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Angélica Thomaz Vieira, Claudio Fukumori, Caroline Marcantonio Ferreira
The interaction between the gut microbiota and the host immune system is very important for balancing and resolving inflammation. The human microbiota begins to form during childbirth; the complex interaction between bacteria and host cells becomes critical for the formation of a healthy or a disease-promoting microbiota. C-section delivery, formula feeding, a high-sugar diet, a high-fat diet and excess hygiene negatively affect the health of the microbiota. Considering that the majority of the global population has experienced at least one of these factors that can lead to inflammatory disease, it is important to understand strategies to modulate the gut microbiota...
June 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Alessia Cicenia, Floriana Santangelo, Lucrezia Gambardella, Lucia Pallotta, Valerio Iebba, Annunziata Scirocco, Massimo Marignani, Guglielmo Tellan, Marilia Carabotti, Enrico Stefano Corazziari, Serena Schippa, Carola Severi
BACKGROUND: Some beneficial effects of probiotics may be due to secreted probiotic-derived factors, identified as "postbiotic" mediators. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether supernatants harvested from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) cultures (ATCC53103 strain) protect colonic human smooth muscle cells (HSMCs) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myogenic damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LGG was grown in de Man, Rogosa, Share medium at 37°C and samples were collected in middle and late exponential, stationary, and overnight phases...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Karwan Yaseen Kareem, Teck Chwen Loh, Hooi Ling Foo, Henny Akit, Anjas Asmara Samsudin
BACKGROUND: Postbiotics (metabolic products by lactic acid bacteria) and prebiotics have been established as substitute to antibiotics in order to enhance immunity and growth performance in broiler chickens. Nonetheless, insufficient information is available on the effects of postbiotics and prebiotics combination on growth performance, faecal microbiota, pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA), as well as liver insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA expressions in broiler chickens...
August 5, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Yeneneh Haileselassie, Marit Navis, Nam Vu, Khaleda Rahman Qazi, Bence Rethi, Eva Sverremark-Ekström
Lactobacilli are widely used as probiotics with beneficial effects on infection-associated diarrhea, but also used in clinical trials of e.g., necrotizing enterocolitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. The possibility of using probiotic metabolic products, so-called postbiotics, is desirable as it could prevent possible side effects of live bacteria in individuals with a disturbed gut epithelial barrier. Here, we studied how Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 cell-free supernatant (L. reuteri-CFS) influenced retinoic acid (RA)-driven mucosal-like dendritic cells (DC) and their subsequent effect on T regulatory cells (Treg) in vitro...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Maayan Levy, Christoph A Thaiss, David Zeevi, Lenka Dohnalová, Gili Zilberman-Schapira, Jemal Ali Mahdi, Eyal David, Alon Savidor, Tal Korem, Yonatan Herzig, Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Hagit Shapiro, Anette Christ, Alon Harmelin, Zamir Halpern, Eicke Latz, Richard A Flavell, Ido Amit, Eran Segal, Eran Elinav
Host-microbiome co-evolution drives homeostasis and disease susceptibility, yet regulatory principles governing the integrated intestinal host-commensal microenvironment remain obscure. While inflammasome signaling participates in these interactions, its activators and microbiome-modulating mechanisms are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the microbiota-associated metabolites taurine, histamine, and spermine shape the host-microbiome interface by co-modulating NLRP6 inflammasome signaling, epithelial IL-18 secretion, and downstream anti-microbial peptide (AMP) profiles...
December 3, 2015: Cell
Patricia Ojeda, Alexandria Bobe, Kyle Dolan, Vanessa Leone, Kristina Martinez
The obesity epidemic afflicts over one third of the United States population. With few therapies available to combat obesity, a greater understanding of the systemic causes of this and other metabolic disorders is needed to develop new, effective treatments. The mammalian intestinal microbiota contributes to metabolic processes in the host. This review summarizes the research demonstrating the interplay of diet, intestinal microbiota and host metabolism. We detail the effects of diet-induced modifications in microbial activity and resultant impact on (1) sensory perception of macronutrients and total energy intake; (2) nutrient absorption, transport and storage; (3) liver and biliary function; (4) immune-mediated signaling related to adipose inflammation; and (5) circadian rhythm...
February 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
GianMarco Giorgetti, Giovanni Brandimarte, Federica Fabiocchi, Salvatore Ricci, Paolo Flamini, Giancarlo Sandri, Maria Cristina Trotta, Walter Elisei, Antonio Penna, Piera Giuseppina Lecca, Marcello Picchio, Antonio Tursi
The term "microbiota" means genetic inheritance associated with microbiota, which is about 100 times larger than the guest. The tolerance of the resident bacterial flora is an important key element of immune cell function. A key role in the interaction between the host and the microbiota is played by Paneth cell, which is able to synthesize and secrete proteins and antimicrobial peptides, such as α/β defensins, cathelicidin, 14 β-glycosidases, C-type lectins, and ribonuclease, in response to various stimuli...
2015: Journal of Immunology Research
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are considered a heterogenous set of neurobehavioral diseases, with the rates of diagnosis dramatically increasing in the past few decades. As genetics alone does not explain the underlying cause in many cases, attention has turned to environmental factors as potential etiological agents. Gastrointestinal disorders are a common comorbidity in ASD patients. It was thus hypothesized that a gut-brain link may account for some autistic cases. With the characterization of the human microbiome, this concept has been expanded to include the microbiota-gut-brain axis...
October 2015: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Luis Gosálbez, Daniel Ramón
Regulations regarding health claims made for probiotics demand their proven effectiveness and limit the array of microbial species regarded as safe for live consumption. Novel strategies such as moving to postbiotics and genetically modified probiotics may be necessary to increase the effectiveness of microbial products.
April 2015: Trends in Biotechnology
Alessia Cicenia, Annunziata Scirocco, Marilia Carabotti, Lucia Pallotta, Massimo Marignani, Carola Severi
Probiotics are alive nonpathogenic microorganisms present in the gut microbiota that confer benefits to the host for his health. They act through molecular and cellular mechanisms that contrast pathogen bacteria adhesion, enhance innate immunity, decrease pathogen-induced inflammation, and promote intestinal epithelial cell survival, barrier function, and protective responses. Some of these beneficial effects result to be determined by secreted probiotic-derived factors that recently have been identified as "postbiotic" mediators...
November 2014: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Teck Chwen Loh, Di Wai Choe, Hooi Ling Foo, Awis Qurni Sazili, Mohd Hair Bejo
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that are able to colonize the host digestive system, increasing the natural flora and preventing colonization of pathogenic organisms and thus, securing optimal utility of the feed. However, commercial probiotic often do not meet the expected standards and the viability of the efficacy of these strains remains questionable. Another major issue has been highlighted in relation to the application of antibiotic resistant probiotics, the antibiotic resistant gene can be transferred between organisms...
2014: BMC Veterinary Research
Karwan Yassen Kareem, Foo Hooi Ling, Loh Teck Chwen, Ooi May Foong, Samsudin Anjas Asmara
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to determine the inhibitory activity of postbiotic produced by L. plantarum using reconstituted media supplemented with different levels of inulin and to select the best combination based on the modified inhibitory activity (MAU/mL) against pathogens. METHODS: Postbiotics were produced by 6 strains of L. plantarum (RG11, RG14, RI11, UL4, TL1 and RS5) using reconstituted media supplemented with different levels of Inulin (0, 0...
2014: Gut Pathogens
Cory Klemashevich, Charmian Wu, Daniel Howsmon, Robert C Alaniz, Kyongbum Lee, Arul Jayaraman
The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in a wide range of functions and whole body homeostasis. Recent advances have linked microbiota dysbiosis to conditions ranging from Crohn's disease to cancer. The restoration or strengthening of the intestinal microbiota through diet-based approaches such as probiotics and prebiotics has been proposed for combating the onset or progression of these diseases. In this review, we highlight the importance of postbiotics for the manipulation of the intestinal microbiota, with special emphasis on systems biology computational tools and targeted metabolomics for the rational discovery and identification of these bioactive molecules...
April 2014: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Ravi Mangal Patel, Patricia Wei Denning
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, and preventive therapies that are both effective and safe are urgently needed. Current evidence from therapeutic trials suggests that probiotics are effective in decreasing NEC in preterm infants, and probiotics are currently the most promising therapy for this devastating disease. However, concerns regarding safety and optimal dosing have limited the widespread adoption of routine clinical use of probiotics in preterm infants...
March 2013: Clinics in Perinatology
K Tsilingiri, M Rescigno
The use of probiotics and synbiotics in the food industry or as food supplements for a balanced diet and improved gut homeostasis has been blooming for the past decade. As feedback from healthy consumers is rather enthusiastic, a lot of effort is currently directed in elucidating the mechanisms of interaction between beneficial microbes and barrier and immune function of the host. The use of probiotics or synbiotics for treating certain pathologies has also been examined, however, the outcome has not always been favourable...
March 1, 2013: Beneficial Microbes
Katerina Tsilingiri, Theolis Barbosa, Giuseppe Penna, Flavio Caprioli, Angelica Sonzogni, Giuseppe Viale, Maria Rescigno
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Probiotics and their metabolic products, here called postbiotics, have been proposed as food supplements for a healthier intestinal homeostasis, but also as therapeutic aids in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with, however, very little clinical benefit. This may be due to the lack of reliable preclinical models for testing the efficacy of different strains. METHODS: The activity of three probiotic strains of Lactobacillus (or a postbiotic) was analysed and compared with a pathogenic strain of Salmonella on a novel organ culture system of human healthy and IBD intestinal mucosa developed in our laboratory...
July 2012: Gut
H Johannsen, S L Prescott
With the advent of the hygiene hypothesis, probiotics have provided an avenue of hope in curbing the allergic epidemic. The initial enthusiasm has been tempered by recognition of the inherent complexities of this approach. This review examines the current clinical evidence and practical issues in using probiotics and related products, for the prevention and treatment of allergic disease. So far, probiotics have shown more promise, albeit limited, in the primary prevention of allergic disease rather than in the treatment of established disease...
December 2009: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Volker Patzel
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules combine the coding potential of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) with various outwardly visible functions. RNA can be considered as a molecular unit of genotype and phenotype, and this concept has led to the hypothesis of a prebiotic world entirely dominated by RNA. In the postbiotic world, RNA is involved in all of the vital steps of information transfer from genes to gene products, and might intervene in gene expression and many other biological functions, either positively or negatively...
May 2004: Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development
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