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Menopause, primary ovarian failure

Nicola Noble
The menopause is a physiological event involving ovarian failure as a result of a loss of ovarian follicular activity, which leads to oestrogen deficiency, resulting in permanent cessation of menstruation and loss of reproductive function. Women undergoing the menopause are seen in a range of healthcare settings. It is important that all nurses, particularly those practising in primary care and women's health, have an understanding of the symptoms, treatment and long-term implications of the menopause on women's health and quality of life...
January 24, 2018: Nursing Standard
Deep Dutta, Lokesh Kumar Sharma, Neera Sharma, Adesh K Gadpayle, Atul Anand, Kumar Gaurav, Ankit Gupta, Yashwanth Poondla, Bindu Kulshreshtha
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Data on hypogonadism among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Indians are not available. This study was aimed to evaluate the occurrence, pattern and predictors of hypogonadism in HIV-infected Indians. METHODS: Consecutive stable HIV-infected patients, 18-70 yr age, without any severe comorbid state, having at least one year follow up data at the antiretroviral therapy clinic, underwent clinical assessment and hormone assays...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Joop S E Laven
Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), also known as premature ovarian failure or premature menopause, is defined as cessation of menstruation before the expected age of menopause. Potential etiologies for POI can be divided into genetic, autoimmune, and iatrogenic categories. This review will try to summarize the genetic basis of POI focusing on recent data that are available using newer genetic techniques such as genome-wide association studies, whole-exome sequencing (WES), or next-generation sequencing techniques...
July 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Joop S E Laven
Menopause is defined as the permanent cessation of ovulation and hence menstruation due to ovarian failure. The median age of menopause is 51 years. However, early menopause might occur at 40 years of age while late menopause might happen as late as 62 years of age. Premature menopause is defined as the cessation of ovulation prior to the age of 40 years, a condition generally referred to as primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Menopause is also a highly heritable condition. Genetic variants are known to contribute to ∼50% of the variation in age at menopause...
November 2015: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
B Mossa, M Schimberni, L Di Benedetto, S Mossa
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian transposition is a highly effective surgical procedure used to preserve ovarian function in premenopausal patients with cancers requiring postoperative or primary pelvic radiotherapy. Pelvic irradiation determines severe damage of ovarian DNA and iatrogenic ovarian failure with premature menopause, necessity of long-term hormone replacement therapy and infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an extensive research of the literature in Medline between January 2000 and April 2015 using the key-words "ovarian transposition radiotherapy", "radiotherapy gonadal function", radiotherapy fertility sparing"...
September 2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Kosei Kimura, Mitsuhiko Iwamoto, Satoru Tanaka, Toru Watanabe, Tomohiko Aihara, Takeki Sugimoto, Kyuichiro Miyara, Mitsuhiro Hayashi, Tsutomu Kouno, Shinichi Baba, Hiroaki Kawashima, Naoki Hashimoto, Kazuhisa Uchiyama
The POEMS reportedan effect of goserelin for fertility preservation. The Clinical Practice Guideline for Breast Cancer by The Japanese Breast Cancer Society indicates that the use of the LHRH agonist (LHRHa) for preventing chemotherapy-induced early menopause is a grade C-1 recommendation, and its use for fertility preservation is a grade C-2 recommendation. Results from previous studies on the effects of LHRHa for fertility preservation have varied owing to differences in chemotherapy regimens, definitions of ovarian failure, and dosages of tamoxifen...
August 2015: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Xiumei Zhen, Bailin Wu, Jian Wang, Cuiling Lu, Huafang Gao, Jie Qiao
Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), also known as premature ovarian failure (POF), is defined as more than six months of cessation of menses before the age of 40 years, with two serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels (at least 1 month apart) falling in the menopause range. The cause of POI remains undetermined in the majority of cases, although some studies have reported increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in idiopathic POF. The role of mitochondrial DNA in the pathogenesis of POI has not been studied extensively...
2015: PloS One
Dora Janeth Fonseca, Liliana Catherine Patiño, Yohjana Carolina Suárez, Asid de Jesús Rodríguez, Heidi Eliana Mateus, Karen Marcela Jiménez, Oscar Ortega-Recalde, Ivonne Díaz-Yamal, Paul Laissue
OBJECTIVE: To identify new molecular actors involved in nonsyndromic premature ovarian failure (POF) etiology. DESIGN: This is a retrospective case-control cohort study. SETTING: University research group and IVF medical center. PATIENT(S): Twelve women affected by nonsyndromic POF. The control group included 176 women whose menopause had occurred after age 50 and had no antecedents regarding gynecological disease. A further 345 women from the same ethnic origin (general population group) were also recruited to assess allele frequency for potentially deleterious sequence variants...
July 2015: Fertility and Sterility
S Katari, M A Wood-Trageser, H Jiang, E Kalynchuk, R Muzumdar, S A Yatsenko, A Rajkovic
CONTEXT: Inactivating FSH receptor (FSHR) mutations can affect ovarian function, resulting in variable clinical presentations ranging from primary amenorrhea to premature menopause. FSHR mutations have been largely reported in the Finnish population, but in patients of Asian Indian descent, the incidence of FSHR mutations is extremely rare. CASE DESCRIPTION: Two female siblings of Indian descent were diagnosed with primary ovarian failure and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism...
June 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Karen Peeraer, Sophie Debrock, Peter De Loecker, C Tomassetti, A Laenen, M Welkenhuysen, L Meeuwis, S Pelckmans, B W Mol, C Spiessens, D De Neubourg, T M D'Hooghe
STUDY QUESTION: Can controlled ovarian stimulation with low-dose human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG) improve the clinical pregnancy rate when compared with ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate (CC) in an intrauterine insemination (IUI) programme for subfertile couples? SUMMARY ANSWER: Ovarian stimulation with low-dose hMG is superior to CC in IUI cycles with respect to clinical pregnancy rate. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: IUI after ovarian stimulation is an effective treatment for mild male subfertility, unexplained subfertility and minimal-mild endometriosis, but it is unclear which medication for ovarian stimulation is more effective...
May 2015: Human Reproduction
Halle C F Moore, Joseph M Unger, Kelly-Anne Phillips, Frances Boyle, Erika Hitre, David Porter, Prudence A Francis, Lori J Goldstein, Henry L Gomez, Carlos S Vallejos, Ann H Partridge, Shaker R Dakhil, Agustin A Garcia, Julie Gralow, Janine M Lombard, John F Forbes, Silvana Martino, William E Barlow, Carol J Fabian, Lori Minasian, Frank L Meyskens, Richard D Gelber, Gabriel N Hortobagyi, Kathy S Albain
BACKGROUND: Ovarian failure is a common toxic effect of chemotherapy. Studies of the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists to protect ovarian function have shown mixed results and lack data on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: We randomly assigned 257 premenopausal women with operable hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer to receive standard chemotherapy with the GnRH agonist goserelin (goserelin group) or standard chemotherapy without goserelin (chemotherapy-alone group)...
March 5, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
K Haller-Kikkatalo, R Uibo, A Kurg, A Salumets
STUDY QUESTION: What is the measured prevalence and phenotype of spontaneous premature ovarian failure (POF) in the general population? SUMMARY ANSWER: Spontaneous POF occurs in ∼1% of the general population with unique phenotype of post-menopausal ageing distinct from surgically induced premature menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: POF is multifactorial ovarian quiescence before the age of 40. The clinical features of POF are diverse and the population prevalence of POF is still not known...
May 2015: Human Reproduction
Nicolás Mendoza, Ma Dolores Juliá, Daniela Galliano, Pluvio Coronado, Begoña Díaz, Juan Fontes, José Luis Gallo, Ana García, Misericordia Guinot, Merixtell Munnamy, Beatriz Roca, Manuel Sosa, Jordi Tomás, Plácido Llaneza, Rafael Sánchez-Borrego
INTRODUCTION: While we recognise that the term premature menopause is more accepted by most non-specialist health care providers and by the general population, 'primary ovarian insufficiency' (POI) is currently considered the most apposite term to explain the loss of ovarian function, because it better explains the variability of the clinical picture, does not specify definitive failure, and highlights the specific ovarian source. Its pathogenesis involves a congenital reduction in the number of primordial follicles, poor follicle recruitment, or accelerated follicular apoptosis...
February 2015: Maturitas
R Slopień, A Warenik-Szymankiewicz
Premature ovarian failure (POF), also known as primary ovarian insufficiency, is diagnosed in the event when primary or secondary amenorrhea and hypoestrogenism with high levels of gonadotropins occur in women before the age of 40. POF, caused by genetic, autoimmune and environmental factors, leads to a decrease in numbers of primordial follicles, accelerated atresia, and impaired follicular function. The diagnosis of POF is an indication for hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), which should be continued until the mean age of menopause in a given population...
2014: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
Pei-long Li, Xin Zhang, Tong-fu Li, Li-li Wang, Lu-tao Du, Yong-mei Yang, Juan Li, Hai-yan Wang, Yi Zhang, Chuan-xin Wang
BACKGROUND: Elevated serum sialic acid (SA) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) concentrations have been found in a variety of malignant cancers. We simultaneously detect serum concentrations of SA and Hyp (SA&Hyp) in ovarian cancer, and compare its diagnostic value with classic tumor markers-human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125). METHODS: Serum concentrations of SA&Hyp, HE4 and CA125A were detected in a total of 767 serum samples collected from 484 patients with gynecologic diseases, 180 healthy individuals, 45 pregnant women and 58 patients with renal failure using chemical colorimetry and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), respectively...
January 15, 2015: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Xiangyu Ma, Yanchun Chen, Xianghai Zhao, Jinfeng Chen, Chong Shen, Song Yang
Age at natural menopause (ANM), a highly heritable phenotype, has been identified to be closely associated with major hormone-related diseases, including breast cancer and gynecological cancers. We previously identified an important role for the transforming growth factor, β receptor II (TGFBR2) gene polymorphisms in breast cancer susceptibility among Asian women. Considering the important role of ANM in breast carcinogenesis, we hypothesized that TGFBR2 signals were involved in the formation of natural menopause...
October 2014: Medicine (Baltimore)
Marsha R Mailick, Jinkuk Hong, Jan Greenberg, Leann Smith, Stephanie Sherman
In a sample of post-menopausal premutation carrier mothers of children with the full mutation of fragile X syndrome (n = 88), this study examined the co-occurrence of the reproductive and psychiatric phenotypes associated with FMR1 premutations. Mean age at menopause was 43.1 years, and 35.2% of premutation carriers reported cessation of menses prior to age 40 (premature ovarian failure), but only 18% of carriers had been medically diagnosed by a physician as having Fragile X-associated Primary Ovarian Insufficiency...
December 2014: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Helene S Weibel, Michael H Dahan
BACKGROUND: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is described as estrogen deficiency, amenorrhea, and hypergonadotropinemia in a woman < 40 years old. In a proportion of patients diagnosed with POF, intermittent and unpredictable return of ovarian function can be observed, causing fluctuations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). However, these patients also have return of menstrual cycles. When cycles do not resume, other causes could explain the changes in FSH levels. CASE: A 43-year-old woman with known premature ovarian failure since age 23 and high serum FSH levels was referred for normalization of FSH levels...
September 2014: Journal of Reproductive Medicine
Emily G Allen, Wendy E Grus, Sarayu Narayan, Whitney Espinel, Stephanie L Sherman
Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) is due to an X-linked mutation that results from the expansion of a CGG repeat sequence located in the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene (premutation, PM). About 20% of women who carry the PM have cessation of menses before age 40, a clinical condition known as premature ovarian failure (POF). This leads to a 20-fold increased risk over women in the general population. Thus, this single gene mutation has a major effect on reducing a woman's reproductive life span...
2014: Frontiers in Genetics
F M C V Reis, N Pestana-Oliveira, C M Leite, F B Lima, M L Brandão, F G Graeff, C M Del-Ben, J A Anselmo-Franci
Perimenopause, a transition period that precedes menopause, is characterized by neuroendocrine, metabolic and behavioral changes, and is associated with increased vulnerability to affective disorders. The decrease in ovarian follicles during perimenopause contributes to a dynamic and complex hormonal milieu that is not yet well characterized. In rodents, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) induces a gradual depletion of ovarian follicles, modeling the transition to menopause in women. This study was aimed to investigate, in VCD-treated rats, the hormonal status and the behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM), a widely used test to assess anxiety-like behavior...
November 2014: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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