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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426425/the-role-of-domestic-dogs-in-the-transmission-of-zoonotic-helminthes-in-a-rural-area-of-mekong-river-basin
#1
Marcello Otake Sato, Megumi Sato, Tippayarat Yoonuan, Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Surapol Sanguankiat, Sengchanh Kounnavong, Wanna Maipanich, Yuichi Chigusa, Kazuhiko Moji, Jitra Waikagul
Dogs have been bred since ancient times for companionship, hunting, protection, shepherding and other human activities. Some canine helminth parasites can cause significant clinical diseases in humans as Opisthorchis viverrini causing cholangiocarcinoma in Southeast Asian Countries. In this study, socio-cultural questionnaire, canine parasitological analysis, necropsy, parasite molecular confirmation and dog roaming data were evaluated in Savannakhet, Lao-PDR, a typical Mekong Basin area. Dog owners comprised 48...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420107/prepartum-lying-behavior-of-holstein-dairy-cows-housed-on-pasture-through-parturition
#2
Christa A Rice, Nicole L Eberhart, Peter D Krawczel
Utilizing pasture-based systems may increase cow comfort during late gestation and calving as it lacks the constraints of confinement housing. The objective of this study was to quantify lying behavior and activity of Holstein dairy cows housed on pasture during the 6 d before calving. Sixteen Holstein dairy cows were moved to pasture 3 weeks before their projected calving date. Data loggers were attached 14 d prior to projected calving date. Behavior was evaluated 6 d before calving for all cows (n = 16) and 6 h prior to calving for a subset of cows (n = 6) with known calving times...
April 14, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417150/torpor-patterns-in-common-hamsters-with-and-without-access-to-food-stores
#3
Carina Siutz, Eva Millesi
Hibernating species significantly reduce energy expenditure during winter by entering torpor. Nevertheless, the various benefits of hibernation might be counteracted by negative effects of torpor such as immune depression, oxidative stress, or neuronal impairment. Considering these trade-offs, adequate energy reserves could allow animals to reduce the time spent in torpor or the extent of metabolic depression. Common hamsters use food stores during hibernation and previously documented high individual variations in body temperature patterns during winter could, therefore, be related to differences in external energy reserves...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415983/exhaled-carbon-monoxide-a-non-invasive-biomarker-of-short-term-exposure-to-outdoor-air-pollution
#4
Herve Lawin, Lucie Ayi Fanou, Vikkey Hinson, Jacqueline Wanjiku, N Kingsley Ukwaja, Stephen B Gordon, Benjamin Fayomi, John R Balmes, Parfait Houngbegnon, Euripide Avokpaho, Ambaliou Sanni
BACKGROUND: In urban settings of Africa with rapidly increasing population, traffic-related air pollution is a major contributor to outdoor air pollution (OAP). Although OAP has been identified as a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, there is however, lack of a simple biomarker to assess levels of exposure to OAP in resource-poor settings. This study evaluated the role of exhaled carbon monoxide (exhCO) as a potential biomarker of exposure to ambient carbon monoxide (ambCO) from OAP...
April 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414703/recruitment-methods-and-descriptive-results-of-a-physiologic-assessment-of-latino-farmworkers-the-california-heat-illness-prevention-study
#5
Diane C Mitchell, Javier Castro, Tracey L Armitage, Alondra J Vega-Arroyo, Sally C Moyce, Daniel J Tancredi, Deborah H Bennett, James H Jones, Tord Kjellstrom, Marc B Schenker
OBJECTIVE: The California heat illness prevention study (CHIPS) devised methodology and collected physiological data to assess heat related illness (HRI) risk in Latino farmworkers. METHODS: Bilingual researchers monitored HRI across a workshift, recording core temperature, work rate (metabolic equivalents [METs]), and heart rate at minute intervals. Hydration status was assessed by changes in weight and blood osmolality. Personal data loggers and a weather station measured exposure to heat...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405298/seasonal-and-temperature-related-movement-of-colorado-river-cutthroat-trout-in-a-low-elevation-rocky-mountain-stream
#6
Brian W Hodge, Kyle D Battige, Kevin B Rogers
Mobile species will migrate considerable distances to find habitats suitable for meeting life history requirements, and stream-dwelling salmonids are no exception. In April-October 2014, we used radio-telemetry to examine habitat use and movement of 36 Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus (CRCT) in a 14.9-km fragment of Milk Creek, a relatively low-elevation stream in the Rocky Mountains (Colorado). We also used a network of data loggers to track stream temperature across time and space...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405270/group-foraging-in-socotra-cormorants-a-biologging-approach-to-the-study-of-a-complex-behavior
#7
Timothée R Cook, Rob Gubiani, Peter G Ryan, Sabir B Muzaffar
Group foraging contradicts classic ecological theory because intraspecific competition normally increases with aggregation. Hence, there should be evolutionary benefits to group foraging. The study of group foraging in the field remains challenging however, because of the large number of individuals involved and the remoteness of the interactions to the observer. Biologging represents a cost-effective solution to these methodological issues. By deploying GPS and temperature-depth loggers on individuals over a period of several consecutive days, we investigated intraspecific foraging interactions in the Socotra cormorant Phalacrocorax nigrogularis, a threatened colonial seabird endemic to the Arabian Peninsula...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377298/environmental-enrichment-choices-of-shelter-cats
#8
J J Ellis, H Stryhn, J Spears, M S Cockram
Choices made by cats between different types of environmental enrichment may help shelters to prioritize how to most effectively enrich cat housing, especially when limited by space or funds. This study investigates the environmental enrichment use of cats in a choice test. Twenty-six shelter cats were kept singularly in choice chambers for 10 days. Each chamber had a central area and four centrally-linked compartments containing different types of environmental enrichment: 1) an empty control, 2) a prey-simulating toy, 3) a perching opportunity, and 4) a hiding opportunity...
April 1, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375172/post-colonization-interval-estimates-using-multi-species-calliphoridae-larval-masses-and-spatially-distinct-temperature-data-sets-a-case-study
#9
Courtney R Weatherbee, Jennifer L Pechal, Trevor Stamper, M Eric Benbow
Common forensic entomology practice has been to collect the largest Diptera larvae from a scene and use published developmental data, with temperature data from the nearest weather station, to estimate larval development time and post-colonization intervals (PCIs). To evaluate the accuracy of PCI estimates among Calliphoridae species and spatially distinct temperature sources, larval communities and ambient air temperature were collected at replicate swine carcasses (N = 6) throughout decomposition. Expected accumulated degree hours (ADH) associated with Cochliomyia macellaria and Phormia regina third instars (presence and length) were calculated using published developmental data sets...
April 4, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366168/measuring-the-physical-and-economic-impact-of-filarial-lymphoedema-in-chikwawa-district-malawi-a-case-control-study
#10
Michelle C Stanton, Masato Yamauchi, Square Z Mkwanda, Paul Ndhlovu, Dorothy Emmie Matipula, Charles Mackenzie, Louise A Kelly-Hope
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the primary causes of lymphoedema in sub-Saharan Africa, and has a significant impact on the quality of life (QoL) of those affected. In this paper we assess the relative impact of lymphoedema on mobility and income in Chikwawa district, Malawi. METHODS: A random sample of 31 people with lymphoedema and 31 matched controls completed a QoL questionnaire from which both an overall and a mobility-specific score were calculated...
April 3, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357113/identification-of-animal-movement-patterns-using-tri-axial-magnetometry
#11
Hannah J Williams, Mark D Holton, Emily L C Shepard, Nicola Largey, Brad Norman, Peter G Ryan, Olivier Duriez, Michael Scantlebury, Flavio Quintana, Elizabeth A Magowan, Nikki J Marks, Abdulaziz N Alagaili, Nigel C Bennett, Rory P Wilson
BACKGROUND: Accelerometers are powerful sensors in many bio-logging devices, and are increasingly allowing researchers to investigate the performance, behaviour, energy expenditure and even state, of free-living animals. Another sensor commonly used in animal-attached loggers is the magnetometer, which has been primarily used in dead-reckoning or inertial measurement tags, but little outside that. We examine the potential of magnetometers for helping elucidate the behaviour of animals in a manner analogous to, but very different from, accelerometers...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337635/measurement-of-bovine-body-and-scrotal-temperature-using-implanted-temperature-sensitive-radio-transmitters-data-loggers-and-infrared-thermography
#12
A L Wallage, J B Gaughan, A T Lisle, L Beard, C W Collins, S D Johnston
Synchronous and continuous measurement of body (BT) and scrotal temperature (ST) without adverse welfare or behavioural interference is essential for understanding thermoregulation of the bull testis. This study compared three technologies for their efficacy for long-term measurement of the relationship between BT and ST by means of (1) temperature sensitive radio transmitters (RT), (2) data loggers (DL) and (3) infrared imaging (IRI). After an initial pilot study on two bulls to establish a surgical protocol, RTs and DLs were implanted into the flank and mid-scrotum of six Wagyu bulls for between 29 and 49 days...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335534/a-networked-sensor-system-for-the-analysis-of-plot-scale-hydrology
#13
German Villalba, Fernando Plaza, Xiaoyang Zhong, Tyler W Davis, Miguel Navarro, Yimei Li, Thomas A Slater, Yao Liang, Xu Liang
This study presents the latest updates to the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP) testbed, a $50,000 USD, 104-node outdoor multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN). The network collects environmental data from over 240 sensors, including the EC-5, MPS-1 and MPS-2 soil moisture and soil water potential sensors and self-made sap flow sensors, across a heterogeneous deployment comprised of MICAz, IRIS and TelosB wireless motes. A low-cost sensor board and software driver was developed for communicating with the analog and digital sensors...
March 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318587/technical-note-mining-data-from-on-farm-electronic-equipment-to-identify-the-time-dairy-cows-spend-away-from-the-pen
#14
A J Thompson, D M Weary, M A G von Keyserlingk
The electronic equipment used on farms can be creatively co-opted to collect data for which it was not originally designed. In the current study, we describe 2 novel algorithms that harvest data from electronic feeding equipment and data loggers used to record standing and lying behavior, to estimate the time that dairy cows spend away from their pen to be milked. Our 2 objectives were to (1) measure the ability of the first algorithm to estimate the time cows spend away from the pen as a group and (2) determine the capability of a second algorithm to estimate the time it takes for individual cows to return to their pen after being milked...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283126/environmental-heat-stress-among-young-working-women-a-pilot-study
#15
Juma Rahman, S H M Fakhruddin, A K M Fazlur Rahman, M A Halim
BACKGROUND: Heat waves are increasing significantly in frequency and severity and threaten the health and income of outdoor workers. Pregnant women workers are particularly at risk due to their delicate physiological systems and accountabilities to future generations. Animal and human studies propose that elevated body temperatures during pregnancy can induce adverse pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To measure the change in internal body temperature (Tcore) in young working women before, after, and during work (both outdoor and indoor) on hot humid days and relate threshold temperature to the upshot adverse effects of pregnancy (teratogenicity and related miscarriage)...
September 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280936/thermoregulation-of-the-bovine-scrotum-1-measurements-of-free-range-animals-in-a-paddock-and-pen
#16
Andrea L Wallage, S D Johnston, A T Lisle, L Beard, A M Lees, C W Collins, J B Gaughan
The bull's scrotum and scrotal cord vasculature has traditionally been regarded as a thermoregulatory device for maintaining optimal testicular temperature for normal spermatogenesis. This assumption has mostly been derived from discrete measurements using thermocouples with limited data correlating continuous scrotal temperature (ST) to body temperature (BT). From mid-summer to early autumn, four Wagyu bulls (9-18 months) were surgically implanted with two data loggers (DL) logging at 30 min intervals: one on the right hand side flank and the other was attached to the visceral vaginal tunic of the mid-testis...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278254/characterizing-the-community-use-of-an-ultralight-wheelchair-with-on-the-fly-adjustable-seating-functions-a-pilot-study
#17
Johanne Mattie, Jaimie Borisoff, William C Miller, Borna Noureddin
An ultralight manual wheelchair that allows users to independently adjust rear seat height and backrest angle during normal everyday usage was recently commercialized. Prior research has been performed on wheelchair tilt, recline, and seat elevation use in the community, however no such research has been done on this new class of manual ultralight wheelchair with "on the fly" adjustments. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate and characterize the use of the two adjustable seating functions available on the Elevation™ ultralight dynamic wheelchair during its use in the community...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275285/don-t-forget-the-porpoise-acoustic-monitoring-reveals-fine-scale-temporal-variation-between-bottlenose-dolphin-and-harbour-porpoise-in-cardigan-bay-sac
#18
Hanna K Nuuttila, Winnie Courtene-Jones, Sarah Baulch, Malene Simon, Peter G H Evans
Populations of bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise inhabit Cardigan Bay, which was designated a Special Area of Conservation (SAC), with bottlenose dolphin listed as a primary feature for its conservation status. Understanding the abundance, distribution and habitat use of species is fundamental for conservation and the implementation of management. Bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise usage of feeding sites within Cardigan Bay SAC was examined using passive acoustic monitoring. Acoustic detections recorded with calibrated T-PODs (acoustic data loggers) indicated harbour porpoise to be present year round and in greater relative abundance than bottlenose dolphin...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258086/validating-accelerometry-estimates-of-energy-expenditure-across-behaviours-using-heart-rate-data-in-a-free-living-seabird
#19
Olivia Hicks, Sarah Burthe, Francis Daunt, Adam Butler, Charles Bishop, Jonathan A Green
Two main techniques have dominated the field of ecological energetics, the heart-rate and doubly labelled water methods. Although well established, they are not without their weaknesses, namely expense, intrusiveness and lack of temporal resolution. A new technique has been developed using accelerometers; it uses the Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration (ODBA) of an animal as a calibrated proxy for energy expenditure. This method provides high resolution data without the need for surgery. Significant relationships exist between rate of oxygen consumption (V̇o2) and ODBA in controlled conditions across a number of taxa; however, it is not known whether ODBA represents a robust proxy for energy expenditure consistently in all natural behaviours and there have been specific questions over its validity during diving, in diving endotherms...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257553/activity-patterns-in-seven-captive-lemur-species-evidence-of-cathemerality-in-varecia-and-lemur-catta
#20
Joel Bray, David R Samson, Charles L Nunn
Cathemerality, or activity throughout the 24-hr cycle, is rare in primates yet relatively common among lemurs. However, the diverse ecological conditions under which cathemerality is expressed complicates attempts to identify species-typical behavior. For example, Lemur catta and Varecia have historically been described as diurnal, yet recent studies suggest that they might exhibit cathemeral behavior under some conditions. To investigate this variation, we monitored activity patterns among lemurs that are exposed to similar captive environments...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
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