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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339647/detection-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-ribonucleic-acid-in-the-peritoneal-effluent-of-renal-failure-patients-on-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Kwazi C Z Ndlovu, Wilbert Sibanda, Alain Assounga
Background.: We evaluated the shedding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 particles into continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) effluents of HIV-positive patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods.: A total of 58 HIV-positive patients with ESRD on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) who had Tenckhoff catheters inserted between September 2012 and February 2015 were prospectively reviewed and followed for 18 months. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) effluent samples from functioning CAPD catheters and plasma samples were obtained at three points during regular clinic visits on days 45 ± 37, 200 ± 19 and 377 ± 13 after catheter insertion...
February 20, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334088/relapse-re-infection-and-mixed-infections-in-tuberculosis-disease
#2
Amanda McIvor, Hendrik Koornhof, Bavesh Davandra Kana
Tuberculosis (TB) disease can be characterized by genotypic and phenotypic complexity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli within a single patient. This microbiological heterogeneity has become an area of intense study due its perceived importance in drug tolerance, drug resistance and as a surrogate measure of transmission rates. This review presents a descriptive analysis of research describing the prevalence of mixed strain TB infections in geographically distinct locations. Despite significant variation in disease burden and a rampant HIV-TB co-epidemic, there was no difference in the prevalence range of mixed infections reported in African countries when compared to the rest of the world...
February 18, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334018/development-of-an-evidence-evaluation-and-synthesis-system-for-drug-drug-interactions-and-its-application-to-a-systematic-review-of-hiv-and-malaria-co-infection
#3
Kay Seden, Sara Gibbons, Catia Marzolini, Jonathan M Schapiro, David M Burger, David J Back, Saye H Khoo
BACKGROUND: In all settings, there are challenges associated with safely treating patients with multimorbidity and polypharmacy. The need to characterise, understand and limit harms resulting from medication use is therefore increasingly important. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are prevalent in patients taking antiretrovirals (ARVs) and if unmanaged, may pose considerable risk to treatment outcome. One of the biggest challenges in preventing DDIs is the substantial gap between theory and clinical practice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332348/molecular-epidemiology-of-hiv
#4
REVIEW
Bum Sik Chin
During the evolution of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), transmissions between humans and primates resulted in multiple HIV lineages in humans. This evolution has been rapid, giving rise to a complex classification and allowing for worldwide spread and intermixing of subtypes, which has consequently led to dozens of circulating recombinant forms. In the Republic of Korea, 12,522 cases of HIV infection have been reported between 1985, when AIDS was first identified, and 2015. This review focuses on the evolution of HIV infection worldwide and the molecular epidemiologic characteristics of HIV in Korea...
March 22, 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331992/hiv-testing-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-follow-up-review-of-the-qualitative-literature-since-2010
#5
REVIEW
Chi-Wai Lui, Judith Dean, Allyson Mutch, Limin Mao, Joseph Debattista, Jime Lemoire, Chris Howard, Andrea Whittaker, Olivia Hollingdrake, Lisa Fitzgerald
The landscape of HIV testing has changed significantly in recent years following the rise in importance of the 'treatment as prevention' strategy and advancements in new HIV testing and prevention technologies. This review provides a synthesis of qualitative research findings published since 2010 on preferences and practices of men who have sex with men (MSM) surrounding HIV testing in high-income settings. MSM are one of the hardest groups to reach with standard or conventional HIV testing approaches. To develop innovative testing strategies for this particular group, a good understanding of their concerns, barriers and facilitators of accessing HIV testing is needed...
March 22, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331527/determinants-to-antiretroviral-treatment-non-adherence-among-adult-hiv-aids-patients-in-northern-ethiopia
#6
Berhe Beyene Gebrezgabher, Yigzaw Kebede, Melaku Kindie, Desalegn Tetemke, Mebrahtu Abay, Yalemzewod Assefa Gelaw
BACKGROUND: Adhering 95% and above of antiretroviral therapy reduces the rate of disease progression and death among people's living human immunodeficiency virus. Though manifold factors have reported as determinant factors of antiretroviral therapy adherence status, perhaps determinants of non-adherence differ up on the activities of patients in the study setting. METHODS: An institution based unmatched case-control study was conducted in Aksum town. Individuals who had a 6-month follow-up with complete individual information were included in the study...
2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331370/can-the-hiv-1-splicing-machinery-be-targeted-for-drug-discovery
#7
REVIEW
Zodwa Dlamini, Rodney Hull
HIV-1 is able to express multiple protein types and isoforms from a single 9 kb mRNA transcript. These proteins are also expressed at particular stages of viral development, and this is achieved through the control of alternative splicing and the export of these transcripts from the nucleus. The nuclear export is controlled by the HIV protein Rev being required to transport incompletely spliced and partially spliced mRNA from the nucleus where they are normally retained. This implies a close relationship between the control of alternate splicing and the nuclear export of mRNA in the control of HIV-1 viral proliferation...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331350/risk-factors-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-tuberculosis-patients-a-case-control-study
#8
Abdulhalik Workicho, Wondwosen Kassahun, Fessahaye Alemseged
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) did not receive major attention until recently in sub-Saharan Africa where the tuberculosis incidence and risk factors are highest. Factors leading to development of drug resistance need to be understood to develop appropriate control strategies for national programs. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for MDR-TB among tuberculosis patients. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to assess sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical risk factors using a structured questionnaire and clinical record reviewing...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329653/introducing-public-health-themes-in-clinical-dermatology
#9
Scott A Norton
The ACGME's Core Competencies comprise six domains, which in turn contain dozens of often overlapping milestones. Several competencies explicitly invoke public health topics - but if one wears the right set of lenses, nearly every milestone, nearly every aspect of health and medicine, can be viewed from a public health perspective. Why then is Dermatology generally taught - and practiced - in an Intensive Care manner, where seemingly unlimited diagnostic & therapeutic efforts focus on single individuals, not the community?In this presentation, I argue that topics of public health concern should not be relegated to the minor leagues of GME...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329372/practical-review-of-recognition-and-management-of-obesity-and-lipohypertrophy-in-hiv-infection
#10
Jordan E Lake, Takara Stanley, Caroline Apovian, Shalendar Bhasin, Todd T Brown, Jaqueline Capeau, Judith S Currier, Michael P Dube, Julian Falutz, Steven K Grinspoon, Giovanni Guaraldi, Esteban Martinez, Grace A McComsey, Fred R Sattler, Kristine M Erlandson
Background: Obesity and lipohypertrophy are common in treated HIV infection and contribute to morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: We present a consensus opinion on the diagnosis, clinical consequences and treatment of excess adiposity in adults with treated HIV infection. Results: Obesity and lipohypertrophy commonly occur among HIV-infected adults on ART, and may have overlapping pathophysiologies and/or synergistic metabolic consequences...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326285/impact-of-telemonitoring-approaches-on-integrated-hiv-and-tb-diagnosis-and-treatment-interventions-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-scoping-review
#11
REVIEW
Clarence S Yah, Ernest Tambo, Christopher Khayeka-Wandabwa, Jeanne Y Ngogang
Background: This paper explores telemonitoring/mhealth approaches as a promising real time and contextual strategy in overhauling HIV and TB interventions quality access and uptake, retention,adherence and coverage impact in endemic and prone-epidemic prevention and control in sub-Sahara Africa. Methods: The scoping review method was applied in acknowledged journals indexing platforms including Medline, Embase, Global Health, PubMed, MeSH PsycInfo, Scopus and Google Scholar to identify relevant articles pertaining to telemonitoring as a proxy surrogate method in reinforcing sustainability of HIV/TB prevention/treatment interventions in sub-Saharan Africa...
2017: Health Promotion Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326104/bk-virus-encephalitis-in-hiv-infected-patients-case-report-and-review
#12
Luciana Antoniolli, Rafael Borges, Luciano Z Goldani
Encephalitis and meningitis due to BKPyV are unusual and emerging condition. Only a few cases of BKPyV encephalitis have been reported in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, with the majority of cases presenting with concurrent hemorrhagic cystitis and HIV-infected patients. The authors report two HIV-infected patients with the diagnosis of BKPyV encephalitis and discuss the main clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of this infection in patients with AIDS. Physicians should be aware to recognize the main clinical features and diagnose BKPyV central nervous infection in the setting of AIDS...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326084/hiv-infection-and-compromised-mucosal-immunity-oral-manifestations-and-systemic-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
Samantha E Heron, Shokrollah Elahi
Mucosal surfaces account for the vast majority of HIV transmission. In adults, HIV transmission occurs mainly by vaginal and rectal routes but rarely via oral route. By contrast, pediatric HIV infections could be as the result of oral route by breastfeeding. As such mucosal surfaces play a crucial role in HIV acquisition, and spread of the virus depends on its ability to cross a mucosal barrier. HIV selectively infects, depletes, and/or dysregulates multiple arms of the human immune system particularly at the mucosal sites and causes substantial irreversible damage to the mucosal barriers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325295/aptamers-for-cd-antigens-from-cell-profiling-to-activity-modulation
#14
REVIEW
Amin Nozari, Maxim V Berezovski
Nucleic acid-based aptamers are considered to be a promising alternative to antibodies because of their strong and specific binding to diverse targets, fast and inexpensive chemical synthesis, and easy labeling with a fluorescent dye or therapeutic agent. Cluster of differentiation (CD) proteins are among the most popular antigens for aptamers on the cell surface. These anti-CD aptamers could be used in cell biology and biomedicine, from simple cell phenotyping by flow cytometry or fluorescent microscopy to diagnosis and treatment of HIV/AIDS to cancer and immune therapies...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325171/pregnancy-and-neonatal-outcomes-among-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-women-in-a-large-italian-teaching-hospital-a-30-year-retrospective-study
#15
S Grignolo, R Agnello, D Gerbaldo, C Gotta, C Alicino, F Del Puente, L Taramasso, B Bruzzone, C Gustavino, S Trasino, A DE Maria, G Icardi, C Viscoli, A DI Biagio
The primary study objective was to investigate three decades from 1985 to 2014 of changes in pregnancies among HIV-infected women. The secondary objective was to assess risk factors associated with preterm delivery and severe small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants in HIV-infected women. A retrospective review of deliveries among pregnant HIV-infected women at the University of Genoa and IRCCS San Martino-IST in Genoa between 1985 and 2014 was performed. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to study the variables associated with neonatal outcomes...
March 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325087/physical-activity-correlates-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids-a-systematic-review-of-45-studies
#16
Davy Vancampfort, James Mugisha, Justin Richards, Marc De Hert, Michel Probst, Brendon Stubbs
PURPOSE: Understanding barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation in persons living with HIV/AIDS is an essential first step in order to devise effective interventions. The present review provides a systematic quantitative review of the physical activity correlates in people with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: Major electronic databases were searched till August 2016. Keywords included "physical activity" or "exercise" or "sports" and "AIDS" or "HIV". RESULTS: Out of 55 correlates from 45 studies (N = 13,167; mean age range = 30...
March 22, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325077/effective-interventions-to-improve-young-adults-linkage-to-hiv-care-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review
#17
Bertille Octavie Mavegam, Jennifer R Pharr, Patricia Cruz, Echezona E Ezeanolue
HIV/AIDS remains a major public health problem despite the efforts to prevent and decrease its spread. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) represents 70% of the global number of people living with HIV and 73% of all HIV/AIDS-related deaths. Young adults age 15-24 years are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS in SSA with 34% of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and 37% of newly diagnosed individuals being in this age group. It is important that PLWHIV be linked to care to facilitate antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and limit the spread of infection...
March 22, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323868/-waiting-for-daas-a-retrospective-chart-review-of-patients-with-untreated-hepatitis-c-in-rwanda
#18
Neil Gupta, Jules Kabahizi, Constance Mukabatsinda, Timothy David Walker, Emmanuel Musabeyezu, Athanase Kiromera, Jennifer Ilo Van Nuil, Kevin Steiner, Joia Mukherjee, Sabin Nsanzimana, Aimable Mbituyumuremyi
BACKGROUND: Access to treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in sub-Saharan Africa is extremely limited. With the advent of direct acting antivirals (DAAs), highly effective and easy-to-deliver oral regimens are now available on the global market. This study was conducted to understand the background and characteristics of a national cohort of patients with HCV infection enrolled in care and awaiting therapy with DAAs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all adult patients with confirmed HCV infection who were currently enrolled in care and treatment at the four existing hepatitis referral centers in Rwanda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323771/an-exception-to-the-rule-or-a-rule-for-the-exception-the-potential-of-using-hiv-positive-donors-in-canada
#19
Alissa J Wright, Caren Rose, Maeghan Toews, Michel Paquet, Daniel Corsilli, Jean-François Le Cailhier, John S Gill
Selected human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with end organ failure can safely receive an organ transplant from an HIV uninfected donor. Recent demonstration of the short term safety of organ transplantation between HIV-infected persons prompted a change in US American law to allow such transplantations. Prompted by the recent completion of the first organ transplantation between HIV-infected persons in Canada, we review Canadian law regarding the use of organs from HIV-infected donors, estimate the number of potential HIV-infected donors in Canada, and critically review considerations related to advancing organ transplantation from HIV-infected donors in Canada...
April 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323750/humoral-responses-against-hiv-in-male-genital-tract-role-in-sexual-transmission-and-perspectives-for-preventive-strategies
#20
Amandine Gagneux-Brunon, Nicolas Rochereau, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers, Frédéric Lucht, Bruno Pozzetto, Stéphane Paul, Thomas Bourlet
Most new HIV infections occur via sexual routes. The induction of protective anti-HIV antibodies in genital mucosa is an important step towards reducing HIV transmission. Mucosal anti-HIV antibodies may play a dual role by either protecting against HIV transmission or facilitating it. Protective properties against HIV of mucosal IgGs and IgAs exhibiting neutralizing or antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activities have been described in highly exposed seronegative individuals (HESN). Conversely, some IgGs may facilitate the crossing of HIV free particles through epithelial barriers by transcytosis...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
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