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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146932/activation-of-endogenous-arginine-vasopressin-neurons-inhibit-food-intake-by-using-a-novel-transgenic-rat-line-with-dreadds-system
#1
Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Kazuaki Nishimura, Haruki Nishimura, Satomi Sonoda, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Yuki Nonaka, Yoichi Ueta
Various studies contributed to discover novel mechanisms of central arginine vasopressin (AVP) system responsible for the behaviour albeit endogenous vasopressin activation. We established a novel transgenic rat line which expresses both human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (hM3Dq), of which ligand is clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), and mCherry fluorescence specifically in AVP neurons. The mCherry neurons that indicate the expression of the hM3Dq gene were observed in the suprachiasmatic (SCN), supraoptic (SON), and paraventricular nuclei (PVN)...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146141/the-myth-of-water-and-salt-from-aquaretics-to-tenapanor
#2
REVIEW
Luca Visconti, Valeria Cernaro, Sebastiano Calimeri, Antonio Lacquaniti, Francesca De Gregorio, Carlo Alberto Ricciardi, Viviana Lacava, Domenico Santoro, Michele Buemi
The impact of water intake has been studied in several renal diseases. For example, increasing water intake is useful to prevent primary and secondary nephrolithiasis. In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, arginine vasopressin (AVP) is involved in the progression of the disease, and water intake could play a therapeutic role by inhibiting the synthesis of AVP, but its efficacy is still controversial. Conversely, the use of aquaretics, which are antagonists of AVP V2 receptors, results in the reduction of the increase rate of total kidney volume with a slower decline of glomerular filtration rate...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129646/extracellular-volume-depletion-and-resultant-hypotonic-hyponatremia-a-novel-translational-approach
#3
Philip J G M Voets, Roderick P P W M Maas
Although several methods currently exist to determine that a person is hypovolemic, it often remains very challenging to accurately estimate the effective circulating volume or amount of intravascular volume depletion in a non-controlled setting. This depletion of intravascular volume can have many causes and is frequently accompanied by hypotonic hyponatremia as a result of hypovolemia-induced release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) from the posterior pituitary gland. Here, we derive a novel, comprehensible equation that provides a theoretical insight into the complex interrelationship between the degree of isotonic volume depletion and the resultant change in plasma sodium concentration...
November 9, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128567/haploinsufficiency-of-hnrnp-u-changes-activity-pattern-and-metabolic-rhythms
#4
Beibei Lai, Jianghuan Zou, Zhaoyu Lin, Zhipeng Qu, Anying Song, Ying Xu, Xiang Gao
The neuropeptides arginine vasopressin (Avp) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (Vip) are critical for the communication and coupling of suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons, which organize daily rhythms of physiology and behavior in mammals. However, how these peptides are regulated remains uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U) is essential for the expression of Avp and Vip. Loss of one copy of the Hnrnpu gene resulted in fragmented locomotor activities and disrupted metabolic rhythms...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125546/hereditary-nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus-pathophysiology-and-possible-treatment-an-update
#5
REVIEW
Serena Milano, Monica Carmosino, Andrea Gerbino, Maria Svelto, Giuseppe Procino
Under physiological conditions, excessive loss of water through the urine is prevented by the release of the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin (AVP) from the posterior pituitary. In the kidney, AVP elicits a number of cellular responses, which converge on increasing the osmotic reabsorption of water in the collecting duct. One of the key events triggered by the binding of AVP to its type-2 receptor (AVPR2) is the exocytosis of the water channel aquaporin 2 (AQP2) at the apical membrane the principal cells of the collecting duct...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120013/primary-polydipsia-in-the-medical-and-psychiatric-patient-characteristics-complications-and-therapy
#6
Clara Sailer, Bettina Winzeler, Mirjam Christ-Crain
Primary polydipsia (PP) has been defined as excessive intake of fluids. However, the pathogenesis of PP remains unexplored. Different theories include a dysfunction in the thirst mechanism, involvement of the hippocampus, stress-reducing behaviour and lesion occurrences in specific areas of the brain. Most studies have been performed in the psychiatric setting, indicating that PP coincides with schizophrenia, anxiety disorder and depression. However, an increasing number of case reports emphasise the incidence of PP in non-psychiatric patients...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117938/functional-characterization-of-avpr2-mutants-found-in-turkish-patients-with-nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus
#7
Beril Erdem, Angela Schulz, Emel Saglar, Ferhat Deniz, Torsten Schoneberg, Hatice Mergen
Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder characterized by an impairment in water balance because of the inability to concentrate urine. While central Diabetes insipidus is caused by mutations in the AVP, the reason for genetically determined nephrogenic Diabetes insipidus can be mutations in AQP2 or AVPR2. After release of AVP from posterior pituitary into blood stream it binds to AVPR2 which is one of the receptors for AVP and is mainly expressed in principal cells of collecting ducts of kidney. Receptor activation increases cAMP levels in principal cells, resulting in the incorporation of AQP2 into the membrane, finally increasing water reabsorption...
November 8, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108778/the-timing-and-duration-of-estradiol-treatment-in-a-rat-model-of-the-perimenopause-influences-on-social-behavior-and-the-neuromolecular-phenotype
#8
Alexandra N Garcia, Christina Depena, Kelsey Bezner, Weiling Yin, Andrea C Gore
This study tested the effects of timing and duration of estradiol (E2) treatment, factors that are clinically relevant to hormone replacement in perimenopausal women, on social behavior and expression of genes in brain regions that regulate these behaviors. Female rats were ovariectomized (OVX) at 1year of age, roughly equivalent to middle-age in women, and given E2 or vehicle for different durations (3 or 6months) and timing (immediately or after a 3-month delay) relative to OVX. Social and ultrasonic vocalization (USV) behaviors were assessed at the 3 and 6month timepoints, and the rats' brains were then used for gene expression profiling in hypothalamus (supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial amygdala, and prefrontal cortex using a 48-gene qPCR platform...
November 8, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108272/up-regulated-expression-of-oxytocin-mrna-in-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-from-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients
#9
Xiudeng Yang, Yamei Tang, Qinling Wei, Bing Lang, Huai Tao, Xianghui Zhang, Yong Liu, Aiguo Tang
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with significant social cognition impairment. Increasing evidence has suggested that neuropeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are important mediators of complex social cognition and behavior associates with SZ. In the present study, forty-three first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and forty-seven healthy controls (HC) were included. The peripheral mRNA expression of OXT, OXT receptor (OXTR), AVP, AVP 1a receptor (AVPR1a) and CD38 was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102591/hippocampal-gene-expression-patterns-in-oxytocin-male-knockout-mice-are-related-to-impaired-social-interaction
#10
Virginia Meneghini Lazzari, Josi Maria Zimmermann-Peruzatto, Grasiela Agnes, Roberta Oriques Becker, Ana Carolina de Moura, Silvana Almeida, Renata Padilha Guedes, Marcia Giovenardi
Social interaction between animals is crucial for the survival and life in groups. It is well demonstrated that oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) play critical roles in the regulation of social behaviors in mammals, however, other neurotransmitters and hormones are involved in the brain circuitry related to these behaviors. The present study aimed to investigate the gene expression of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain of OT knockout (OTKO) male mice. In this study, we evaluated the expression levels of the OT receptor (Oxtr), AVP receptors 1a and 1b (Avpr1a; Avpr1b), dopamine receptor 2 (Drd2), and the estrogen receptors alpha and beta (Esr1; Esr2) genes in the hippocampus (HPC), olfactory bulb (OB), hypothalamus (HPT) and prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
November 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082571/the-role-of-peripheral-vasopressin-1a-and-oxytocin-receptors-on-the-subcutaneous-vasopressin-antinociceptive-effects
#11
A Manzano-García, A González-Hernández, I A Tello-García, G Martínez-Lorenzana, M Condés-Lara
BACKGROUND: Vasopressin (AVP) seems to play a role as an antinociceptive neurohormone, but little is known about the peripheral site of action of its antinociceptive effects. Moreover, AVP can produce motor impairment that could be confused with behavioural antinociception. Finally, it is not clear which receptor is involved in the peripheral antinociceptive AVP effects. METHODS: In anaesthetized rats with end-tidal CO2 monitoring, extracellular unitary recordings were performed, measuring the evoked activity mediated by Aβ-, Aδ-, C-fibres and post-discharge...
October 30, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081004/cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction-in-patients-with-idiopathic-diabetes-insipidus
#12
Mattia Barbot, Filippo Ceccato, Marialuisa Zilio, Nora Albiger, Riccardo Sigon, Giuseppe Rolma, Marco Boscaro, Carla Scaroni, Franca Bilora
INTRODUCTION: Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease characterized by the excretion of excessive volumes of dilute urine due to reduced levels of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), caused by an acquired or genetic defect in the neurohypophysis. The aim of this study was to identify any autonomic dysfunction (AD) in patients with DI as a possible cofactor responsible for their reportedly higher mortality. METHODS: The study involved 12 patients (6 females) with central idiopathic DI and a well-controlled electrolyte balance, and 12 controls matched for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors, who were assessed using the tilt, lying-to-standing, hand grip, deep breath, Valsalva maneuver and Stroop tests...
October 28, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075234/vasopressinergic-neurocircuitry-regulating-social-attachment-in-a-monogamous-species
#13
REVIEW
Maria C Tickerhoof, Adam S Smith
The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms a lasting connection between mates, known as a pair bond. The pair bond is primarily characterized by three distinct behaviors: partner preference, selective aggression, and biparental care of the young. The presence of these behaviors in the prairie vole and their absence in closely related non-monogamous species makes the prairie vole an important model of social relationships and facilitates the study of the neurobiological mechanisms of social affiliation and attachment...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071993/-influence-of-electroacupuncture-stimulation-with-different-intensities-and-therapeutic-intervals-on-learning-memory-ability-and-expression-of-a%C3%AE-1-40-and-arginine-vasopressin-genes-in-the-hippocampal-ca-1-region-in-vd-rats
#14
Ling-Ge Jiang, Hua-Wei Zhang, Zheng Zhang, Ying Shao
OBJECTIVE: To observe the influence of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation with different electrical current intensities and therapeutic intervals on learning-memory ability and expression of β-amyloid peptide Aβ 1-40 and arginine vasopressin (AVP) genes in the hippocampal CA 1 region in vascular dementia (VD) rats, so as to provide evidence for treatment of VD. METHODS: A total of 48 male SD rats were randomly divided into sham, model, 0.5 mA-5 d-EA, 1.5 mA-5 d-EA, 0...
February 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065123/supplemental-arginine-vasopressin-during-the-resuscitation-of-severe-hemorrhagic-shock-preserves-renal-mitochondrial-function
#15
Carrie A Sims, Guan Yuxia, Khushboo Singh, Evan C Werlin, Patrick M Reilly, Joseph A Baur
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), a hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary, plays a vital role in maintaining vasomotor tone during acute blood loss. We hypothesized that decompensated hemorrhagic shock is associated with decreased AVP stores and supplementation during resuscitation would improve both blood pressure and renal function. Using a decompensated hemorrhagic shock model, male Long-Evans rats were bled to mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of 40mmHg and maintained until the MAP could not be sustained without fluid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054552/cross-talk-among-oxytocin-and-arginine-vasopressin-receptors-relevance-for-basic-and-clinical-studies-of-the-brain-and-periphery
#16
REVIEW
Zhimin Song, H Elliott Albers
Oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) act in the brain to regulate social cognition/social behavior and in the periphery to influence a variety of physiological processes. Although the chemical structures of OT and AVP as well as their receptors are quite similar, OT and AVP can have distinct or even opposing actions. Here, we review the increasing body of evidence that exogenously administered and endogenously released OT and AVP can activate each other's canonical receptors (i.e., cross-talk) and examine the possibility that receptor cross-talk following the synaptic and non-synaptic release of OT and AVP contributes to their distinct roles in the brain and periphery...
October 18, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053842/differential-expression-of-water-channel-and-noncoding-rna-biogenesis-related-genes-in-three-lines-of-chickens-under-a-short-term-water-restriction
#17
S Orlowski, J Flees, N Anthony, S Dridi
Genetic selection for high growth rate has resulted in tremendous changes not only in feed efficiency, but also in water consumption between modern broilers and their ancestor jungle fowl (JF). However molecular mechanisms involved in water homeostasis are still not well defined. This study aimed, therefore, to determine the effect of short-term water restriction on the expression of water channel- and noncoding RNA biogenesis-related genes in the kidney and whole blood of JF, broiler population from the 1990s (RB1995), and modern broiler population developed in 2015 (ARB2015)...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049406/distinct-prediction-errors-in-mesostriatal-circuits-of-the-human-brain-mediate-learning-about-the-values-of-both-states-and-actions-evidence-from-high-resolution-fmri
#18
Jaron T Colas, Wolfgang M Pauli, Tobias Larsen, J Michael Tyszka, John P O'Doherty
Prediction-error signals consistent with formal models of "reinforcement learning" (RL) have repeatedly been found within dopaminergic nuclei of the midbrain and dopaminoceptive areas of the striatum. However, the precise form of the RL algorithms implemented in the human brain is not yet well determined. Here, we created a novel paradigm optimized to dissociate the subtypes of reward-prediction errors that function as the key computational signatures of two distinct classes of RL models-namely, "actor/critic" models and action-value-learning models (e...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044774/3d-distribution-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-vasopressin-and-oxytocin-neurons-in-the-transparent-postnatal-mouse-brain
#19
David Godefroy, Chloé Dominici, Hélène Hardin-Pouzet, Youssef Anouar, Stéphane Melik-Parsadaniantz, William Rostene, Annabelle Reaux-Le Goazigo
Over the years, advances in immunohistochemistry techniques have been a critical step in detecting and mapping neuromodulatory substances in the central nervous system. The better quality and specificity of primary antibodies, new staining procedures and the spectacular development of imaging technologies have allowed such progress. Very recently, new methods permitting tissue transparency have been successfully used on brain tissues. In this work, we combined whole-mount immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), with iDISCO+ clearing method, light-sheet microscopy and semi automated counting of 3D-labelled neurons to obtain a 3D distribution of these neuronal populations in a 5-day postnatal (P5) mouse brain...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035676/the-molecular-mechanism-and-neuroprotective-effect-of-dihydrocapsaicin-induced-mild-hypothermia-after-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-rats
#20
Xiaopeng Zhong, Xiujuan Wang, Fei Fei, ManCui Zhang, Po Ding, Shiwu Zhang
To investigate the molecular mechanism of dihydrocapsaicin (DHC)-induced mild hypothermia in rats, and to compare its protective effect on the central nervous system with that of a conventional method of inducing hypothermia, 24 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups based on the following conditions: control group, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) group, body surface cooling group, and DHC group. Tracheal clipping was used to mimic asphyxia arrest. Rats were assessed for their neurological deficit scores...
October 16, 2017: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
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