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atopic dermatitis psoriasis

E Proksch, D Dähnhardt, S Dähnhardt-Pfeiffer, R Fölster-Holst
The permeability barrier plays an important role in numerous skin diseases. Particularly well known is the importance of this barrier in eczema. In irritative-toxic contact dermatitis, the first step in the pathogenesis is the disturbance of the permeability barrier by irritative-toxic noxious substances. Only after damage to the barrier is achieved can irritants and allergens penetrate into the living epidermis. In atopic eczema due to an impaired barrier, allergens penetrate from the environment into the skin and cause or worsen the eczema...
October 21, 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Alexander Egeberg, Lone Skov, Yuki M F Andersen, Lotus Mallbris, Gunnar H Gislason, Jonathan I Silverberg, Jashin J Wu, Jacob P Thyssen
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (AD) are chronic inflammatory skin disorders. Mortality is increased in psoriasis, yet no studies on mortality in AD are currently available. OBJECTIVE: We investigated 10-year mortality after hospitalization for AD compared with psoriasis and the general population. METHODS: Between 1996 and 2002 all Danes aged 18 years or older with a first-time hospitalization as a result of AD or psoriasis and AD-matched healthy control subjects were examined in nationwide registers...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Mark A Strom, Girish C Mohan, Peter A Lio
Dermatologists frequently employ combination therapy to treat various diseases, but the evidence to support the use of such combinations is often lacking. Synergy is an appealing although somewhat ambiguous concept in medicine. Utilizing synergy allows clinicians to provide the most efficacious combination of treatments to patients, while potentially minimizing adverse effects and reducing the development of drug resistance. Definitions of synergy vary, but ultimately converge on finding a therapeutic advantage in combining treatments...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Yuangang Liu, Zhiping Wang, Rachel De La Torre, Ashley Barling, Takahiro Tsujikawa, Noah Hornick, Jon Hanifin, Eric Simpson, Yun Wang, Emily Swanzey, Aaron Wortham, Hao Ding, Lisa M Coussens, Molly Kulesz-Martin
Altered innate immunity is a feature of certain skin inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, we provide evidence that deficiency in Trim32 (a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein with innate antiviral activity) contributes to a Th2 biased response and predisposes to features of AD in mice. Upon treatment with the TLR7 agonist imquimod (IMQ), Trim32 knockout (KO) mice displayed compromised psoriasiform phenotypes and defective Th17 response. Instead, IMQ treatment of Trim32 KO mice induced AD-like phenotypes with enhanced skin infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells, elevation of Th2 cytokines/chemokines expression, and reduced expression of filaggrin protein expression...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Maroula G Kokotou, Dimitris Limnios, Aikaterini Nikolaou, Anastasia Psarra, George Kokotos
The regulation of the catalytic activity of the various phospholipase A2 enzymes is of high importance because these enzymes are involved in various pathological conditions such as arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, and cancer. Thus, a great effort has been devoted in developing synthetic inhibitors as new agents to treat inflammatory diseases. Some of them have reached clinical trials. Areas covered: This review article discusses the phospholipase A2 inhibitors presented in patent literature from October 2012 to June 2016, their activities in vitro and in vivo as well as the results of clinical trials using synthetic PLA2 inhibitors...
October 8, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Ana Karina Alves de Medeiros, Reinhart Speeckaert, Eline Desmet, Mireille Van Gele, Sofie De Schepper, Jo Lambert
The recent interest and elucidation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway created new targets for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases (ISDs). JAK inhibitors in oral and topical formulations have shown beneficial results in psoriasis and alopecia areata. Patients suffering from other ISDs might also benefit from JAK inhibition. Given the development of specific JAK inhibitors, the expression patterns of JAKs in different ISDs needs to be clarified. We aimed to analyze the expression of JAK/STAT family members in a set of prevalent ISDs: psoriasis, lichen planus (LP), cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE), atopic dermatitis (AD), pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) and alopecia areata (AA) versus healthy controls for (p)JAK1, (p)JAK2, (p)JAK3, (p)TYK2, pSTAT1, pSTAT2 and pSTAT3...
2016: PloS One
Porfirio Toscano, Paolo Chiodini, Orsola Ametrano, Elvira Moscarella
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases. There seem to be an increasing interest in childhood psoriasis in recent years. METHODS: We conducted a survey among pediatricians in Italy. 50 pediatricians from different areas in Italy (north, center and south) were invited to participate, 37 were responding and active in data collection. Doctors were asked to review their databases and to fill a form providing a series of information about all patients diagnosed with psoriasis attending their ambulatory...
October 5, 2016: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
A-S Boisgard, M Lamrayah, M Dzikowski, D Salmon, P Kirilov, C Primard, F Pirot, B Fromy, B Verrier
One of the main goals in the galenic development of innovative topical treatment options for inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis is to selectively deliver the drug at the inflammation site. Recent studies have highlighted the beneficial use of polymeric nanoparticles for anti-inflammatory therapy and topical anti-inflammatory drug delivery due to their ability to form a drug reservoir retaining the drug locally at the site of action. Our approach consisted in designing innovative topical semi-solid formulations of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles as anti-inflammatory drug vehicles for local treatment of inflammatory skin diseases...
October 1, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
David A Ewald, Shinji Noda, Margeaux Oliva, Thomas Litman, Saeko Nakajima, Xuan Li, Hui Xu, Peter Scheipers, Naila Svitacheva, Tord Labuda, James G Krueger, Mayte Suárez-Fariñas, Kenji Kabashima, Emma Guttman-Yassky
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is caused by a complex interplay between immune and barrier abnormalities. Murine models of AD are essential for preclinical assessments of new treatments. While many models have been used to simulate AD, their transcriptomic profiles are not fully understood, and a comparison of these models with the human AD transcriptomic fingerprint is lacking. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the transcriptomic profiles of six common murine models and determine how they relate to human AD skin...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jatinder Singh, Ramanpreet Shah, Dhandeep Singh
The mast cells are integral part of immune system and they have pleiotropic physiological functions in our body. Any type of abnormal stimuli causes the mast cells receptors to spur the otherwise innocuous mast cells to degranulate and release inflammatory mediators like histamine, cytokines, chemokines and prostaglandins. These mediators are involved in various diseases like allergy, asthma, mastocytosis, cardiovascular disorders, etc. Herein, we describe the receptors involved in degranulation of mast cells and are broadly divided into four categories: G-protein coupled receptors, ligand gated ion channels, immunoreceptors and pattern recognition receptors...
September 29, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Yayoi Kamata, Utako Kimura, Hironori Matsuda, Suhandy Tengara, Atsuko Kamo, Yoshie Umehara, Kyoichi Iizumi, Hiroaki Kawasaki, Yasushi Suga, Hideoki Ogawa, Mitsutoshi Tominaga, Kenji Takamori
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease characterized by skin barrier dysfunction, allergic inflammation and intractable pruritus resistant to conventional antipruritic treatments, including H1-antihistamines. Granzymes (Gzms) are a family of serine proteases expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells that have been shown to modulate inflammation. However, the relationship between Gzms and pathology in AD remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the correlation between plasma GzmB levels and severity of pruritus and dermatitis, in AD patients...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
Hitokazu Esaki, Patrick M Brunner, Yael Renert-Yuval, Tali Czarnowicki, Thy Huynh, Gary Tran, Sarah Lyon, Giselle Rodriguez, Supriya Immaneni, Donald B Johnson, Bruce Bauer, Judilyn Fuentes-Duculan, Xiuzhong Zheng, Xiangyu Peng, Yeriel D Estrada, Hui Xu, Christina de Guzman Strong, Mayte Suárez-Fariñas, James G Krueger, Amy S Paller, Emma Guttman-Yassky
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) affects 15% to 25% of children and 4% to 7% of adults. Paradigm-shifting discoveries about AD have been based on adult biomarkers, reflecting decades of disease activity, although 85% of cases begin by 5 years. Blood phenotyping shows only TH2 skewing in patients with early-onset pediatric AD, but alterations in early pediatric skin lesions are unknown, limiting advancement of targeted therapies. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the early pediatric AD skin phenotype and its differences from pediatric control subjects and adults with AD...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Vincent D Marshall, Farah Moustafa, Spencer D Hawkins, Rajesh Balkrishnan, Steven R Feldman
INTRODUCTION: Inflammation is an established component of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and an underlying factor of several dermatologic conditions including rosacea, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Identifying potential associations between these dermatologic and cardiovascular diseases can better inform holistic healthcare approaches. The objective of this study was to determine whether rosacea, psoriasis or atopic dermatitis are independent risk factors for CVD 1 year following diagnosis...
September 22, 2016: Dermatology and Therapy
Özge Uluçkan, Erwin F Wagner
Chronic systemic inflammation (CSI) has recently been identified as a major contributor to common diseases ranging from cancer to metabolic disorders and neurologic alterations. In the last decade, we and others have generated genetically engineered mouse models for inflammatory diseases, which enable studying the molecular mechanisms of CSI. Recently, organ cross-talk induced by CSI under homeostatic and pathological conditions has begun to be appreciated. In this review, we will revisit whole organism physiology in relation to CSI originating from epithelial tissues, such as the skin and gut...
September 21, 2016: FEBS Journal
K Olek-Hrab, M Hrab, J Szyfter-Harris, Z Adamski
Pruritus is a natural defence mechanism of the body and creates the scratch reflex as a defensive reaction to potentially dangerous environmental factors. Together with pain, pruritus is a type of superficial sensory experience. Pruritus is a symptom often experienced both in healthy subjects and in those who have symptoms of a disease. In dermatology, pruritus is a frequent symptom associated with a number of dermatoses and is sometimes an auxiliary factor in the diagnostic process. Apart from histamine, the most popular pruritus mediators include tryptase, endothelins, substance P, bradykinin, prostaglandins and acetylcholine...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Cary S Crall, Jillian F Rork, Sophia Delano, Jennifer T Huang
Phototherapy can be a safe and effective treatment for various skin diseases in children. Special considerations governing the use of this treatment modality in pediatric populations include patient, family, and facility-based factors that are oriented around heightened concerns with regard to safety and tolerability of treatment. Although phototherapy has been found to be effective in a wide range of dermatologic conditions affecting pediatric populations, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, pityriasis lichenoides, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and vitiligo, there is need for additional research on other conditions in which phototherapy has shown promise...
September 2016: Clinics in Dermatology
Asta Juzeniene, Mantas Grigalavicius, Marina Juraleviciute, William B Grant
The skin is the site for the photosynthesis of vitamin D and is a target tissue for the active metabolite of vitamin D. An increasing body of evidence indicates that vitamin D produced during phototherapy may be responsible for the positive effects observed during treatment of some skin diseases. Topical or oral application of vitamin D derivatives are used alone or with phototherapy. This paper reviews what is known about the use of phototherapy to enhance vitamin D levels, the use of vitamin D analogues with phototherapy, the efficacy of combination therapies, and controversies regarding some of the outcomes...
September 2016: Clinics in Dermatology
Xinyu Liu, Hong Zhou, Xueqin Huang, Jingjing Cui, Tianzhen Long, Yang Xu, Haipeng Liu, Ruoxuan Yu, Rongchuan Zhao, Guangping Luo, Anliang Huang, Joshua G Liang, Peng Liang
Two heterodimeric receptors consisting of either IL-20R1 or IL-22R1 in complex with a common β receptor subunit IL-20R2 are shared by three of the IL-20 family of cytokines: IL-19, IL-20, and IL-24. These proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis. Although mAbs against IL-19 and IL-20 have each been shown to modulate disease severity of collagen-induced arthritis in animal models, and anti-IL-20 therapeutic Ab has exhibited some efficacy in the treatment of RA in clinical trials, benefits for a complete blockade of these functionally redundant cytokines remain to be explored...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Enzo Errichetti, Giuseppe Stinco
Over the last few years, dermoscopy has been shown to be a useful tool in assisting the noninvasive diagnosis of various general dermatological disorders. In this article, we sought to provide an up-to-date practical overview on the use of dermoscopy in general dermatology by analysing the dermoscopic differential diagnosis of relatively common dermatological disorders grouped according to their clinical presentation, i.e. dermatoses presenting with erythematous-desquamative patches/plaques (plaque psoriasis, eczematous dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, mycosis fungoides and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus), papulosquamous/papulokeratotic dermatoses (lichen planus, pityriasis rosea, papulosquamous sarcoidosis, guttate psoriasis, pityriasis lichenoides chronica, classical pityriasis rubra pilaris, porokeratosis, lymphomatoid papulosis, papulosquamous chronic GVHD, parakeratosis variegata, Grover disease, Darier disease and BRAF-inhibitor-induced acantholytic dyskeratosis), facial inflammatory skin diseases (rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis, discoid lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, lupus vulgaris, granuloma faciale and demodicidosis), acquired keratodermas (chronic hand eczema, palmar psoriasis, keratoderma due to mycosis fungoides, keratoderma resulting from pityriasis rubra pilaris, tinea manuum, palmar lichen planus and aquagenic palmar keratoderma), sclero-atrophic dermatoses (necrobiosis lipoidica, morphea and cutaneous lichen sclerosus), hypopigmented macular diseases (extragenital guttate lichen sclerosus, achromic pityriasis versicolor, guttate vitiligo, idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis, progressive macular hypomelanosis and postinflammatory hypopigmentations), hyperpigmented maculopapular diseases (pityriasis versicolor, lichen planus pigmentosus, Gougerot-Carteaud syndrome, Dowling-Degos disease, erythema ab igne, macular amyloidosis, lichen amyloidosus, friction melanosis, terra firma-forme dermatosis, urticaria pigmentosa and telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans), itchy papulonodular dermatoses (hypertrophic lichen planus, prurigo nodularis, nodular scabies and acquired perforating dermatosis), erythrodermas (due to psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, mycosis fungoides, pityriasis rubra pilaris and scabies), noninfectious balanitis (Zoon's plasma cell balanitis, psoriatic balanitis, seborrheic dermatitis and non-specific balanitis) and erythroplasia of Queyrat, inflammatory cicatricial alopecias (scalp discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia and folliculitis decalvans), nonscarring alopecias (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, androgenetic alopecia and telogen effluvium) and scaling disorders of the scalp (tinea capitis, scalp psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis and pityriasis amiantacea)...
September 9, 2016: Dermatology and Therapy
Mayassa J Bou-Dargham, Zahraa I Khamis, Armand B Cognetta, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang
Inflammation plays a major role in the induction and progression of several skin diseases. Overexpression of the major epidermal proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL) 1 alpha (IL-1α) and 1 beta (IL-1β) is positively correlated with symptom exacerbation and disease progression in psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, neutrophilic dermatoses, skin phototoxicity, and skin cancer. IL-1β and the interleukin-1 receptor I (IL-1RI) have been used as a therapeutic target for some autoinflammatory skin diseases; yet, their system-wide effects limit their clinical usage...
September 8, 2016: Medicinal Research Reviews
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