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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331504/a-systematic-review-of-health-care-provider-perceived-barriers-and-facilitators-to-routine-hiv-testing-in-primary-care-settings-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#1
Kelly Tan, Beth Perry Black
Despite efforts to improve HIV screening and testing, many primary care settings do not follow established guidelines. The purpose of our systematic review was to describe health care providers' perceived barriers and facilitators to testing for HIV at poorly used/novel testing sites in the southeastern United States. PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies of providers' perceived barriers and facilitators to routine HIV testing from January 2016 to April 2017 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement...
December 27, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330339/hiv-positive-kidney-donor-selection-for-hiv-positive-transplant-recipients
#2
Elmi Muller, Zunaid Barday
The risks associated with transplanting HIV-positive kidneys into HIV-positive recipients have not been well studied. Since 2008, 43 kidneys from 25 HIV-positive deceased donors have been transplanted into patients who are HIV positive in Cape Town, South Africa. Among the donors, 19 (76%) died secondary to trauma. The average age for donors was 34 (interquartile range, 19-52) years old. In some donors, only one kidney was used because of a limited number of suitable recipients on the waiting list. Only two donors had been previously exposed to antiretroviral triple therapy...
January 12, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329579/prevalence-and-incidence-of-major-depressive-disorders-among-people-living-with-hiv-residing-in-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#3
Jean Joel Bigna, Lewis N Um, Serra Lem Asangbeh, Aurelie T Sibetcheu, Arnaud D Kazé, Jobert Richie Nansseu
BACKGROUND: Depression represents one of the most frequent neuro-psychiatric diseases; it seems to be more prevalent in people living with HIV compared to the general population. However, summarized data in the African setting on the topic are scarce. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims at assessing the prevalence and incidence of major depressive disorders (MDD) in HIV-infected African populations residing in Africa. METHODS AND DESIGN: This review will include observational studies conducted among HIV-infected people residing in Africa, which have reported either the prevalence or incidence of MDD or enough data for its appraisal...
January 12, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328787/immune-responses-to-retroviruses
#4
Asier Saez-Cirion, Nicolas Manel
Retroviruses are genome invaders that have shared a long history of coevolution with vertebrates and their immune system. Found endogenously in genomes as traces of past invasions, retroviruses are also considerable threats to human health when they exist as exogenous viruses such as HIV. The immune response to retroviruses is engaged by germline-encoded sensors of innate immunity that recognize viral components and damage induced by the infection. This response develops with the induction of antiviral effectors and launching of the clonal adaptive immune response, which can contribute to protective immunity...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327783/nonsurgical-management-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-parotid-cysts-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Akash N Naik, William B Clinkscales, Masanari G Kato, Shaun A Nguyen, M Boyd Gillespie
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this clinical review was to analyze the effectiveness of nonsurgical management options for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated parotid cysts. METHODS: We conducted systematic and meta-analysis reviews. Primary outcomes were complete or partial responses. RESULTS: Systematic review identified 12 relevant studies. The average rates of complete response for antiretroviral therapy (ART), sclerotherapy, and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) were 52...
January 12, 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326180/prevalence-and-burden-of-chronic-kidney-disease-among-the-general-population-and-high-risk-groups-in-africa-a-systematic-review
#6
Samar Abd ElHafeez, Davide Bolignano, Graziella D'Arrigo, Evangelia Dounousi, Giovanni Tripepi, Carmine Zoccali
OBJECTIVES: While increasing attention is paid to the rising prevalence of chronic diseases in Africa, there is little focus on chronic kidney disease (CKD). This systematic review assesses CKD burden among the general population and high-risk groups on the entire African continent. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We searched Medline and PubMed databases for articles published between 1 January 1995 and 7 April 2017 by sensitive search strategies focusing on CKD surveys at the community level and high-risk groups...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326078/ncp7-targeting-a-multitask-protein-for-next-generation-anti-hiv-drug-development-part-2-noncovalent-inhibitors-and-nucleic-acid-binders
#7
REVIEW
Nunzio Iraci, Oriana Tabarrini, Claudio Santi, Luca Sancineto
Nucleocapsid protein 7 (NCp7) represents a viable target not yet reached by the currently available antiretrovirals. It is a small and highly basic protein, which is essential for multiple stages of the viral replicative cycle, with its structure preserved in all viral strains, including clinical isolates. NCp7 can be inhibited covalently, noncovalently and by shielding the nucleic acid (NA) substrates of its chaperone activity. Although covalent NCp7 inhibitors have already been detailed in the first part of this review series, the focus here is based on noncovalent and NA-binder inhibitors and on the analysis of the NCp7 3D structure to deliver fruitful insights for future drug design strategies...
January 8, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325854/considerations-in-the-diagnosis-of-oral-hairy-leukoplakia-an-institutional-experience
#8
Andres Flores-Hidalgo, Si On Lim, Alice E Curran, Ricardo J Padilla, Valerie Murrah
OBJECTIVE: We report here the 10-year experience with oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) at the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA. STUDY DESIGN: All the associated hematoxylin and eosin and Epstein-Barr virus encoding region in situ hybridization slides of OHL cases between January 1, 2008, and February 1, 2017, were retrieved and reviewed. Collected demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, medical and social histories were reviewed and reported...
November 15, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325435/early-stages-of-hiv-treatment-cascade-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-saint-petersburg-russia
#9
M V Vetrova, O V Aleksandrova, A E Paschenko, S E Toropov, V V Rassokhin, R A Abyshev, O S Levina, L M Niccolai, R Heimer
The proportion of people living with HIV (PLWH) in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is growing rapidly in Russia. Successful treatment outcomes reduces disease progression and contributes to HIV epidemic control. We conducted a pilot study following 100 PLWH newly found eligible for ART in St. Petersburg, Russia. We determined the proportion of PLWH who initiated ART, remained in treatment, and achieved an undetectable VL during 6-month follow up. Semi-structured interviews were conducted prior the initiation of ART and progress along the cascade was assessed through medical chart review...
January 11, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324969/apobec-mutagenesis-in-drug-resistance-and-immune-escape-in-hiv-and-cancer-evolution
#10
S Venkatesan, R Rosenthal, N Kanu, N McGranahan, J Bartek, S A Quezada, J Hare, R S Harris, C Swanton
The APOBEC mutational signature has only recently been detected in a multitude of cancers through next-generation sequencing. In contrast, APOBEC has been a focus of virology research for over a decade. Many lessons learnt regarding APOBEC within virology are likely to be applicable to cancer. In this review, we explore the parallels between the role of APOBEC enzymes in HIV and cancer evolution. We discuss data supporting the role of APOBEC mutagenesis in creating HIV genome heterogeneity, drug resistance, and immune escape variants...
January 8, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324227/getting-the-kill-into-shock-and-kill-strategies-to-eliminate-latent-hiv
#11
REVIEW
Youry Kim, Jenny L Anderson, Sharon R Lewin
Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), there is currently no HIV cure and treatment is life long. HIV persists during ART due to long-lived and proliferating latently infected CD4+ T cells. One strategy to eliminate latency is to activate virus production using latency reversing agents (LRAs) with the goal of triggering cell death through virus-induced cytolysis or immune-mediated clearance. However, multiple studies have demonstrated that activation of viral transcription alone is insufficient to induce cell death and some LRAs may counteract cell death by promoting cell survival...
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323688/preventing-hiv-infection-what-pediatricians-should-know-about-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#12
Sabrina Fernandez
I recently diagnosed my first adolescent patient with new-onset HIV. As a primary care pediatrician, these cases are rare. I cried with the shock of the initial diagnosis, just as the patient did when I told him. One of my first thoughts was how could I have served him better. He had been inconsistent with condom use, and had several partners. I had encouraged safe sex practices, told him to talk to his partners about pregnancy prevention, and screened for sexually transmitted disease nearly every time he came into my office...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323558/optimizing-delivery-of-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-for-women-in-the-united-states
#13
Erika Aaron, Cori Blum, Dominika Seidman, Mary Jo Hoyt, Joanne Simone, Meg Sullivan, Dawn K Smith
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective HIV prevention method; however, it is underutilized among women who are at risk for acquisition of HIV. Women comprise one in five HIV diagnoses in the United States, and significant racial disparities in new HIV diagnoses persist. The rate of new HIV diagnoses among black and African American women in 2015 was 16 times greater than that of white women. These disparities highlight the importance of HIV prevention strategies for women, including the use of PrEP...
January 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323108/clinical-study-of-tuberculosis-in-the-head-and-neck-region-11-years-experience-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
Pai Pang, Weiyi Duan, Shuchun Liu, Shuang Bai, Yanan Ma, Ruiwu Li, Fayu Liu, Changfu Sun
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease and major health concern. Head and neck tuberculosis (HNTB) is relatively rare, but can arise in many regions, including the lymph nodes, larynx, oral cavity and pharynx. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 60 patients diagnosed with HNTB in our department between March 2005 and January 2016. A review and summary of previous HNTB articles published in PubMed since 1885 was also performed. The subjects consisted of 17 males and 43 females, and the average age of patients was 45 ± 14...
January 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322063/neurological-sequelae-of-adult-meningitis-in-africa-a-systematic-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Drew W Goldberg, Mark W Tenforde, Hannah K Mitchell, Joseph N Jarvis
The high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa has markedly changed the epidemiology and presentation of adult meningitis. We conducted a systematic review using PubMed, Embase, Ovid, CENTRAL, and African Index Medicus to identify studies in Africa with data on neurological outcomes in adults after meningitis. We found 22 articles meeting inclusion criteria. From 4 studies with predominately pneumococcal meningitis, a median of 19% of survivors experienced hearing loss up to 40 days...
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321414/the-platelet-count-can-predict-in-hospital-death-in-hiv-negative-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-inpatients
#16
Hideto Goto, Nobuyuki Horita, Ken Tashiro, Kenjiro Nagai, Masaki Yamamoto, Takashi Sato, Yu Hara, Hideyuki Nagakura, Yuji Shibata, Hiroki Watanabe, Kentaro Nakashima, Ryota Ushio, Akimichi Nagashima, Misako Ikeda, Atsuya Narita, Katsuhito Sasaki, Nobuaki Kobayashi, Makoto Kudo, Takeshi Kaneko
Introduction This retrospective cohort study investigated whether the three components of the blood cell count have prognostic implications in HIV-negative Japanese adult inpatients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods We reviewed patients who were treated by the isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol regimen or by the isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol regimen. The association between the patient data on admission and the survival outcome was evaluated. Results We reviewed 367 consecutive patients (male, 60...
January 11, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321229/the-national-incidence-of-pml-in-sweden-1988-2013
#17
Ellen Iacobaeus, Sarah Burkill, Shahram Bahmanyar, Ramil Hakim, Camilla Byström, Michael Fored, Tomas Olsson, Lou Brundin, Scott Montgomery
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and patient characteristics in Sweden between 1988 and 2013. METHODS: All PML diagnoses in Sweden between 1988 and 2013 were identified in the National Patient Register. Information to validate the diagnosis and patient characteristics was obtained from medical records. RESULTS: Medical record review classified 108 out of 250 patients (43%) as definite (n = 84), probable (n = 4), or possible (n = 20) PML according to diagnostic criteria...
January 10, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321222/multiple-inhibitory-factors-act-in-the-late-phase-of-hiv-1-replication-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Jean-François Gélinas, Deborah R Gill, Stephen C Hyde
The use of lentiviral vectors for therapeutic purposes has shown promising results in clinical trials. The ability to produce a clinical-grade vector at high yields remains a critical issue. One possible obstacle could be cellular factors known to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To date, five HIV restriction factors have been identified, although it is likely that more factors are involved in the complex HIV-cell interaction. Inhibitory factors that have an adverse effect but do not abolish virus production are much less well described...
March 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321219/what-can-the-lived-experience-of-participating-in-risky-hiv-cure-related-studies-establish
#19
Nir Eyal
This response to Gail Henderson et al argues that they were right that interviewees' appraisals of cure study participation should inform (future) protocol review decisions, but wrong to take these appraisals at face value.
January 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321046/application-of-causal-inference-methods-in-the-analyses-of-randomised-controlled-trials-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Ruth E Farmer, Daphne Kounali, A Sarah Walker, Jelena Savović, Alison Richards, Margaret T May, Deborah Ford
BACKGROUND: Applications of causal inference methods to randomised controlled trial (RCT) data have usually focused on adjusting for compliance with the randomised intervention rather than on using RCT data to address other, non-randomised questions. In this paper we review use of causal inference methods to assess the impact of aspects of patient management other than the randomised intervention in RCTs. METHODS: We identified papers that used causal inference methodology in RCT data from Medline, Premedline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from 1986 to September 2014, using a forward citation search of five seminal papers, and a keyword search...
January 10, 2018: Trials
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