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Cohort study

Paula Jimenez-Fonseca, Sebastian Krug, Gianluca Tamagno, F Fierro Maya, A Monleon Getino, C I Rodriguez Casado, Frederico Costa, Wouter W de Herder, Henning Jann
<br>Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) represent rare neoplasms of all NETs often presenting without functional activity. Many sporadic non-functioning pNET patients are already metastatic at the time of diagnosis, and the therapeutic approach to such patients is mostly palliative. In this international, multicenter, retrospective cohort study we assessed the prognostic value of a set of anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, radiological, and pathological parameters at baseline and the impact of the therapeutic strategies on the survival of patients with sporadic grade 1/2, stage IV, non-functioning pNETs...
July 19, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Alessandro Mengarelli, Andrea Gentili, Annachiara Strazza, Laura Burattini, Sandro Fioretti, Francesco Di Nardo
Muscular co-activation is a well-known mechanism for lower limb joint stabilization in both healthy and pathological individuals. This muscular feature appears particularly important for the knee joint, not only during challenging motor tasks such as cutting and landing but also during walking, due to knee cyclic loading. Gastrocnemius acts on the knee joint with a flexor activity and co-activations with quadriceps muscles lead to greater knee ligament strain with respect to an isolated burst of either muscle...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Man Xu, Ruoling Chen, Bing Liu, Yun Chai, Dorothy D Boer, Ping Hu, Zhi Hu
The co-morbidity of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and depression is quite frequent in old people, and some potential biological and behavioural mechanisms linking them have been reported. Yet the impact of psychosocial factors on depression in the elderly with CVD remains unclear. This study aimed to analyze the psychosocial determinants of depression in the elderly with CVD. Using the Geriatric Mental Status-Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy, a community-based household survey was performed in 2,199 elderly people from the Anhui cohort third-wave survey from 2007 to 2009 and an extended study in Hubei from 2010 to 2011...
March 17, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Raghav Sundar, Terri McVeigh, David Dolling, Ann Petruckevitch, Nikolaos Diamantis, Joo Ern Ang, Maxime Chenard-Poiriér, Dearbhaile Collins, Joline Lim, Malaka Ameratunga, Khurum Khan, Stan B Kaye, Udai Banerji, Juanita Lopez, Angela J George, Johann S de Bono, Winette T van der Graaf
BACKGROUND: Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with advanced solid tumours are often considered for phase I clinical trials with novel agents. The outcome of AYAs in these trials have not been described before. AIM: To study the outcome of AYA patients in phase I clinical trials. METHODS: Clinical trial data of AYAs (defined as aged 15-39 years at diagnosis) treated at the Drug Development Unit, Royal Marsden Hospital, between 2002 and 2016, were analysed...
July 16, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Liguo Zhu, Jie Jiang, Xiangjun Zhai, Aileen Baecker, Hong Peng, Jiao Qian, MingHao Zhou, Ci Song, Yan Zhou, Jianfang Xu, Hongjian Liu, Dong Hang, Zhibin Hu, Hongbin Shen, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Fengcai Zhu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been studied extensively, the potential risk factors for NAFLD among chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients have not been fully known. METHODS: A population-based cohort of adult CHB patients without a history of alcohol drinking or NAFLD were recruited and followed up from October 2012 to January 2015 in Jiangsu province, China. Using Cox proportional hazards regression model, potential risk factors including viral and metabolic factors for NAFLD were evaluated...
July 19, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Miguel M Pinto, Soledad Monges, Edoardo Malfatti, Fabiana Lubieniecki, Xavière Lornage, Laura Alias, Clémence Labasse, Angéline Madelaine, Michel Fardeau, Jocelyn Laporte, Eduardo F Tizzano, Norma B Romero
INTRODUCTION: Mutations in the EXOSC3 gene are responsible for type 1 pontocerebellar hypoplasia, an autosomal recessive congenital disorder characterized by cerebellar atrophy, developmental delay and anterior horn motor neuron degeneration. Muscle biopsies of these patients often show characteristics resembling classic spinal muscle atrophy, but to date no distinct features have been identified. METHODS: Clinical data and muscle biopsy findings of three unrelated patients with EXOSC3 mutations are described...
July 19, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Neruban Kumaran, Gary S Rubin, Angelos Kalitzeos, Kaoru Fujinami, James W B Bainbridge, Richard G Weleber, Michel Michaelides
Purpose: RPE65-associated Leber congenital amaurosis (RPE65-LCA) is an early-onset severe retinal dystrophy associated with progressive visual field loss. Phase I/II and III gene therapy trials have identified improved retinal sensitivity but little is known about the natural history of retinal sensitivity in RPE65-LCA. Methods: A total of 19 subjects (aged 9 to 23 years) undertook monocular full-field static perimetry of which 13 subjects were monitored longitudinally...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Moritz Claudius Daniel, Adam M Dubis, Ana Quartilho, Huda Al-Hayouti, Sir Peng Tee Khaw, Maria Theodorou, Annegret Dahlmann-Noor
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore changes in Schlemm canal (SC), trabecular meshwork (TM), and iridocorneal angle (ICA) morphology during accommodative effort in children and young adults. Methods: We acquired anterior segment optical coherence tomography images (AS-OCT) of the ICA and ciliary muscle (CM) of both eyes of 50 children age 4 to 16 years with healthy eyes, at two levels of accommodation: 2.5 and 15 diopters (D). Semiautomated nasal ICA measurements were as follows: angle opening distance at 500/750 μm (AOD-500, -750), trabecular iris space area at 500/750 μm (TISA-500, -750), and trabecular iris angle at 500/750 μm (TIA-500, -750)...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Hua-Wei Huang, Li-Mei Yan, Yan-Lin Yang, Xuan He, Xiu-Mei Sun, Yu-Mei Wang, Guo-Bin Zhang, Jian-Xin Zhou
Postoperative agitation frequently occurs after general anesthesia and may be associated with serious consequences. However, studies in neurosurgical patients have been inadequate. We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors for early postoperative agitation in patients after craniotomy, specifically focusing on the association between postoperative pneumocephalus and agitation. Adult intensive care unit admitted patients after elective craniotomy under general anesthesia were consecutively enrolled...
2018: PloS One
Mar Pujades-Rodriguez, Valentina Assi, Arturo Gonzalez-Izquierdo, Tim Wilkinson, Christian Schnier, Cathie Sudlow, Harry Hemingway, William N Whiteley
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199026.].
2018: PloS One
Vanessa DeClercq, Morgan G I Langille, Johan Van Limbergen
The objective of the current study was to characterize the relationship between diet quality and body composition in participants living with IBD, specifically Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC), in Atlantic Canada. Participants from the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow's Health (PATH) study are residents of one of the four Atlantic Canada provinces. Participants who completed the dietary questionnaire and had body composition measured were included in the study (n = 12,462 without IBD, n = 111 CD, n = 119 UC)...
2018: PloS One
Bruna Kulik Hassan, Diana Barbosa Cunha, Gloria Valeria da Veiga, Rosangela Alves Pereira, Rosely Sichieri
OBJECTIVES: To estimate changes over time of breakfast frequency and foods/food groups consumed at breakfast. METHODS: Cohort of 809 students aged 10-16 years old from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, enrolled in 2010, and followed for three years. Breakfast skippers were those not eating breakfast. Those with breakfast frequency of 4 or less times per week were considered irregular breakfast eaters. Changes over time of breakfast frequency and breakfast foods/food groups were analyzed by generalized estimating equations...
2018: PloS One
Anne C Wagner, Denise Jaworsky, Carmen H Logie, Tracey Conway, Neora Pick, Denise Wozniak, Jesleen Rana, Wangari Tharao, Angela Kaida, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Allyson Ion, Lori A Chambers, Kath Webster, S Jay MacGillivray, Mona Loutfy
PURPOSE: Women living with HIV experience high levels of trauma exposure before and after diagnosis. One of the most challenging outcomes following trauma exposure is posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite high exposure to traumatic events, the presence and contributors to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms have not been examined in women living with HIV in Canada. METHODS: The current study examines the presence of, contributors to, and geographical regions associated with self-reported posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among 1405 women enrolled in the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual & Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS)...
2018: PloS One
Steven van Andel, Michael H Cole, Gert-Jan Pepping
INTRODUCTION: The regulation of one's step length by placing one's foot at a specific position within gait, otherwise known as 'locomotor pointing', is well understood in walking and running gait. The current study was the first to broaden this understanding to a larger cohort and to describe the influence of age on the regulation of locomotor pointing when walking up to and stepping onto a curb-like platform. METHODS: Younger (n = 17, mean age: 25.35 years, range: 19-33) and older adults (n = 105, mean age: 71...
2018: PloS One
S Orlando, I Triulzi, F Ciccacci, I Palla, L Palombi, M C Marazzi, M Giuliano, M Floridia, S Mancinelli, E Mutemba, G Turchetti
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) represents the ninth leading cause of death worldwide. In 2016 are estimated 1.3 million TB deaths among HIV negative people and an additional 374,000 deaths among HIV positive people. In 2016 are estimated 1.4 million new cases of TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV), 74% of whom were living in Africa. In light of these data, the reduction of mortality caused by TB in PLHIV is strongly required specially in low-income countries as Mozambique. According to international guidelines, the initial TB screening in HIV+ patients should be done with the four symptoms screening (4SS: fever, current cough, night sweats and weight loss)...
2018: PloS One
Felix Reichert, Daniel Pilger, Angela Schuster, Hannah Lesshafft, Silas Guedes de Oliveira, Ralf Ignatius, Hermann Feldmeier
BACKGROUND: Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) is a neglected parasitic skin disease, widespread in resource-poor communities in tropical and subtropical countries. Incidence and risk factors have never been investigated in a cohort study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the seasonal epidemiology of HrCLM, an open cohort of 476 children in a resource-poor community in Manaus, Brazil was examined for HrCLM monthly over a period of 6 months...
July 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Frederick W Lipfert, Ronald E Wyzga
The Veterans Cohort Mortality Study began in 1999 in collaboration with Washington University in St. Louis, comprising ~ 70,000 male military veterans. We published six research papers on this cohort, considering the dynamics of all-cause mortality as the subjects aged and environmental parameters changed. This paper summarizes those results and presents new results by age group. Pollutants included monitored and modeled criteria pollutants, vehicular traffic density (annual km driven per unit of county land area), and modeled nationwide levels of hazardous species...
July 19, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Nadia A Charania, Janine Paynter, Arier C Lee, Ms Donna G Watson, Nikki M Turner
Migrants may experience immunisation inequities compared with the host population related to barriers with accessing immunisations in their home countries, while migrating and/or post-arrival. This retrospective cohort study explored vaccination rates among migrant and non-migrant children in New Zealand (NZ). Linked de-identified data from various government sources from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2015 were analysed using Statistic NZ's Integrated Data Infrastructure. Vaccination rates were compared between three cohorts of children aged up to 5 years: foreign-born children who migrated to NZ; children born in NZ of migrant mothers; and a comparator group of children born in NZ to non-migrant mothers...
July 19, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Alicia A Swan, Jeremy T Nelson, Terri K Pogoda, Megan E Amuan, Faith W Akin, Mary Jo Pugh
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of sensory dysfunction (i.e. auditory, visual, vestibular, chemosensory and multiple sensory problems) and explore associations with traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity and injury mechanism among deployed Post-9/11 Veterans. METHODS: This retrospective cohort analysis used Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs diagnostic codes and administrative data. RESULTS: Among the 570,248 Veterans in this cohort, almost 23% had at least one diagnosis of sensory dysfunction...
July 19, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Damian Warzecha, Eliza Kobryń, Marta Bagińska, Dorota Bomba-Opoń
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is an unclearly defined condition described as a fetal weight which is too low in relation to gestational age. It is recognized in 10-15% of singleton pregnancies and can lead to severe complications, including stillbirth. To reduce the adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes, many medical interventions are being introduced by obstetricians. These, like all medical procedures, may induce further complications, such as preterm labor and its consequences...
July 19, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
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