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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238523/ad-hoc-instrumentation-methods-in-ecological-studies-produce-highly-biased-temperature-measurements
#1
Adam J Terando, Elsa Youngsteadt, Emily K Meineke, Sara G Prado
In light of global climate change, ecological studies increasingly address effects of temperature on organisms and ecosystems. To measure air temperature at biologically relevant scales in the field, ecologists often use small, portable temperature sensors. Sensors must be shielded from solar radiation to provide accurate temperature measurements, but our review of 18 years of ecological literature indicates that shielding practices vary across studies (when reported at all), and that ecologists often invent and construct ad hoc radiation shields without testing their efficacy...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224875/dairy-cow-preference-for-different-types-of-outdoor-access
#2
Anne-Marieke C Smid, Daniel M Weary, Joao H C Costa, Marina A G von Keyserlingk
Dairy cows display a partial preference for being outside, but little is known about what aspects of the outdoor environment are important to cows. The primary aim of this study was to test the preference of lactating dairy cattle for pasture versus an outdoor sand pack during the night. A secondary aim was to determine whether feeding and perching behavior changed when cows were provided outdoor access. A third objective was to investigate how the lying behavior of cows changed when given access to different outdoor areas...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223120/de-icing-salt-contamination-reduces-urban-tree-performance-in-structural-soil-cells
#3
Camilo Ordóñez-Barona, Vadim Sabetski, Andrew A Millward, James Steenberg
Salts used for de-icing roads and sidewalks in northern climates can have a significant impact on water quality and vegetation. Sub-surface engineering systems, such as structural soil cells, can regulate water runoff and pollutants, and provide the necessary soil volume and irrigation to grow trees. However, the ability of such systems to manage de-icing salt contamination, and the impact of this contamination on the trees growing in them, have not been evaluated. We report on an field investigation of de-icing salt contamination in structural cells in two street-revitalization projects in Toronto, Canada, and the impact of this contamination on tree performance...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211797/hooded-seal-cystophora-cristata-foraging-areas-in-the-northeast-atlantic-ocean-investigated-using-three-complementary-methods
#4
Jade Vacquie-Garcia, Christian Lydersen, Martin Biuw, Tore Haug, Mike A Fedak, Kit M Kovacs
Identifying environmental characteristics that define the ecological niche of a species is essential to understanding how changes in physical conditions might affect its distribution and other aspects of its ecology. The present study used satellite relay data loggers (SRDLs) to study habitat use by Northeast Atlantic hooded seals (N = 20; 9 adult females, 3 adult males, and 8 juveniles). Three different methods were used in combination to achieve maximum insight regarding key foraging areas for hooded seals in this region, which have decline by 85% in recent decades: 1) first passage time (FPT); 2) vertical transit rate and; 3) change in dive drift rate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206569/application-of-miniature-heart-rate-data-loggers-for-use-in-large-free-moving-decapod-crustaceans-method-development-and-validation
#5
Iain J McGaw, S Clay Steell, Travis E Van Leeuwen, Erika J Eliason, Steven J Cooke
Cardiovascular responses of decapod crustaceans to environmental challenges have received extensive attention. However, nearly all of these studies have been restricted to lab-based experiments; here we describe a methodology that will enable measurement of heart rate (HR) in free-moving decapods in the field. Data storage tag heart rate and temperature loggers (DST micro-HRT; Star-Oddi) were used to record electrocardiograms (ECG) and HR in large decapod crustaceans. These loggers were originally designed for use in vertebrates and must be surgically implanted in the body cavity near the heart in order to function...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190686/assessment-of-accuracy-fix-success-rate-and-use-of-estimated-horizontal-position-error-ehpe-to-filter-inaccurate-data-collected-by-a-common-commercially-available-gps-logger
#6
Gail Morris, L Mike Conner
Global positioning system (GPS) technologies have improved the ability of researchers to monitor wildlife; however, use of these technologies is often limited by monetary costs. Some researchers have begun to use commercially available GPS loggers as a less expensive means of tracking wildlife, but data regarding performance of these devices are limited. We tested a commercially available GPS logger (i-gotU GT-120) by placing loggers at ground control points with locations known to < 30 cm. In a preliminary investigation, we collected locations every 15 minutes for several days to estimate location error (LE) and circular error probable (CEP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187966/changing-measurements-or-changing-movements-sampling-scale-and-movement-model-identifiability-across-generations-of-biologging-technology
#7
Leah R Johnson, Philipp H Boersch-Supan, Richard A Phillips, Sadie J Ryan
Animal movement patterns contribute to our understanding of variation in breeding success and survival of individuals, and the implications for population dynamics. Over time, sensor technology for measuring movement patterns has improved. Although older technologies may be rendered obsolete, the existing data are still valuable, especially if new and old data can be compared to test whether a behavior has changed over time. We used simulated data to assess the ability to quantify and correctly identify patterns of seabird flight lengths under observational regimes used in successive generations of wet/dry logging technology...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182487/using-electronic-health-records-for-quality-measurement-and-accountability-in-care-of-the-seriously-ill-opportunities-and-challenges
#8
J Randall Curtis, Seelwan Sathitratanacheewin, Helene Starks, Robert Y Lee, Erin K Kross, Lois Downey, James Sibley, William Lober, Elizabeth T Loggers, James A Fausto, Charlotta Lindvall, Ruth A Engelberg
BACKGROUND: As our population ages and the burden of chronic illness rises, there is increasing need to implement quality metrics that measure and benchmark care of the seriously ill, including the delivery of both primary care and specialty palliative care. Such metrics can be used to drive quality improvement, value-based payment, and accountability for population-based outcomes. METHODS: In this article, we examine use of the electronic health record (EHR) as a tool to assess quality of serious illness care through narrative review and description of a palliative care quality metrics program in a large healthcare system...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159876/work-related-injuries-in-the-alaska-logging-industry-1991-2014
#9
Yuri P Springer, Devin L Lucas, Louisa J Castrodale, Joseph B McLaughlin
BACKGROUND: Although loggers in Alaska are at high risk for occupational injury, no comprehensive review of such injuries has been performed since the mid-1990s. We investigated work-related injuries in the Alaska logging industry during 1991-2014. METHODS: Using data from the Alaska Trauma Registry and the Alaska Occupational Injury Surveillance System, we described fatal and nonfatal injuries by factors including worker sex and age, timing and geographic location of injuries, and four injury characteristics...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156558/indoor-temperatures-in-low-cost-housing-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#10
Nisha Naicker, June Teare, Yusentha Balakrishna, Caradee Yael Wright, Angela Mathee
Ambient and indoor temperature affects thermal comfort and human health. In a changing climate with a predicted change in temperature extremes, understanding indoor temperatures, both hot and cold, of different housing types is important. This study aimed to assess the hourly, daily and monthly variation in indoor temperatures in different housing types, namely formal houses, informal houses, flats, government-built low-cost houses and old, apartheid era low-cost housing, in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153164/a-100-year-review-identification-and-genetic-selection-of-economically-important-traits-in-dairy-cattle
#11
Filippo Miglior, Allison Fleming, Francesca Malchiodi, Luiz F Brito, Pauline Martin, Christine F Baes
Over the past 100 yr, the range of traits considered for genetic selection in dairy cattle populations has progressed to meet the demands of both industry and society. At the turn of the 20th century, dairy farmers were interested in increasing milk production; however, a systematic strategy for selection was not available. Organized milk performance recording took shape, followed quickly by conformation scoring. Methodological advances in both genetic theory and statistics around the middle of the century, together with technological innovations in computing, paved the way for powerful multitrait analyses...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122951/dive-heart-rate-in-harbour-porpoises-is-influenced-by-exercise-and-expectations
#12
Birgitte I McDonald, Mark Johnson, Peter T Madsen
The dive response, a decrease in heart rate (ƒH) and peripheral vasoconstriction, is the key mechanism allowing breath-hold divers to perform long duration dives. This pronounced cardiovascular response to diving has been investigated intensely in pinnipeds, but comparatively little is known for cetaceans, in particular in ecologically relevant settings. Here we studied the dive ƒH response in one the smallest cetaceans, the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). We used a novel multi-sensor data logger to record dive behaviour, ƒH, ventilations and feeding events in three trained porpoises, providing the first evaluation of cetacean ƒH regulation while performing a variety of natural behaviours, including prey capture...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119579/objective-measurement-of-spectacle-wear-with-a-temperature-sensor-data-logger
#13
Matthew J Lentsch, Jason D Marsack, Heather A Anderson
PURPOSE: This study seeks to establish the utility of the SmartButton Data Logger (www.acrsystems.com) to monitor spectacle wear for research and clinical applications. METHODS: Fifty adults wore a thermosensor on their spectacles for 2 weeks for each of two mount types while keeping wear-time logs. Temperatures during reported spectacle wear (ON) were compared to temperatures during non-wear (OFF) with repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). In addition, two strategies to approximate spectacle wear from temperature data were evaluated: (1) Filtering data based on temperature ranges to identify spectacle wear (either group mean ON temperature, or an individual's mean ON temperature), and (2) Separate examiners inspecting temperature against time plots to identify spectacle wear...
November 8, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117373/seasonal-terpene-variation-in-needles-of-pinus-radiata-pinales-pinaceae-trees-attacked-by-tomicus-piniperda-coleoptera-scolytinae-and-the-effect-of-limonene-on-beetle-aggregation
#14
Pedro Romón, Domitila Aparicio, Francisco Palacios, Juan Carlos Iturrondobeitia, Thierry Hance, Arturo Goldarazena
Concentrations of four monoterpenes were determined in needles of Pinus radiata (D.Don) (Pinales: Pinaceae) trees that were attacked or nonattacked by Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Compounds were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mean ambient temperature was obtained using climate-recording data loggers. The effect of limonene on field aggregation was also evaluated at three limonene release rates using Lindgren attractant-baited traps and trap logs. Attacked trees produced less α-pinene in March, July, and November than nonattacked trees, less β-pinene in July and November, and less limonene from May to November...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108737/seasonal-and-diel-patterns-in-cetacean-use-and-foraging-at-a-potential-marine-renewable-energy-site
#15
Hanna K Nuuttila, Chiara M Bertelli, Anouska Mendzil, Nessa Dearle
Marine renewable energy (MRE) developments often coincide with sites frequented by small cetaceans. To understand habitat use and assess potential impact from development, echolocation clicks were recorded with acoustic click loggers (C-PODs) in Swansea Bay, Wales (UK). General Additive Models (GAMs) were applied to assess the effects of covariates including month, hour, tidal range and temperature. Analysis of inter-click intervals allowed the identification of potential foraging events as well as patterns of presence and absence...
November 3, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103721/effects-of-alternative-deep-bedding-options-on-dairy-cow-preference-lying-behavior-cleanliness-and-teat-end-contamination
#16
T Wolfe, E Vasseur, T J DeVries, R Bergeron
Cows spend more time lying down when stalls are soft and dry, and bedding plays a key role in the comfort of the lying surface. The first objective of this study (experiment 1) was to compare cow preference for 2 types of alternative deep-bedding materials, switchgrass and switchgrass-lime, using wheat straw on a rubber mat as a control. Nine Holstein lactating cows were submitted in trios to a 3-choice preference test over 14 d (2 d of adaptation, 3 d of restriction to each stall, and 3 d of free access to all 3 stalls)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102267/wearable-technology-for-spine-movement-assessment-a-systematic-review
#17
Enrica Papi, Woon Senn Koh, Alison H McGregor
Continuous monitoring of spine movement function could enhance our understanding of low back pain development. Wearable technologies have gained popularity as promising alternative to laboratory systems in allowing ambulatory movement analysis. This paper aims to review the state of art of current use of wearable technology to assess spine kinematics and kinetics. Four electronic databases and reference lists of relevant articles were searched to find studies employing wearable technologies to assess the spine in adults performing dynamic movements...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099640/religious-spiritual-struggle-in-young-adult-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-survivors
#18
Stephen D W King, George Fitchett, Patricia E Murphy, Geila Rajaee, Kenneth I Pargament, Elizabeth Trice Loggers, David A Harrison, Rebecca H Johnson
PURPOSE: This study describes the prevalence of religious and/or spiritual (R/S) struggle in long-term young adult (YA) survivors following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) as well as existential concerns (EC), social support, and demographic, medical, and emotional correlates of R/S struggle. METHODS: Data were collected as part of an annual survey of survivors of HCT aged 18-39 years at survey completion; age at HCT was 1-39 years. Study measures included measures of R/S struggle (defined as any non-zero response on the negative religious coping subscale from Brief RCOPE), quality of life (QOL), and depression...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095692/long-term-recording-of-electromyographic-activity-from-multiple-muscles-to-monitor-physical-activity-of-participants-with-or-without-a-neurological-disorder
#19
Katie Gant, Jorge Bohorquez, Christine K Thomas
Various portable monitors have been used to quantify physical activity but most rely on detecting limb movement with a sensor rather than measuring muscle activity. Our first goal was to design and validate a portable system for recording surface electromyographic activity (EMG) from eight muscles over 24 h. The modular system includes: (1) preamplifiers that filter and amplify signals; (2) a preprocessor unit for further filtering and amplification, signal offset and power supply modification; (3) a data-logger for analog-to-digital conversion; a flash memory card for data storage and (4) a rechargeable battery...
November 2, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053843/effects-of-season-and-distance-during-transport-on-broiler-chicken-meat
#20
V M Dos Santos, B S L Dallago, A M C Racanicci, Â P Santana, F E M Bernal
This research aims to evaluate the microclimate of commercial loads of broiler chickens at different distances in the summer (rainy) and winter (dry) seasons and their effects on meat quality. Twelve broiler loads were monitored with a total of 24 crates per load. Data loggers were used to record temperature and relative humidity. The experiment followed a completely randomized design with 48 treatments in a factorial scheme (2 seasons: rainy and dry) x 2 (distances: short and long) x 12 (positions), with 3 replicates per experimental group...
October 10, 2017: Poultry Science
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