reproductive-interference-and-fecundity-affect-competitive-interactions-of-sibling-species-with-low-mating-barriers-experimental-and-theoretical-evidence
#4
M Gebiola, S E Kelly, L Velten, R Zug, P Hammerstein, M Giorgini, M S Hunter
When allopatric species with incomplete prezygotic isolation come into secondary contact, the outcome of their interaction is not easily predicted. The parasitoid wasp Encarsia suzannae (iES), infected by Cardinium inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), and its sibling species E. gennaroi (EG), not infected by bacterial endosymbionts, may have diverged because of the complementary action of CI and asymmetric hybrid incompatibilities. Whereas postzygotic isolation is now complete because of sterility of F1 hybrid progeny, prezygotic isolation is still incipient...
December 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861222/supplementary-feeding-increases-nestling-feather-corticosterone-early-in-the-breeding-season-in-house-sparrows
#5
Noraine Salleh Hudin, Liesbeth De Neve, Diederik Strubbe, Graham D Fairhurst, Carl Vangestel, Will J Peach, Luc Lens
Several studies on birds have proposed that a lack of invertebrate prey in urbanized areas could be the main cause for generally lower levels of breeding success compared to rural habitats. Previous work on house sparrows Passer domesticus found that supplemental feeding in urbanized areas increased breeding success but did not contribute to population growth. Here, we hypothesize that supplementary feeding allows house sparrows to achieve higher breeding success but at the cost of lower nestling quality. As abundant food supplies may permit both high- and low-quality nestlings to survive, we also predict that within-brood variation in proxies of nestling quality would be larger for supplemental food broods than for unfed broods...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857148/why-does-inbreeding-reduce-male-paternity-effects-on-sexually-selected-traits
#6
Jason N Marsh, Regina Vega-Trejo, Michael D Jennions, Megan L Head
Mating with relatives has often been shown to negatively affect offspring fitness (inbreeding depression). There is considerable evidence for inbreeding depression due to effects on naturally selected traits, particularly those expressed early in life, but there is less evidence of it for sexually selected traits. This is surprising because sexually selected traits are expected to exhibit strong inbreeding depression. Here, we experimentally created inbred and outbred male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)...
November 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628821/pollutants-and-diet-influence-carotenoid-levels-and-integument-coloration-in-nestlings-of-an-endangered-raptor
#7
Marie-Sophie García-Heras, Beatriz Arroyo, Robert E Simmons, Pablo R Camarero, Rafael Mateo, Jesús T García, Francois Mougeot
Carotenoid-based traits or ornaments, such as yellow-red integuments (feathers, beaks, legs or eye-rings) displayed by birds, play key roles in social communication by reliably advertising an individual's quality or health. In some species, these traits are displayed not only by adults but also by nestlings, and function in parent-offspring communication or sibling competition by advertising an individual's physical or physiological condition. Pollutants such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) could have disruptive effects on the coloration of these traits, thereby interfering with communication processes...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619291/body-mass-modulates-huddling-dynamics-and-body-temperature-profiles-in-rabbit-pups
#8
Amando Bautista, José Alfredo Zepeda, Verónica Reyes-Meza, Christophe Féron, Heiko G Rödel, Robyn Hudson
Altricial mammals typically lack the physiological capacity to thermoregulate independently during the early postnatal period, and in litter-bearing species the young benefit strongly from huddling together with their litter siblings. Such litter huddles are highly dynamic systems, often characterized by competition for energetically favorable, central positions. In the present study, carried out in domestic rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus, we asked whether individual differences in body mass affect changes in body temperature during changes in the position within the huddle...
June 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588018/outcome-of-children-with-acute-leukemia-given-hla-haploidentical-hsct-after-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-and-b-cell-depletion
#9
Franco Locatelli, Pietro Merli, Daria Pagliara, Giuseppina Li Pira, Michela Falco, Daniela Pende, Roberto Rondelli, Barbarella Lucarelli, Letizia Pomponia Brescia, Riccardo Masetti, Giuseppe Maria Milano, Valentina Bertaina, Mattia Algeri, Rita Maria Pinto, Luisa Strocchio, Raffaella Meazza, Lavinia Grapulin, Rupert Handgretinger, Alessandro Moretta, Alice Bertaina, Lorenzo Moretta
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from an HLA-haploidentical relative (haplo-HSCT) is a suitable option for children with acute leukemia (AL) either relapsed or at high-risk of treatment failure. We developed a novel method of graft manipulation based on negative depletion of αβ T and B cells and conducted a prospective trial evaluating the outcome of children with AL transplanted with this approach. Eighty AL children, transplanted between September 2011 and September 2014, were enrolled in the trial...
August 3, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576645/effects-of-developmental-conditions-on-glucocorticoid-concentrations-in-adulthood-depend-on-sex-and-foraging-conditions
#10
Blanca Jimeno, Michael Briga, Simon Verhulst, Michaela Hau
Developmental conditions in early life frequently have long-term consequences on the adult phenotype, but the adult environment can modulate such long-term effects. Glucocorticoid hormones may be instrumental in mediating developmental effects, but the permanency of such endocrine changes is still debated. Here, we manipulated environmental conditions during development (small vs. large brood size, and hence sibling competition) and in adulthood (easy vs. hard foraging conditions) in a full factorial design in zebra finches, and studied effects on baseline (Bas-CORT) and stress-induced (SI-CORT) corticosterone in adulthood...
June 9, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554695/glyphosate-resistance-reduces-kochia-fitness-comparison-of-segregating-resistant-and-susceptible-f2-populations
#11
Sara L Martin, Leshawn Benedict, Connie A Sauder, Wei Wei, Leandro Oliveira da Costa, Linda M Hall, Hugh J Beckie
Glyphosate is considered the world's most important herbicide, but widespread and continual use has resulted in the evolution of resistance. Kochia scoparia (kochia) has evolved resistance via tandem gene amplification of glyphosate's target, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) and resistant populations have been reported from the Canadian Prairies and the Northern Great Plains. Here, we evaluated the fitness costs of EPSPS amplification in kochia by comparing susceptible and resistant full siblings from segregating F2 populations generated from within six populations...
August 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544577/hatching-asynchrony-impacts-cognition-in-male-zebra-finches
#12
Simone A Campbell, Michelle L Beck, Kendra B Sewall
Conditions experienced early in life can shape brain development and later cognition. Altricial songbirds are particularly vulnerable to early environmental perturbations. Research on "Developmental Stress" in songbirds has addressed how early-life conditions may impair song learning and has been extended to consider other components of adult phenotype. Early-life challenges ranging from ectoparasites to competition with siblings have been shown to compromise song learning and other measures of cognition, as well as behavioral strategy...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543051/multilevel-and-sex-specific-selection-on-competitive-traits-in-north-american-red-squirrels
#13
David N Fisher, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Murray M Humphries, Jeffrey E Lane, Andrew G McAdam
Individuals often interact more closely with some members of the population (e.g., offspring, siblings, or group members) than they do with other individuals. This structuring of interactions can lead to multilevel natural selection, where traits expressed at the group-level influence fitness alongside individual-level traits. Such multilevel selection can alter evolutionary trajectories, yet is rarely quantified in the wild, especially for species that do not interact in clearly demarcated groups. We quantified multilevel natural selection on two traits, postnatal growth rate and birth date, in a population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)...
May 23, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515877/sex-specific-repeatabilities-and-effects-of-relatedness-and-mating-status-on-copulation-duration-in-an-acridid-grasshopper
#14
Michael Haneke-Reinders, Klaus Reinhold, Tim Schmoll
In species with direct sperm transfer, copulation duration is a crucial trait that may affect male and female reproductive success and that may vary with the quality of the mating partner. Furthermore, traits such as copulation duration represent the outcome of behavioral interactions between the sexes, for which it is important-but often difficult-to determine which sex is in phenotypic control. Using a double-mating protocol, we compared copulation durations between (1) virgin and nonvirgin and (2) sibling and nonsibling mating pairs in rufous grasshoppers Gomphocerippus rufus...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370751/effects-of-developmental-conditions-on-growth-stress-and-telomeres-in-black-legged-kittiwake-chicks
#15
Rebecca C Young, Jorg Welcker, Christopher P Barger, Scott A Hatch, Thomas Merkling, Evgenia V Kitaiskaia, Mark F Haussmann, Alexander S Kitaysky
Early-life conditions can drive ageing patterns and life history strategies throughout the lifespan. Certain social, genetic and nutritional developmental conditions are more likely to produce high-quality offspring: those with good likelihood of recruitment and productivity. Here, we call such conditions "favoured states" and explore their relationship with physiological variables during development in a long-lived seabird, the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla). Two favoured states were experimentally generated by manipulation of food availability and brood size, while hatching order and sex were also explored as naturally generating favoured states...
March 30, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331583/surreptitious-sympatry-exploring-the-ecological-and-genetic-separation-of-two-sibling-species
#16
Line S Cordes, Gregory O'Corry-Crowe, Robert J Small
Climate change is having profound impacts on animal populations, and shifts in geographic range are predicted in response. Shifts that result in range overlap between previously allopatric congeneric species may have consequences for biodiversity through interspecific competition, hybridization, and genetic introgression. Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and spotted seals (Phoca largha) are parapatric sibling species and areas of co-occurrence at the edges of their range, such as Bristol Bay, Alaska, offer a unique opportunity to explore ecological separation and discuss potential consequences of increased range overlap resulting from retreating sea ice...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306719/chromosome-19q13-disruption-alters-expressions-of-cyp2a7-mia-and-mia-rab4b-lncrna-and-contributes-to-fap-like-phenotype-in-apc-mutation-negative-familial-colorectal-cancer-patients
#17
Lai Fun Thean, Yu Hui Wong, Michelle Lo, Carol Loi, Min Hoe Chew, Choong Leong Tang, Peh Yean Cheah
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal-dominantly inherited form of colorectal cancer (CRC) caused by mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Our ability to exhaustively screen for APC mutations identify microsatellite-stable and APC-mutation negative familial CRC patients, enabling us to search for novel genes. We performed genome-wide scan on two affected siblings of one family and 88 ethnicity- and gender-matched healthy controls to identify deletions shared by the siblings. Combined loss of heterozygosity, copy number and allelic-specific copy number analysis uncovered 5 shared deletions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289230/cross-cousin-marriage-among-the-yanomam%C3%A3-shows-evidence-of-parent-offspring-conflict-and-mate-competition-between-brothers
#18
Napoleon A Chagnon, Robert F Lynch, Mary K Shenk, Raymond Hames, Mark V Flinn
Marriage in many traditional societies often concerns the institutionalized exchange of reproductive partners among groups of kin. Such exchanges most often involve cross-cousins-marriage with the child of a parent's opposite-sex sibling-but it is unclear who benefits from these exchanges. Here we analyze the fitness consequences of marrying relatives among the Yanomamö from the Amazon. When individuals marry close kin, we find that (i) both husbands and wives have slightly lower fertility; (ii) offspring suffer from inbreeding depression; (iii) parents have more grandchildren; and (iv) siblings, especially brothers, benefit when their opposite-sex siblings marry relatives but not when their same-sex siblings do...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221829/the-evolutionary-economics-of-embryonic-sac-fluids-in-squamate-reptiles
#19
Xavier Bonnet, Guy Naulleau, Richard Shine
The parchment-shelled eggs of squamate reptiles take up substantial water from the nest environment, enabling the conversion of yolk into neonatal tissue and buffering the embryo against the possibility of subsequent dry weather. During development, increasing amounts of water are stored in the embryonic sacs (i.e., membranes around the embryo: amnion, allantois, and chorion). The evolution of viviparity (prolonged uterine retention of developing embryos) means that embryonic-sac fluid storage now imposes a cost (increased maternal burdening), confers less benefit (because the mother buffers fetal water balance), and introduces a potential conflict among uterine siblings (for access to finite water supplies)...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053061/food-availability-affects-adult-survival-trajectories-depending-on-early-developmental-conditions
#20
Michael Briga, Egbert Koetsier, Jelle J Boonekamp, Blanca Jimeno, Simon Verhulst
Food availability modulates survival in interaction with (for example) competition, disease and predators, but to what extent food availability in natural populations affects survival independent of these factors is not well known. We tested the effect of food availability on lifespan and actuarial senescence in a large population of captive zebra finches by increasing the effort required to obtain food, reflecting natural contrasts in food availability. Food availability may not affect all individuals equally and we therefore created heterogeneity in phenotypic quality by raising birds with different numbers of siblings...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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