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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784057/incidence-of-hypotension-according-to-the-discontinuation-order-of-vasopressors-in-the-management-of-septic-shock-a-prospective-randomized-trial-dovss
#1
Kyeongman Jeon, Jae-Uk Song, Chi Ryang Chung, Jeong Hoon Yang, Gee Young Suh
BACKGROUND: Vasopressin (AVP) is commonly added to norepinephrine (NE) to reverse shock in patients with sepsis. However, there are no data to support the appropriate strategy of vasopressor tapering in patients on concomitant NE and AVP who are recovering from septic shock. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of hypotension while tapering vasopressors in patients on concomitant NE and AVP recovering from septic shock. METHODS: Patients with septic shock receiving concomitant NE and AVP were randomly assigned to taper NE first (NE group) or AVP first (AVP group)...
May 21, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772497/the-role-of-the-vasopressin-system-and-dopamine-d1-receptors-in-the-effects-of-social-housing-condition-on-morphine-reward
#2
M L Shawn Bates, Rebeca S Hofford, Michael A Emery, Paul J Wellman, Shoshana Eitan
BACKGROUND: The association with opioid-abusing individuals or even the perception of opioid abuse by peers are risk factors for the initiation and escalation of abuse. Similarly, we demonstrated that morphine-treated animals housed with only morphine-treated animals (referred to as morphine only) acquire morphine conditioned place-preference (CPP) more readily than morphine-treated animals housed with drug-naïve animals (referred to as morphine cage-mates). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are still elusive...
April 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765330/glial-cells-are-involved-in-ang-ii-induced-vasopressin-release-and-sodium-intake-in-awake-rats
#3
Atalia F L Flôr, José L de Brito Alves, Maria S França-Silva, Camille M Balarini, Lucila L K Elias, Silvia G Ruginsk, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Valdir A Braga, Josiane C Cruz
It is known that circulating angiotensin II (ANG-II) acts on the circumventricular organs (CVOs), which partially lack a normal blood-brain barrier, to stimulate pressor responses, vasopressin (AVP), and oxytocin (OT) secretion, as well as sodium and water intake. Although ANG-II type 1 receptors (AT1R ) are expressed in neurons and astrocytes, the involvement of CVOs glial cells in the neuroendocrine, cardiovascular and behavioral responses induced by central ANG II remains to be further elucidated. To address this question, we performed a set of experiments combining in vitro studies in primary hypothalamic astrocyte cells (HACc) and in vivo intracerebroventricular (icv) microinjections into the lateral ventricle of awake rats...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760572/breath-powered-sumatriptan-dry-nasal-powder-an-intranasal-medication-delivery-system-for-acute-treatment-of-migraine
#4
REVIEW
Stewart J Tepper, Merrilee R Johnstone
There is a need for fast-acting, non-oral medication options for migraine because some attacks develop rapidly and some are accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and gastroparesis, which can hinder oral medication uptake and absorption. The most commonly prescribed migraine medications are oral triptans, with sumatriptan as the most common. However, oral triptans are associated with adverse events (AEs) of atypical sensations that may be problematic for patients. Subcutaneous (SC) injectable sumatriptan and conventional liquid triptan nasal spray formulations are also available, but the frequency of atypical sensations is the highest with SC sumatriptan, and the intense bitter taste of conventional liquid triptan nasal spray discourages use...
2018: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756649/measuring-peripheral-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-in-nonhuman-primates
#5
REVIEW
Toni E Ziegler
Studying the neural and hormonal changes that modulate behavior is critical to understanding social relationships. Of particular interest is measuring oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) peripherally, and preferably, non-invasively, in nonhuman primates. Due to these peptides' neural origin and their stimulation of brain areas that influence social behavior, there has been debate whether peripheral measures in blood, urine, and saliva reflect central levels in the brain. This review elucidates the challenges of OT measurement and the solutions that provide valuable data on OT's role in social behavior...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743294/gene-expression-profiling-of-the-scn-in-young-and-old-rhesus-macaques
#6
Dominique Eghlidi, Selva Leticia Luna, Donald Brown, Vasilios Garyfallou, Steven Kohama, Henryk F Urbanski
In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the location of a master circadian pacemaker. It receives photic signals from the environment via the retinal hypothalamic tract, which play a key role in synchronizing the body's endogenously-generated circadian rhythms with the 24-hour rhythm of the environment. Therefore, it is plausible that age-related changes within the SCN contribute to the etiology of perturbed activity-rest cycles that become prevalent in humans during aging. To test this hypothesis, we used Gene Arrays and qRT-PCR to profile age-related gene expression changes within the SCN of male rhesus macaques - a pragmatic translational animal model of human aging, which similarly displays an age-related attenuation of daytime activity levels...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740065/comparison-of-first-line-and-second-line-terlipressin-versus-sole-norepinephrine-in-fulminant-ovine-septic-shock
#7
Tim G Kampmeier, Philip H Arnemann, Michael Hessler, Laura M Seidel, Karsten Becker, Andrea Morelli, Sebastian W Rehberg, Christian Ertmer
The Surviving Sepsis Guidelines suggest the use of vasopressin in case of catecholamine-refractory septic shock. Terlipressin (TP) as a V1 -selective AVP analogue is a potential alternative, though data regarding the first-line administration in septic shock are scarce. The present study explored and compared the effects of first-line vs. second-line infusion of TP or sole norepinephrine regarding organ function, fluid and norepinephrine requirements and survival in fulminant ovine septic shock. Peritoneal sepsis was induced in 23 ewes after laparotomy and faecal withdrawal from the caecum...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729230/role-of-hypothalamus-in-aging-and-its-underlying-cellular-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Keetae Kim, Han Kyoung Choe
Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of several physiological functions that can cause various age-related disorders. Several factors have been identified as causes of aging to elucidate the decline in functions. Various aspects of physiological deterioration are controlled by the hypothalamus, a critical brain region that connects the neuroendocrine system to physiological functions. In addition, functional alterations in a set of agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, a set of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SST) neurons, a set of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) neurons, and a set of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons contribute to age-related physiological decline in energy metabolism, hormone regulation, circadian rhythm, and reproduction, respectively...
May 2, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729039/effects-of-calcium-and-sodium-on-atp-induced-vasopressin-release-from-rat-isolated-neurohypophysial-terminals
#9
E E Custer, T K Knott, S Ortiz-Miranda, J R Lemos
ATP-receptors (P2X2, P2X3, P2X4 & P2X7) are found in neurohypophysial terminals (NHT). These purinergic receptor subtypes are known to be cation selective. Here we confirm that both sodium (Na+ ) and calcium (Ca2+ ) are permeable through these NHT purinergic receptors, but to varying degrees (91% vs. 9%, respectively). Furthermore, extracellular calcium inhibits the ATP-current magnitude. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of extracellular Na+ vs. Ca2+ on ATP-induced vasopressin (AVP) release from populations of rat isolated NHT...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726784/association-of-copeptin-a-surrogate-marker-of-arginine-vasopressin-with-cerebral-vasospasm-and-delayed-ischemic-neurologic-deficit-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#10
Sandra J Fernandez, Ibraham Barakat, James Ziogas, Tony Frugier, Stanley S Stylli, John D Laidlaw, Andrew H Kaye, Alexios A Adamides
OBJECTIVE Delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a hormone released by the posterior pituitary. It is known to cause cerebral vasoconstriction and has been implicated in hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Direct measurement of AVP is limited by its short half-life. Copeptin, a cleavage product of the AVP precursor protein, was therefore used as a surrogate marker for AVP...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720452/arginine-vasopressin-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-is-a-marker-of-sociality-in-nonhuman-primates
#11
Karen J Parker, Joseph P Garner, Ozge Oztan, Erna R Tarara, Jiang Li, Valentina Sclafani, Laura A Del Rosso, Katie Chun, Sean W Berquist, Michael G Chez, Sonia Partap, Antonio Y Hardan, Elliott H Sherr, John P Capitanio
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by core social impairments. ASD remains poorly understood because of the difficulty in studying disease biology directly in patients and the reliance on mouse models that lack clinically relevant, complex social cognition abilities. We use ethological observations in rhesus macaques to identify male monkeys with naturally occurring low sociality. These monkeys showed differences in specific neuropeptide and kinase signaling pathways compared to socially competent male monkeys...
May 2, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717520/alterations-in-hypothalamic-synaptophysin-and-death-markers-may-be-associated-with-vasopressin-impairment-in-sepsis-survivor-rats
#12
N N Santos-Junior, C H Catalão, L H Costa, B B Rossignoli, R C Dos-Santos, D Malvar, A S Mecawi, M J Rocha
The impairment in arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion during sepsis is described in clinical and experimental studies and has been associated with oxidative stress, apoptosis, and diminished activation of hypothalamic neurons. Few studies have, however, assessed these abnormalities in sepsis survivors. Here we performed two sets of experiments on Wistar rats that had been subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or nonmanipulated (naive) as control. In the first set, tissues and blood were collected from survivor rats 10 days after CLP to quantify hypothalamic Bcl-2, cleaved caspase- 3 and synaptophysin content, and bacterial load...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716734/the-difficulties-of-pseudo-cushing-s-syndrome-or-non-neoplastic-hypercortisolism
#13
Olivier Chabre
Pseudo-Cushing's syndrome covers different pathological conditions responsible for mild-to-moderate ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism, related not to an ACTH-secreting tumor but rather to CRH and/or AVP hypothalamic secretion through activation of various neural pathways, in patients generally displaying excess central adiposity. It is better termed "non-neoplastic hypercortisolism" (NNH). The main conditions implicated in NNH comprise: neuropsychiatric disorder, alcohol abuse, insulin-resistant obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, and end-stage kidney disease...
April 28, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688088/constant-light-during-lactation-programs-circadian-and-metabolic-systems
#14
Palma-Gómez Madahi, Osnaya Ivan, Balderas Adriana, Ortega Diana, Escobar Carolina
Exposure to light at night is a disruptive condition for the adult circadian system, leading to arrhythmicity in nocturnal rodents. Circadian disruption is a risk factor for developing physiological and behavioral alterations, including weight gain and metabolic disease. During early stages of development, the circadian system undergoes a critical period of adjustment, and it is especially vulnerable to altered lighting conditions that may program its function, leading to long-term effects. We hypothesized that during lactation a disrupted light-dark cycle due to light at night may disrupt the circadian system and in the long term induce metabolic disorders...
April 24, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682811/upregulation-of-hypothalamic-arginine-vasopressin-by-peripherally-administered-furosemide-in-transgenic-rats-expressing-arginine-vasopressin-enhanced-green-fluorescent-protein
#15
Hiromichi Ueno, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Kentaro Tanaka, Haruki Nishimura, Kazuaki Nishimura, Satomi Sonoda, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Tetsu Miyamoto, Ryota Serino, Masahito Tamura, Tatsushi Onaka, Yutaka Otsuji, Yoichi Ueta
Furosemide, which is used worldwide as a diuretic agent, inhibits sodium reabsorption in the Henle's loop, resulting in diuresis and natriuresis. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is synthesized in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The synthesis AVP in the magnocellular neurons of SON and PVN physiologically regulated by plasma osmolality and blood volume and contributed water homeostasis by increasing water reabsorption in the collecting duct...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681579/a-rat-model-for-pituitary-stalk-electric-lesion-induced-central-diabetes-insipidus-application-of-3d-printing-and-further-outcome-assessments
#16
Zhanpeng Feng, Yichao Ou, Mingfeng Zhou, Guangsen Wu, Linzi Ma, Yun Bao, Binghui Qiu, Songtao Qi
A stable and reproducible rat injury model is not currently available to study central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and the neurohypophyseal system. In addition, a system is needed to assess the severity of CDI and measure the accompanying neurobiological alterations. In the present study, a 3D-printed lesion knife with a curved head was designed to fit into the stereotaxic instrument. The neuro-anatomical features of the brain injury were determined by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) immunostaining on brain sections...
April 20, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676584/current-practice-of-ototoxicity-management-across-the-united-kingdom-uk
#17
Devina Maru, Ghada-Al Malky
OBJECTIVE: Effective management of patients diagnosed with ototoxicity is needed to reduce hearing and balance damage which affects communication and life quality. Despite widespread recommendations to monitor and manage ototoxicity in an early and effective manner, there is limited evidence to support the actual implementation of these recommendations for affected patient groups in healthcare services across the UK with limited publications available. In this study, an online questionnaire analysed the current practice of ototoxicity management and patient pathways across the UK once the diagnosis of ototoxicity was confirmed, targeting Audiologists, ENTs/AVPs and GPs...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668014/oxytocin-and-arginine-vasopressin-systems-in-the-domestication-process
#18
Bibiana S O Fam, Pamela Paré, Aline B Felkl, Pedro Vargas-Pinilla, Vanessa R Paixão-Côrtes, Lucas Henriques Viscardi, Maria Cátira Bortolini
Domestication is of unquestionable importance to the technological revolution that has given rise to modern human societies. In this study, we analyzed the DNA and protein sequences of six genes of the oxytocin and arginine vasopressin systems (OXT-OXTR; AVP-AVPR1a, AVPR1b and AVPR2) in 40 placental mammals. These systems play an important role in the control of physiology and behavior. According to our analyses, neutrality does not explain the pattern of molecular evolution found in some of these genes. We observed specific sites under positive selection in AVPR1b (ω = 1...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665969/copeptin-plasma-levels-are-associated-with-decline-of-renal-function-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Maria De La Luz Villela-Torres, Ana Edith Higareda-Mendoza, Anel Gómez-García, Alfonso Rafael Alvarez-Paredes, Elvia García-López, Peter Stenvikel, Harvest F Gu, Abbul Rashid-Qureshi, Bengt Lindholm, Cleto Alvarez-Aguilar
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a leading complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is considered as a public health problem. Copeptin is a surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin (AVP) system and is proposed as a biomarker of decline renal function. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether plasma copeptin levels may be used as a biomarker of decline renal function in patients with T2DM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 480 patients with T2DM and different stages of CKD were included...
April 14, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627593/quantification-of-receptor-activation-by-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-in-endocytosis-coupled-bioluminescence-reduction-assay-using-nanokaz
#20
Isao Kii, Shino Hirahara-Owada, Masataka Yamaguchi, Takashi Niwa, Yuka Koike, Rie Sonamoto, Harumi Ito, Kayo Takahashi, Chihiro Yokoyama, Takuya Hayashi, Takamitsu Hosoya, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are structurally similar neuropeptide hormones that function as neurotransmitters in the brain, and have opposite key roles in social behaviors. These peptides bind to their G protein-coupled receptors (OXTR and AVPRs), inducing calcium ion-dependent signaling pathways and endocytosis of these receptors. Because selective agonists and antagonists for these receptors have been developed as therapeutic and diagnostic agents for diseases such as psychiatric disorders, facile methods are in demand for the evaluation of selectivity between these receptors...
April 5, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
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